US 1781877 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
METHOD OF AND MECHANISM FOR COATING ROOFING ELEMENTS l Filea Maoh 22, 1927 2 Sheets Sheet Inf/mw.' JWM ZT WW' Novia 19.
Y H. l.. L EvlN l 78 METHOD OF AND ME CHANISM FOR COATING ROOFING ELEMENTS Filed M arch 22, 1927 2 sh eefs sheet l., 'inviti'.
llllllllll nl portion, which is expose Patented Nov. 18, 1930 UNITED STATES 'PATENT' OFFICE mmm I.. LEI-TIN, or Passaro, NEw JERSEY, AssIeNoE, BY mEsNE AssIeNMENTs,
To THE PATENT ANI) LICENSING conomTIoN, or BosToN. mssacnUsETTs, a
coaromTIoN or mssAcnUsETTs IIETIIoD or AND TIEcnANIsx- E OB `COATING ROOFING ELEMENTS Applipcation'jhd latch 22, 1927. l Serial No. 177,407.
V This invention relates to a method of making thick butt fabricated roofing elements which are characterized b having the butt to the weather when laid, completelycovered both on its exposed face and edgeswith a continuous coating of asphalt preferably masked by a. surfacing layer of grit or its equivalent. Roofing elements of this type are customarily made of material comprising a felted fibrous base which is comparatively bibulous. This felted material inl sheet form is thoroughly saturated with waterproofing materiall such as low melting-point asphalt. The saturated sheet is thereupon coated on both sides with a layer of relatively high melting-point oxidized asphalt which is particularly suited for weather-proofing the roofing material and preventing the access of moisture to the fibers of the saturated base. In order to protect the exposed coating of asphalt which is liable to deterioration by effects of the weather, such as rays of the sun, .which tend to polymerize the asphalt and render it brittle and subject to cracking, a surfacing la er of comminuted mineral matter'is applic to the coating on one or both sides of the sheet to mask and protect the coating from effects of the weather. The finishing layer of mineral matter also performs other useful functions such as adding to the decorative effect of the roofing unit and weighting the exposed portions to counteract tendencies to curl or to be lifted by the action of wind. -v .From sheet roofing material thus prepared, the roofing elements are customarily cut out in an desired shapes and are packaged as a finished article for shipment and subsequent use. Such elements, however, have objectionable features in that the cut edges along the butt of the element expose cut ends of fibers to the weather. These cut ends being unprotected have been found to absorb moisture in wet Y weather and to permit the access of oxygen oi of v ortions of the coating asphalt and minera surfacing. The rate of such deterioration increases progressively inasmuch as the further it goes, themore exposed is the roofing element to the deteriorating effects of.v
Another objectionable feature to roofin A elements cut from a sheet of roofing materia made as described above is that such material is comparatively thin and when elements cut therefrom are laid upon a roof, the roof as a whole presents a fiat and unsubstantial appearance, which is not in keeping with such buildings as residences of the better kind. Hence discriminating architects have largely avoided the ordinary asphalt roofing elements in the construction of the better class of residences on account of the unfavorable appearance often presented thereby,
In order to overcome the objections to the' ordinary roofing elements out from asphalt coated sheet material, it has been found that ktif such elements are provided with an additional coating of asphalt over the portion of Y the element which is exposed to the weather when laid, including the butt andl side edges, such an additional coating serves both tol seal the edges which were previously a vulnerable point of the element, and also tothicken the visible portion of the element in such a way as to give a roof upon which such elements are laid a substantial appearance. This invention relates to a method of and means for applying such an additional coating of asphalt to pre-cut roofing elements which have been made as described above, and applying an additional surface layer of comminuted mineral matter, such as crushed slate or the like. to the protective asphalt coating thus applied.
According to my inventionLI have devised apparatus for applying in a novel way to roofing elements cut to shape from nished sheet roofing material, an additional coating of molten asphalt over the face and edges of the elements which will be exposed to the weather when laid, surfacing the additional coat with a layer of comminuted mineral `material, andv operating on the elements thus treated to press the mineral particles into ion firm engagement with the asphalt coating and at the same time to shape the thickenedv butt portion of the shingle as desired.
In carrying out my novel method, I arranged pre-cut roofin elements in a continuous overlapping series, in which each element is partly overlaid by other adjacent elements 1n the series. Preferably the unlapped portion of each element will be substantially the same as the portion of the element which will be exposed to the weather whenthe element is laid with others on a roof. Upon the unlapped face portions and edges of the elements in the series is applied a continuous coating of suitable waterproofing material such as certain asphalts commonly used for .coating purposes. Grit or the like may be applied to the coating while still hot and sticky, and the elements are separated before the coating sets or hardens.
