US 1778412 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 14,1930. 8. E. BALDUF SOUND INSULATED BUILDING 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Aug. 6, 1928 INVENTOR Bra/20 E BczZduf W13 ATTORNE- Fig 2 Oct. 14, 1930. B. E. BALDUF 1,773,412
SOUND INSULATED BUILDING Filed Aug. 6, 13 28 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVEN TOR.
.3712 no 5 Balduf 30 F 5 BY 2 Q 7 79 'ATTo fiEY Patented Oct.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE BRUNO E. BALDUF, OF CHIOAGO, ILLINOIS, ASSIGNOB 130- UNITED STATES GYPSUM COMPANY, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, A. CORPORATION OF ILLINOIS SOUND-INSULATED BUILDING Application filed August 6, 1928. Serial No. 287,614.
This inventionrelates to means for preventing the transfer of sounds from one'room to another and has reference more particularly to a wall, ceiling and floor construction in which comparatively light weight panel members are resiliently s aced apart from heavier wall members to a sorb the force of sound waves in a room and prevent their transfertoanotherroom. The invention further relates to a combination of the resilient means for breaking the impact of impinging sound waves and a flocculent filler for making the sound insulation more eflicient.
In a composite wall made up of panels separated by air spaces, sound passes from one room to another in any one of the following ways:
1. Air borne sounds in which sound waves strike the solid bodies forming the walls, set these bodies into vibration and these bodies in turn, set up 'sound waves on the opposite side.
2. Transmission of impact'sound through vibration of the molecular structure of the materials forming the wall bodies and the connection supports between the wall panels.
3. Drum action in the hollow spaces-of the wall in which sound waves echo and reecho by reflection from the inner faces of the wall members, and thus amplify the sounds.
I have found that with walls of ordinary construction, sounds of certain frequencies or pitch are transmitted through the wall more easily than with sounds of other frequencies or pitch. Thus, sounds'of certain frequencies produce vibration of the materials forming the wall, and this frequency is called a point of resonance. These points of resonance are determined experimentally by operating an organ inside of a confined room and noting the ease with which the sound travels through the walls when difierent tones are played on the organ.
With my improved construction, a composite wall of two or more panels or members is formed, the members being separated by a resilient clip which prevents the transmission of air borne sounds by dam ing or snubbing the vibration of the mem ers.
combination of structural features, I provide a wall construction which has an extremely high efficiency in the insulation of sound.
Some of the materials commonly used in sound insulation are; hair felt, vegetable fibers, quilts, etc. These materials have been found to decrease with age in their soundproofing qualities due to hardening, acking and carbonization of the fibers. also have the objection that they are not vermin proof nor fireproof.
An object of this invention, therefore, is to provide a wall structure made up of two or more panels separated by flexible cli s having a permanent resiliency so that t e soundproofing efficiency will not decrease with age.
Another object of the invention is to provide a composite wall construction of a plurality of panels in direct metallic contact by resilient clips which absorb the impact of impinging sound waves.
A further object of this invention is to provide a soundproof wall construction in which the points of resonance are eliminated through the use ofa light, flo'cculent filling material; also to improve soundproof wall constructions in other respects hereinafter specified and claimed. a
Reference is to behad in accompanying drawings, forming a part of this specification, in which it is understood that the draw-- ings illustrate only certain forms of the invention and in which,
Figure 1 is a fragmentary, sectional elevation of my improved sound insulation.
Figure 2 is a perspective view of one of my hey showing the method of attaching my resilient clips to a tile wall member.
Figure 5 is a fragmentary elevation of the device shown in Figure 4.
Figure 6 is a fragmentary, sectional elevation of my soundproof ceiling construction.
Figure 7 is a sectional View through the ceiling construction on the line 77 of Figure 6, and
Figure 8 is a fragmentary, sectional, plan View of a modified form of the device shown in Figure 4.
