US 1775144 A
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Sept.V 9, 1930. H F, SHEMAN v 1,775,1144
` 'WOVEN FABRIC AND ART OF WEAVING THE SAN-E Filed Jan. 22, 1926 2 sheets-Shen 1 f Y 4 I i j@ 5 y x5 CZ 1%5 @vraagg- Sept. 9, 1930. H. F. SHERMAN 1,775,144l
WOVEN FABRICAND ART OF WEAVING THE SAME Filed Jan. 22, 192e 2 sneetsheu 2 Patented Sept 9, 1930 UNITED STATES PATENT CFFICE wovnnrannr'c Ann Aar or wnAvINe 'rrn SAME Application filed January 22, '1926. Serial No. 82,986.
This invention relates to woven fabrics of the single-ply, unitary or single-shed type having certain new and useful characteristics, including great density, relative thick- 5 ness in proportion to the thickness of the individual yarns comprising it, a symmetrical structure free from unbalanced or distorting stresses, a surface texture comparatively line, smooth, level and free from ridges; and hav- 1o ing wefts in a single plane lying straight in the fabric substantially without undulation. Because of these and other features this type offabric displays the quality oflinherent and A fabric of the kind in question is, moreover,-
cl'iaracterized by capacity to have like surface l textures on each face, the said surface textures vbeing plain or patternless, in which similar dispositions of visible yarn formations recur at microscopic intervals, and without a symmetrical or preferentiall arrange- ,ment from formation to formation in respect v to incident light; and capableof having any desired pattern by variation of surface appearances of warp runs. on either or both faces. The uniform surface texture usually referred may be that of the relatively thin a ric known as broadcloth, and much used for shirts, shirtwaists, and other garments for men and women. Since the surface resemblance of this cloth to broadcloth, bothl in texture and in gauge of its component 40 yarns, when woven of yarns of the lnd cus'- tomarily used for broadcloth, is complete, this fabric is peculiarly suitable for the stiffer parts of garments customarily made of broadcloth, such as neckbands, collars, cuffs, pocket and placket facings, and other finishing edges and attachments. This fabric is also peculiarly useful for collars and cuffs intended to be worn inan unstarched or lightly starched condition, the weave structure of the 'fabric ycontributing by"density, capacity for resistance to shrinking and stretching, and retentive stiffness of shapes given by cutting or sewing or hot pressing, qualities peculiarly useful in and for such garments.
A principal object of this invention is to provide a fabric and a mode of making it by' the single weave system which shall possess the characteristics vadverted to above. I have, moreover, provided a method of concatenating the yarns composing the fabric into a fabric characterized by simplicity, by the avoidance of complexity of movement of any system of the yarns in respect to any other system, and the avoidance of delay by repetition of picks without let-olf; and therefore rendering it possible to weave the fabric on-ordinary types of looms at as high speeds as single fabrics having the same number of picks of weft per linear unit of measure', and at a higher speed than any fabric of which I am awa-re containingso great a count of j aggregate warp and weft per unit area.- This naturally results in practice in capacity to make the fabrics at labor costs substantially no greater than in the production of plain-woven or single fabrics of lesser thickness, which do not have the qualities adverted to above or other valuable qualifications for use of the cloth of this invention.
The invention will be described with the aid of the accompanying drawings, in which Fig. l. is a perspective, showing one edge of the fabric .in warp-wisev or` longitudinal cross section, and partly broken away to .show the disposition of the straight wefts in the completed fabric; A
Fig. 2 is an analytical section in the direction of warps, corresponding to a portion of y Fig. l;
Fig. 3 is a section on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2; f Fig. 4 is a section o n the line 4-4 of Fig. 2; Fig. 5 is a fragmentary face view of either ture;
Fig. 6 is a weave diagram showing one repeat comprising four endsof warp and four picks of weft and' also showing the drawingin draft; and
Fig. 7 is a diagram of successive cross sections at successive picks covering several lonvface of the fabric showing the surface tex- I eighty 40/2s count yarns to, each linear inch;
these proportions and yarn sizes are 'obviously relative, and are intended to be varied in accordance with the desired density, weight, resistance to bending, and other factors of .the completed fabric. The warps 10a and 10b may be alike or different, but 'preferably are l`k .ll fthewar s'ma be su lied un-`. a l e 1 o p y pp vWhile I refer to wefts, it will be underder like tension from asingle beam under control of lany suitable let-olf device.