This method of applying coating to elements in lapped series may be used to build up butt portions of extra thickness tapering off toward the head. This may be done by arranging the elements so that only a small part of the butt portion of each is unlapped in the series. After these have been coated, with or without the addition of grit, the elements may be separated further and a second coating applied. This may be repeated until the Whole portion of each element which will be exposed to the weather when laid is coated, whereupon the elements are separated and further treated as hereinafter described. This results in an element having a number of extra coatings at the butt edge extending toward the head, each such coating except the top one being overlaid by a coating extending further toward the head of the element.
Various advantageous features of the in- 'l vention will be apparent to one skilled in the art from the disclosure of the invention in the following description and on the drawings of which- Figure 1 represents diagrammatically a side elevation of an embodiment of my invention.
Figure 2 is a plan view of the same.
Figures 3 and 4' are detail views of la p0rtion of Figure 1, shown on a larger scale.
Figure 5 illustrates the actionof certain elements on the butt portion of the rooting elements.
Figure 6 is a perspective of a roof-ingelement after being passed though the mechanism illustrated in Figure 1.
Figure 7 is a diagrammatic sida elevation of a modiiied form of apparatus.
Figure 8 is a plan view of the same.
Figures 9 and 10 are detail views of portions of Figure 7, shown ona larger scale.
` Figure 11 is a side elevation of a portion of the mechanism illustrated in Figure 8.
Fi re 12 is a section taken on the line 12-12 of Figure 11.
Referring to Fi ure 1, a series of'rooing elements 2.0 are .fe to the mechanism as on a conveyor 21. The elements are placed on this conveyor in' any overlapping relation either by hand or b ,any suitable mechanism (not shown). Pre erably, although not necessarily, the elements may be pre-heated before being s'o arranged and/or the unlapped surfaces may be heated after the elements have been arranged in` overlapping series as by a steam box 22, a blast of hot air or anyv other suitable and convenient means. From the conveyor 21, the series of elements 20 may be transferred to another conveyor 23 without altering their relative relation. Inasmuch as roofing elements of the common asphaltic ty e are somewhat flexible and have a rougii surface due to the surfacing layer of grit, the relative relation between successive elements placed in an overlapping relation as shown will not easily be disturbed except by positive means operating for that purpose. As indicated in Figures 3 and 4, the elements 20 are overlapped upon each other in such a way that each element is covered by the next overlying element by approximately the same amount and at substantially the same portions thereof as the element will be overlaid when in place on a roof, so that the uncovered portion as shown in Figures`3 and 4 represents substantially the portion to be exposed to the weather when the element is laid on a roof. In this form of the apparatus, the elements are shown as being advanced butt edge iirst, each element being partly overlaid by elements following it. The conveyor 23 which receives the series of elements may be disposed horizontally if desired, but as shown on the drawing it is inclined downwardly (the angle of inclination being somewhat.'v exaggerated on the drawing for the purpose of illustration) and passes beneath suitable means for applying to the succession of elements carried by the conveyor heated asphalt in sufiicient quantity to coat completelythe exposed surfaces and edges of the elements with a continuous film of asphalt. and means for showering the freshly coated surfaces with comminuted mineral such as crushed slate or the like. In order to apply an even coating to the exposed surfaces of the elements, I may provide a suitable receptacle 24 4for molten asphalt. this receptacle having therein'heating units 25 ifdesired. One side edge of the receptacle 24 is preferably cut'lower asat 26 than the other edges, a feeding guide I27 being secured thereto in order to feed a sheet lof molten asphalt from the receptacle 24 down to close proximity to the surfaces to be coated, this guiding means 27 being used to prevent the sheet from breaking up into driblets under the action of surface tension, and thus to insure. an
'box 28 or other heating means may be provided in juxtaposition thereto, this heating means being available to regulate the temperature and hence'the viscosity of the as.- phalt at the moment it is deposited on the elements 20. Immediately following the asphalt container 24 may be located a suitable phalt.