' Referring to the drawings by numerals, 10 indicates a heavy, masonry floor or ceiling member or element, slab or panel and, 11 indicates a similar masonry floor or ceiling member such as commonly separates one room from the room above in an apartment or oflice building, these floors preferably being made in the usual waiy of reinforced con crete, wood or the like. ach floor is preferably divided into rooms by partition tile 12, which are made of gypsum or other suitable material and form a panel of heavy or massive construction. Subfloors 13 are supported above and spaced apart from the floors 10 and 11, or above wooden joists 14:, by means .of resilient and flexible spring clips 15.
the clips 15 are supported on a bracket 16, but when wooden floors 14 are used, the spring clips 15 may be attached directly to the subfloors by means of large headed nails 17 passing through slots 20 in the clips.
Brackets 16 are preferably made of flat steel with a raised or offset section 18 adapted to support the bottom of the semi-elliptical spring clips 15, a bolt 19 passing through a slot 20, in the spring clip and through a similar slot in the offset section 18. A washer 20 of soft flexible material, is preferable interposed between the bottom of the clip 15 and the offset section 18, so as to prevent squeaking dueto vibration of the sub-floor 13 and clip 15. The semi-elliptical spring clips 15 are preferably bent inwardly on their upstanding legs and then upwardly to form shoulders 21 which are provided with a plurality of holes 22 so that nails can be driven through said holes into a nailing strip 23, the latter being ordinarily constructed of wood.
The nailing strips may also be fastened to saddles hung over the shoulder 21, or in any other suitable way. The brackets 16, may be attached to the masonry floors 10 by means of grout 24, suitable openings 25 being provided in said brackets so as to provide a better bond between the grout 24:, and the masonry floors 10 and 11. The spring clips 15 are preferable made of spring metal such as steel, but might also be made of such materials as wood fiber, celluloid or other suitable non-metallic materials. The springs 15 and 44 are of sufiicient resiliency to prevent transhen masonry floors 10 and 11 are employed,
"the partitions dividing mission of sound by impact but are of sufiias shredded gypsum or a mixture ofshredded gypsum and vegetable fibers to decrease the density of the mixture.
A more complete disclosure of this filler material will be found in my copending application Serial N 0. 107,797 filed May 8, 1926, now matured to Patent No. 1,723,989 of which this application is a continuation in part. I have found that a mixture of this nature which has a density of 15 to 35 pounos per cubic foot and which will pass through a 50 mesh screen is most efiicient in sound in.
sulation and a mixture of gypsum and vegetable fiber is especially effective because it is vermin and fireproof and does not lose its efliciency upon ageing. This filling substance is ordinarily manufactured by shredding up waste or scrap. wallboard so that the surfacepaper composing the outer covering of the wallboard is disintegrated into fiber and mixes with the gypsum to form a light, fluffy product. The character and density of this product can be controlled by the type of grinding machinery used and the percentage of fiber. In constructing my soundproof floors, I preferably but not necessarily use a layer 27, of building paper which extends between the subfloor 13 and nailing strip 23 and lies on top of the filling material 26, so as to prevent such filling material from being dison the nailing strip 23.
In my improved soundproof construction, a space into rooms is constructed in a general way the same as the floors, with certain variations. I preferably build my partitions of gypsum tile 12, which may be-of any desired construction or shape, it being understood that these partitions may also be of wood or other materials. Spaced apart from each face of the partition tile 12, I preferably provide a panel of gypsum wallboard 29, of the standard'composition, this,
wallboard or, plasterboard serving as a base for a layer of plaster 30. A channel or furring strip 31 of any suitable shape, such as that shown, is provided adjacent the junction of two of the wall boards 29, which may preferably but with means such as integral lugs 32 which are bent upwardly between the wallboards 29 and then bent over pins 33 for securing the turbed until the subfloor 13 is nailed in place not necessarily be provided wallboards to the channel strip 31. One of my improved resilient clips or shock absorbers is then secured to the partition tile 12 by means of a pair of staples 34 passing through the slot in said clip in opposite directions and being driven into said tile 12. The outstanding flanges 21 of the clip 15 are inserted inside the flanges 35 of the channel strips 31 and a wire 36 or other suitable means may then be twisted around the channel strip 31 and clip 15 so that the panels 29 and plaster 30 are securely but resiliently attached to the partition tile 12. The space between the wallboard 29 and partition tile 12 is then filled with the flocculent gypsum filler 26,
so as to aid in preventing sound from passing from one room to the othe through partition 12.