A preferable relation of the warps to each other andthe reed of the loomin which they are to be woven is sui-ciently indicated in Figs. 3 and 4 in which the dents of the reed are indicated by dotted lines d indicating that three pairs having members 10a and 10b respectively of war s are included between the same pair of ree dents if desired, four or more pairs or only two pairs may be carried between a pair of reed dents.
', Referring to Fig. 2, the warps 10a are so engaged with the weft as systematically to confine warps 102A to recurrent engagement with recurrent members of the weft series by passage around the weft` and return toward the same face of the fabric in a bight embrac ing this weft. The warps 1G" similarly en gage the'same wefts as .the warps 1()a inthe same recurrent arrangement by passage a around the weft from the other` face of the fabric.l The recurrent picks of weftso engaged by the respective warps 10a and 10b are shown as the even numbered picks 12, 14 16, 18, 20, 22,- etc., of an indefinite series, t ese .wefts being` laid by motion .of the shuttle, for example, from right to left. Becaus vof their symmetrical relation tofthe bights vpassed around them of Athe warps 10a predominantly shed to one face and of the warps 10" predominantly shed to the other face, it will be convenient to refer to this recurrent system of wefts as key wefts. They lock together mutual pairs respectively containing a warp 10 and warp 10b.
It. is characteristic of the fabric that the remaining and intervening wefts of the odd rnumbered series 13, 15, 17 19, 21, etc., are engaged with, in contact with and surrounded y the-warps 10a and the warps 10b, but do not engage. bights formed by passage around them of any warp. One function of these intervening wefts` of the odd numbered series in relation to the warps engaging them is to maintain in tight, fixed and permanent relation to the key wefts the bights of the warps 101'and 10b -Wrapped around them, and another function is to cause the bends of the rically shed warps the respective straight wefts of the odd and even numbered'series. These relations will be evident from Fig.`2 of the drawing.v
One result of the arrangements indicated is that all of the wefts, both odd and even series,
`lie in a median plane bisecting the distance between the surface planes of the fabric.
stood that odd and even series -are the same yarn laid by respective passages of the same shuttle see Fig. 7. p
The recommended mode of interlocking the wefts with the ,warpsa for the useful effects above mentioned is evident from the drawings; that warp `10a nearest to the observer in Fig. 2 is so shed by regular motions of the yarn as to pass under the key weft 14 and to pass over the wefts-15, 16, and 17, and againto pass under theweft 18, and so observer in F ig.'2 is passed under the weft 14, under the weft 15, over the weft 16under lthe wefts17, 18 and 19, over the weft 20, etc. These two warps are in the same longitudinal plane transverse to the wefts.
Considering n ow the bights of the warp 10kI nearest the observer, it will be observed' that they are in contact with the respective key warps 14, 18, 22; and that the warp .10h nearest the observer being inthe same longitudinal plane perpendicular to the general elitent of the fabric as said bights lies upon t em.
fabric the warps 10b are depressed below the Simultaneously, thatwarp 10b nearest the y Therefore, to form the bottom face of thev median plane of the cloth in closely-bound l and tightly-laid runs having their apices at or near the points y.
It will be obvious that the warp 10 similarly presents at the points y, y exactly similar but, symmetrically opposite .elevated closely-bound floats at the points where the yarn 10Et nearest to the observer overlies the blghts y2, y2, formed by the yarn 10b nearest the observer upon'passing under the wefts 13, 14, 15, over the weft 16, under the wefts' 17, 18, 19, over the weft 20 andunder the' weft 21, etc.