opper 29 from which a shower of grit or other comminuted material may be continuously de osited upon the freshly applied coating o asphalt by mechanism well known in the art. If desired, such surfacing material may be heated as. by suitable units 30,
placed within the hopper to insure firmer engagement of the grit particles with the as- The elements thus coated and surfaced on the conveyor 23 may then be separated and transferred to another conveyor 31. In order to separate the elements, I may provide a roll 32 adjacent to the delivery end of the conveyor 23, the roll 32 being resiliently `supported to press on the successive elements. This roll is preferably driven at a peripheral speed equal to thatl of the conveyor 23. Another roll 33 may be yieldingly supported to engage the elements at a point adjacent to the receiving end of the conveyor 31, this roll and the conveyor 31 being preferably driven at an equal peripheral speed greater 'than that of the roll 32 and the conveyor 23. The rolls 32 and 33 may be so spaced that when the butt edge of a roofing element enters the nip between the roll 33 and the conveyor 31, the upper or head edge of that element will have cleared the roll 32. The next following element, however, which overlies the element entering the nip of the roll. 33 is atthis point still between the slower moving roll 32 and conveyor 23, so that the faster feeding action of the roll 33 and conveyor 21 pulls the element entering the nip between them away from the series on the conveyor 23 and thus spaces them as indicated in Figure 1. The rolls|32 and 33 in addition to separating the successive elements also serve to pressthe grit lying on the fresh coating on the faces of the elements into more intimate embedded contact with the asphalt. The elements on the conveyor 31 may then be discharged edgewise one after the other to a suitable conveyor 34, guiding plates 35, 36 being provided'as desired for insuring the proper upright positionin of each element on the conveyor 34.` Suita le means may be provided for` shaping and finishing the additional coating and surfacing layers which have been .applied to the face and ed es of the butt portlon of the elements. Suc apparatus may be as illustrated in Figures 1" and 2, and may comprise a pair of vertically arranged endless belts 37, 38 between which the elements are de osite'd from the conveyor 31. These belts 3%, 38 are preferably arranged t'o converge so that at their delivery end, the butt portion of eachI element is pressed between their opposing faces as they pass between the rolls 39, 40 which are preferably yieldingly mounted 'and adjustable both as-to axial direction and distance apart. At the same time, the weight of the element on the conveyor 34 serves yto press the grit adhering to the butt vedges ofthe element into more intimate contact with the coating on the edges. If desired, the axes of the rolls 39, 40 may be inclined toward each other slightly so that the pressing faces of the belts 37, 38 which pass bet-Ween them will also convergeupwardly. This tends to impart a taper to the thickened butt portion ,of the roofing element as indicated at 41 in Figure 6. In this figure .also are shown narrow tongues of asphalt and grit extendin up`- wardly from the butt portion, these lfbeing occasioned by the slots in the element which overlapped this one in the series during the application of the asphalt and grit. f Slotted elements are shown in the drawing merely by way of example, such' elements having a shape widely used in the trade. It is obvious that the process and apparatus are not limited to such a shape, and that if the slots were eliminated or replaced by grooves or the like, the additional coating applied by the present method and apparatus would be limited substantially to the portion of the face and edges to be exposed to the weather when the element is in position on a roof.
Ay modified form ofthe apparatus as a whole is illustrated in Figures 7 to 12. As-
vcordingto this embodiment of the invention,
the conveyor 21 feeds to the conveyor 23 a series of roofing elements overlapped in the opposite direction to that shown in Figure 1, that is, the elements are fed head first instead of butt first, with the head portions thereof overlapped by the next element ahead, rather than by the next following. In this case, I prefer to slope the conveyor 23 upwardly so that the asphalt when applied as illustrated in Figure 9 will tend to iow t0- ward the butt edges of each element. It is obvious, however, that if desired, the conveyor 23 may be level either in the form of apparatus shown in Figure 1 or that'shown in Figure 7 .n The coating device in the apparatus .illustrated in Figure 7 may be identical with that illustrated `in Figure 1. The grit-applying device 29 may 'also be the same, as well as the rolls 32 and 33 which separate the overlapped shingles from one another. The separated shingles are discharged head first on a conveyor 34 which carries at right angles to their motion on the coning said elements 1n a series 1n successive y Veyors 23 and 31, as shown in Figure 8. overlappedv relatlon, conveying the over- Since in this case the butt portions of the elelapped elements lengthwise of the series past ments are uppermost as the shingles are cona given pomt, and flowing on sa1d series of veyed edgewise on the conveyor 34, the belts elements at said po1nt a continuous stream 37, 38 and the` rolls 39, 40 about which the of molten asphalt extending transversely belts pass are elevated suiliciently to engage across the serles.