In constructing the ceilings of my improved soundproof structure, I preferably support wallboard 29 and plaster 30 by a channel or furring strip 31 similar to that used in the wall construction. This furring strip 31 is secured to a second channel strip 37 by means of a wire 38. In order toresiliently attach the channel strip 37 to the floor or ceiling -11, I provide a U-shaped bracket 39 which passes around the channel strip 37, being provided at its upper end with perforations 40, through which passes a wire or rod 41, the latter being embedded at its upper end in the masonry ceiling l1. Secured to the bottom 42 of the U-shaped bracket 39, as by rivets 43, is a semi-circular, flat spring clip 44, the outer ends of which are bent or curved to receive and support the bottom flange 45 of the channel strip 37. The space between the wallboard 29 and masonry ceiling 11 is then filled with several inches of the flocculent gypsum filler 26. Thus the panels composed of wallboard 29 and plaster 30 is free to vibrate under the impact or influence of the sound waves below and such vibrations are prevented from being transferred to the masonry 11 and room above by the spring or resilient clips 44 combined with the filler 26. In the same way the sound waves are prevented from passing through the partition 12 by the spring clips 15 and filler 26.
It should be understood that the efficiency of the flocculent gypsum filler which I use in the walls, floors and ceilings of my improved soundproof construction, is very high, due to the low density of the gypsum filler and also due to the small size of the particles of which it is composed. By surrounding the spring clips 15 and brackets 39 with the filler, transfer of sound through the molecular structure of the clip 15, brackets 39 and wire 41 is prevented or largely absorbed by the gypsum fill. Furthermore, the gypsum fill prevents any drum action in the enclosed spaces between the various panels, that is any echoes of the sound passing through the wallboard 29 are absorbed by the gypsum filler. The
gypsum filler also has an absorbing action by contact with the panels, in dampmg the vibrations of the wallboard 29 under the infiuence of sound waves impinging upon the plaster panel 30. In general, I have found that the combination of the spring clip with the flocculent gypsum filler serves to prevent any points of resonance and provides a soundproofing system of substantially equal efficiency for all pitches or tones of sound and which will not decrease in efliciency with age. The filler itself is vermin and fireproof.
While the gypsum filler adds considerably to the efliciency of my soundproof construction, it may be omitted, still providing excellent results due to the resilient action of. the spring clips. Likewise the filler itself has a substantial value as a sound absorbing agent without the use of the spring clips. In the specification and claims, the term panel is selected by applicant to denote broadly any fiat building member such as walls, floors, and ceilings, whether movable or fixed. The term wall is used by applicant to denote any type of partition forming rooms, whether fixed, or movable, such as doors.
I would state in conclusion that while the illustrated examples constitute a practical embodiment of my invention, I do not limit myself strictly to the details herein illustrated and described since manifestly the same can be considerably varied without departing from the spirit of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent:-
1. In a building construction, a pair of spaced, parallel building elements, spring clips connecting said elements, said clips being of sufficient resiliency and number to prevent sound transmission through said elements by impact of sound waves, and a flocculent filling material of low density between said elements.
In a building construction, a pair of flat structural elements in spaced, parallel relation and adapted to be used in walls and ceilings of buildings, shock-absorbing spring clips connecting said elements, said clips belng of suflicient resiliency to prevent transmission of sound through said elements and being suflicient in number to carry structural loads, and a flocculent filling material between said elements for preventing sound transmission by drum action.
3. A soundproof wall construction comprising a plurality of panel members spaced apart and attached together by metallic resilient members, and a flocculent filler of low density in the spec between said panels for preventing sound transfer from one panel to the next.