Let us now consider the relation of that warp 10b which passes under weft 13, over the weft 14, under the weft 15, .under the'r bight m2 of the corresponding warp 10a, under the weft 17, over the key weft 18, under the lmentioned have interlocked in the bights :v2
with the key Wefts 16 and 20. 4Between these places they lie above the bights of one of the Warps b at the points ma, w3, m3.
Therefore at the points marked y or ya the fabric is thick in symmetricalrelation to theplane defined bythe centres of the Wefts in a degree measured on each side of that plane by one-half the thickness of the Wefts, the'full thickness at the point marked m of the'warps 10B, and the full thickness at the point marked y of the Warps 10b. Y The fabric is thick to the extent of five diameters of its component yarns.
Lookingat a fabric in section through the key weft 14. see Fig. 3, and comparing this With Fig. 2, the reason Why the runs underlie the bights w and the reason Why ghe runs m3, y overlie the bights y2 of the yarns 1()b will be clear.` The crossing engagements of the legs of the bights m and runs'y with the legs of bightsaf:2 and runs g3 as will be apparent from Fig. 3, provide What amounts in effect to a reed dent or crossed lease in relation to the next pair of yarns of the system. The surface runs of the warps 10 and lObare therefore obliged to stay on top, of the bights taken around the key Wefts 14, 16, 18, etc., not having-roomLfor lateral movement out of this position.
Referring now to Figs. 6 and 7 itwillbe r observed that the pattern of which one repeat is indicated at R, Fig. 7 Arepeats every four picks longitudinally and every four warp-ends laterally. On alternate picks the x Warp pairs 10a and 10b are shed apart for passage of the. weft, and in the intervening picksv these pairs are shed as .units alternately over and under the Warp, the second and yfourth pick having differentpairs up. The surface pattern, Fig. 5, shows Warps up over three and under one weft. It will be obvious that the pairs containing Warps 10a and 10b respectively are representative of multiple'groups of Warps alternatively shed as a unit and 'l separated for penetration by a weft or wefts.
When Weaving is in a sufficiently massive loom with a. heavy beat-up against a let-off functioning well to retain the relatively numerous Warps, the condition of balance in the fabric is such `as to limit capacity to stretch Warp-Wise and Weftew'ise. practicallyl equally. This is amply accounted for by the straight-lying Wefts, see Figs. 1, 3 and 4', and
the limited possibilities of elongationj af- 'forded by the key-Weft-bound Warp system, which can not stretch longitudinally Without placing the included bight-and-Weft structure under compression between the interlocked runs of the Warps lying on the respective faces. If, as in many of the uses for this fabric, Warp-Wise and Weft-wise strains are simultaneously to be resisted, maintenance of the warps in unstretchably interlocked form is aided by the longitudinallytense state of the weft, particularly the key Wefts constituting the even-numbered series in Fig. 2.
Itwill be obvious to those skilled in Weaving or the manufacture of clothing, airplanes,
rubberized fabrics, bandages and splints,
boots and shoes, Suspenders, corsets, carpets,
pressing cloths, filter-press and dust and fume filtering fabrics; hats, tents, sails and aWn- V- ings, upholstery fabrics, artificial leather and lcloth-covered books, trunks, boxes, bags and receptacles that the herein-described properties of this cloth are available for improvement of the materials of their said and other industries without change except adaptation of gauge and of the kind of component textile --cordage adapted to the use in hand.
1. Art of Weaving thick fabrics of limited extensibility from relatively thin yarns comprising,shedding alternate multiple groups of Warps together and oppositely'in respect to systematically recurrent picks of weft, and opening shed between members of said multiple group of warps for passage of intervening picks of the weft While holding the members of groups of Warps shed together in the same plane to overlie each other transversely of the cloth.
-2.,A1:t of weaving thick fabrics of limited extensibilit from relatively thin yarns con1 prising she ding alternate pairs of vvarps oppositely in respect to systematically recurrent picks of weft, and opening shed between the members of said pairs of Warps for passage of intervening picks of the weft while holding the members of groups of warps shed togetherI in the same plane to overlie each other transversely of the cloth. l
3. Art of Weaving thick fabrics of limited extensibility from relatively thin yarns enmprising shedding alternate multiple groups of Warps oppositely in respect to-alternate picks of weft, and opening shed between members of said multiple group of Warps for passage of intervening picks of the weft While .holding the members of groups of Warps shed together in the same plane to overlie each other transversely of the cloth. 1
'picks of the vveft While holding the membersv of groups of Warps shed together in the same plane to overlie each other transversely of the' cloth.