the butt portions of the elements passing axes of the rolls 39, 40 may be inclined so as v rai'iging a series of elements in successive l to diverge upwardly and to tend to taper the overlapped relation such that each element thickened butt portions of the elements which is lapped and substantially covered by adpass between them.l The butt. edges of .the jacent elements except for the face portion elements may at the same timebe shaped as and edges to be exposed to the weather when desired. As indicated in Figures 11 and 12, the' element is laid on a roof, flowing a a suitable roller 49 may be mounted to press continuous "stream of waterproofing material its edge against the butt edge of elements onto the uncovered portions of the elements,
passing between the rolls 39, 40. As shown surfacingsaid coating with comminuted main Figure '12, the roll 49 may have a grooved terial, and separating the individual eleedge 50 to round olf the butt edge of the elements. y ments, but it is obvious that they may be 4. Ste sin the manufacture of roofing ele-A shaped in any desirable way by shaping the ments, w ich comprise arranging a series of edge of the roll 49 accordingly. elements in successive overlapping relation- The method of thickening the butt portions ship, applying waterproof coating material of roofing elements and sealing their butt to said elements while so arranged, surfacing edges as herein described is a simple and efthe coated portions with comminuted mafective way of applying the second coatmg `terial, separating the individual elements, of asphalt and surfacin with grit to the exand thereafLr applying pressure to said surposed faces and edges o the roofing elements faced portions. v which readily lends itself to the apparatus 5. Steps in the method of making thickdescribed. By this means and method, the butt roofing elements, which comprise arextra asphalt and grit are applied only to ran 'ng a series of elements in successive those portions of the shingle w ich need adover apped relation such that each yelement ditional protective coating, and the second is lapped and substantially covered by adcoating of asphalt is made. to envelop the jacent elements except for the face portion cut edges of the element at its butt portion and edges to be exposed to the weather when and to join the original asphalt coating, ii laid on a roof, applying a continuous coating there be one, on the under face .of the element #of molten asphalt to the uncovered portions to seal the edges of the butt portion and to of the elements, covering said asphalt coat form a complete envelope enclosing the entire while hot and sticky with granular material, portion of the shingle which is exposed to separating the individual elements', and the weather when laid. pressing the coated face and edges of each Having thus described certain embodielement. ments of this invention, it should be evident 6. Steps in the method of making thickto4 those skilled in the art that various butt roofing elements, which comprise archanges and modifications may be made ranging elements cut to shape from sheet therein without departing from its spirit or roofing material of felted brous stock satuscope as defined by the appended claims. rated and coated with asphalt and surfaced I claim with granular mineral matter in an overl. The method of coating the face portion lapping series such that each element is suband edges of roofing elements, which are to stantially lapped and covered by adjacent be ex sed to the weather when t-he elements elements except for the portion of its face are laid on a roof, which comprises arranging and edges to be exposed to the weather when the lelements in a series wherein the elements the element is laid on a roof, feeding the are in successive overlapped relation leaving elements such that the head^portion of each only said face portion and edges of each eleelement is covered by the butt portion of anment unlapped, owing a continuous stream other element, applying progressively to the of coating onto the face and edges of the uncovered surfaces a continuous coating of unlapped 'parts of said series of overlapped molten asphalt, showering granular mineral elements, and separating the individual elematter on said coating while still hot and ments from the series. sticky, separating the individual elements 2. The method of coating the face portion successively from the series, and pressing the and edges of rooiing elements, which-are to freshly coated surfaces of the elements.
be exposed to the weather when the elements 7. Apparatus of the class described, com- 3. Steps in the method of making thick-l ftherebeneath. As'indicated in Figure 12, the butt roofing elements, which comprise arthem olf are laid on a roof, which comprises arran prising means for applying a continuous film of molten asphalt to the exposed face and signature.'
edge portions of a series of lapped roofing elements, means for surfacing said film with granular mineral matter, means for thereafter separating said elements successively from the series, and means for pressing said face and edge portions.
8. Apparatus of the class described, com-y prising means for conveying a series of roofing elements in overlappin relationship, means for applying a continuous film of molten asphalt'to the exposed surfaces of the elements A1n said series, means for covering said film with grit, means for separating the elements successively from the series, and means for molding the butt portions of the separated elements including the butt edges.
9. The method of coating a roofing eleyment, which comprises covering al portion of a face of a roofing blank with another roofing blank, covering the remaining portion of the f ace and adjacent edges with a coating of llqueiied asphalt, and separating said blanks. In testimony whereof I have affixed my HAROLD L. LEVIN.