4. A soundproof structure comprising a plurality of panels, one of said panels being a massive construction and a second panel being a lighter construct-ion, spring means for resiliently attachin said light and massive panels together so that sound waves caus ing the vibration of the light panel will not cause the vibration of the heavy panel, and a flocculent filler of low density in the space between said panels adapted to damp the vibrations of said s rings and light panels.
5. A soundproo structure comprising a plurality of panels, having different thickness, resilient spring clips adapted to secure said panels together in spaced, parallel relameans adapted to resiliently attach said tion, and a flocculent gypsum filler'in the space between said panels, said filler having a density of-1535 lbs-.per cubic foot.
. 6. A soundproof construction comprising a support member, a fiat, metallic spring of high flexibility secured to said support member, a panel secured to said sup ort member, a second panel secured to S2115) spaced apart from said first panel thereby, and a flocculent filler of low density surrounding said spring in the space between said panels adapted to prevent sound from being transferred from one panel to the otherthrough the molecular structure of said pariels to said slab and prevent transmission ofsound to said slab by impact, and a flocculent filler between said panels and slab,"
said filler having a density of substantially I 15 lbs. per cubic foot.
- 9. A- soundproof structure comprising a wallboard panel, an attaching strip attached to said panel, a second panel of massive con- I struction, a spring clip adapted to resiliently connect said attaching .strip and said wallboard to said second panel so as to prevent sound transmission to said second panel by impact, and a flocculent filler of substantially 15. lbs. per cubic foot density between said wallboard and said second panel.
10. In a soundproof structure, a spring clip of flat metal bent into semi-elliptical form and having outstanding arms, a light weight panel secured to said arms, a heavier panel secured to the' body of the clip, and a flocculent filler of low density surrounding said spring.
relation to said wall member, an
' spring and 11. In a sound insulating structure a spring clipfor reventin pact, a I) clip, a washer between said bracket an clip adaptedto prevent squeaking when said sprin is vibrated, a masonry slab supporting said racket, a panel secured to said clip,
12. In a building construction, a flat structural rigidly held wall member, a plasterboard panel in spaced substantially arallel panel having an exteriorsurface coating of-cementitious material adapted to receive impinging sound waves, and a series of highlyresilient connectors intermediate saidpanel and said wall member, said connectors being adapted to' decrease initial vibrations of either said wall member or said panel due solely to impinging sound waves.
13. A soundproof wall construction comprising a vertical wall of massive construction, a plurality of highly resilient clips attached to said wall, and a panel of hghter construction having non-metallic components and secured to said spring clips in spaced, parallel relation to said wall, said panel being adapted to be exposed to impinging sound waves, the sound vibration of said panel bein absorbed by said resilient clips so that su stantially no sound passes through said wall.
sound transmission by imracket or supporting said s ring and a flocculent filler between said slab and 14. In a soundproof structure, a plurality of vertically extending building panels, said panels comprising a central supporting panel of substantially rigid construction with a sound impact panel in spaced parallel relation to each face of said central panel, and a plurality of inherently highly resilient connectors between said panels adapted to absorb the impact of sound waves impingin on the outer of said panels and substantially prevent the sound from being transferred through said structure. I t
15. A- wall structure comprising a framing, a wall panel associated with the framing, spaced, narrow metallic spring clips carried by said framing and connected to said panel, each of said spacers including a highly resilient portion for receiving the sound impact vibrations and preventing their transmission through said wall structure.
16. In a soundproof building structure, a pair of flat structural elements in spaced,
parallel relation and adapted for use in walls and ceilings of buildings, one-ofsaid ele ments being of rigid construction and the second of said elements being substantially movable, said elements being of continuous extent across the face of the building, and
inherently highly resilient shock absorbing sprin clips connecting said elements so as to en stantially eliminate sound transmission through said structure.
17. A soundproof Wall consisting of a plurality of spaced supports, a panel carried by the supports, metallic spring clip spacers carried by the supports and including highly resilient portions for receiving the sound impact vibrations and preventing their transmission through said well.
BRUNO E. BALDUF.