5. Art of Weaving comprising as s tep's providing a Warp containing a relatively "great number of yarns in each unit of linear measure laterally of the fabric to be vmade com'- parably with the possible-number ofpicks of Weftin each such unit of measure lon tudinally of the cloth, dividing the Warp or shedding in multiple groups, and acting upon each such group of Warps at regularly recurrent picks of Weft to divide each multiple' group for passage 'of the Weft'at that pick vvvhileholding the members of groups of shed for passage of Weftin said plane at Warps shed togetherin the same plane to overlie each other transversely of the cloth.
6. Art of Weaving comprising regularly shedding pairs of. warps in respect t a median weft plane and in respect to lregularly recurrent picks of key Weft in said` plane, each alternate pair of Warpspassingbeneath and the intervening pairs passing above said recurrent key picks, and causing the members of said pairs to be opened as a picks alternatingwith said key picks While holding the members of'groups o f War ps shed together in thesame plane to overlie each other transversely of the cloth.
7. Single-ply thick fabric of the unitary or single shed type having great density, relative thickness in proportion to the thickness of the individual yarns comprising it, a .s mmetrical'structure free from imbalance or distorting stresses, and having in respect to its median plane, 1n relation to recurrent key Wefts and in the direction of its thickness a lplurality of keywveft-interlocked bights over laid by Warp runs, said Warp runs together constituting the surfaces of the fabric.
8. Single-ply Woven fabric having therein Wefts in a median plane and surface runs of Warps interlocked With Wefts at each end, .and superposed upon the interlocking bights' of similar Warps of the other surface.
9. Single-ply thick fabric having in relation to recurrent .Wefts in the same plane `and in the direction of its thickness a plurality of Weft-interlockedbights overlaid by Warp rims, said Warp runs togetherconstituting the surfaces of the fabric.
l0. Single-ply thick fabric having wefts, and pairs of Warps lying'in the same longituing from the direction of opposite facesof 'the` fabric, certain of the Wefts intervening between said pairs of Warps.
l2. Single-ply thick lfabric having Wefts confined to the median plane of the fabric and pairs of Warps lying in the same longitudinal plane of the fabric transverse to the Wefts, said warps severally having bights 4surrounding a weft and respectively extending from the direction of opposite faces of the fabric, said Warps penetrating'said me.-
dian plane at recurrent weft intervals.
13. Single-ply thick fabric having Wefts confined to the median plane of the fabric and pairs of Warps lying in the samelongi'- tudinal plane of the fabric transverse to the Wefts, said Warps severally having bights surrounding a weft and respectively eXtendf ing -from the direction of oppositefaces of the fabric, said Warps penetrating said median plane at recurrent Weft intervals, members of alternate pairs of said Warps penetrating said median plane in opposite direc-` tions at thev spaces between the same pairs of Wefts.
14.' Single-'ply thick fabric characterized by symmetrical- Warp and weft structure, the
Wefts being confined to afmedian plane, the
'surfaces of the fabric each exhibiting short loW alternate v'vefts but being separated into individual Warps by the intervening wefts,
- the intervening pairs of Warps following the same order but appearing o n the reverse face at the said alternate Wefts Signed by me at Boston, Massachusetts, this 20th day of January, 1926.
-HAROLD F. SHERMAN- dinal plane of the fabric transverse to the Wefts, said Warps severally having bights surrounding a weft and respectively-extending from Vthe direction of opposite faces of thev fabric.
K11. Single-ply thick fabric having Wefts and pairs of Warps lying in the same longitudinal plane of the fabric transverse to' the vas.
Wefts, said Warps severally having bights surrounding a weft and respectively extend-