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Publication numberUS1782721 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 25, 1930
Filing dateNov 19, 1928
Priority dateMay 14, 1928
Publication numberUS 1782721 A, US 1782721A, US-A-1782721, US1782721 A, US1782721A
InventorsGennady Frenkel
Original AssigneeGennady Frenkel
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Advertising or like sign or device
US 1782721 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Nov. 25, 1930. G, FRENKEL ADVERTISING OR LIKE SIGN OR DEVICE Filed Nov. 19, 1928 Patented Nov. 25, 1930 1 UNITED STATES PA TENT" OFFICE i ,GENNADY FRENKEL, or KIhlGsTOb T ONeTl-IAMlfis, Enorm tn ADVERTISING on LIKE SIGN" on "nnvIoE i Application fiieane a'reii1 ri9, 1925} Serial 1151320334, and Gr at Br itain M ay '14, 1923.

This invention relates toadvertising or like signsor devices adapted tohe illuminated during the daybydaylight adniitted through an "opening in the top of the device,

f hereafter referred to as the window, as the opening'mayinfact bean opening or glaz 111g, having n mind that t functions for the admission of light whlch 1s afterwards reflectedto the sign characters throughwhich itfis diffused.

Oneobject of the present invention is to devlse an arrangement of reflectors 1n device of the lnndlreferred to which will avoid 1 any loss of light admitted into the device, dne to reflection backthroughethe window from reflectors disposed to directadm tted light to the sign walls, and further to conservebhh admitted light so that allis ulti mately utilized inwilluininating "the sign 6 characters.

a 3 Another object is to devisea manufacture.

wherein the cost of production i'sfekceedh1g1? small'as co p r with Present day practice." w a 1x12 Afeatureof constructions accordingto the a present invention is the employment of a curved reflectors for reflecting daylightyadimitted into the device to the signcha'racters.

Another feature is the employncent of re "3 fiectors contiguous tothe opening orwindow for directing downwardly into the 'jdevice light reflected upwardly therein." Such re fiectors used in combination with reflecting surfaces carried onthe side walls virtually none allowed-- to he 'lost by reflection back i throu 'hthe window of thedevice.

Such formof constructionmay becon 'sidered as equivalent to that ofanonreturn valve because the device 'so lconstruoted permits the flow oflight into 'the device'b'ut prevents the return flow through the admis- $1011 opening, the {exit for the light being "constituted solely-by the sign characters of the device or that area allottedas aground for the sign characters, as hereafter more fully explainedfij' 5 i having in mind that it {is desiredthatall the L Preferablyfan advertising device" corn prisingreflectors contiguous to the openin as herein descr bed, comprises also reflectors opposite the window or the sign which either directly or through the agencyfof the reflec tors contiguous to the opening, direct light to the sign walls carrying the signcharac-I The reflectors-Xcontiguous to the window" opening maybe of jolane or; curved form and as hereafter explainedthe devicelmayhe produced with the walls all integral by f moulding atube of transparent material, for instance, glass to incorporate the necessary reflecting surfaces and window opening. Informing an advertising device suitable forthe displayof two advertisements at the same time in opposite directions, "the detice preferably includes two opposed sign walls carryingsig characters andmutually re- P col A, preferred construction relatingtothef productioncf advertising signs havingreflectors contiguous. to the window "as herein described, by way offexarnple in the accompanying drawings. i l

Fig. 1 shows diagrammatically in vertical section the application of the" invention to a a sign made front a glass tube and including two sidewalls intended to carry sign charactersso that a displayis made simultaneously in two; opposite directions; Figs. 2 to 6 arediagrammatic,indicating the formation of the reflecting walls Fig. 7 shows pictoriallyanother construction in whichthe reflecting walls are inte gral VIII offFigfiT; I

Beferring now the device is that part ofthe section lying between the reference cl1aracters XX at the .to V of thedevi'ce, and besides the window thetu eis provided with sixfacesindicated thereferences 1 to 6, two offwhiclyfland I are intended tobear signcharacters," and the curvature of the faces varies in accord: ance with the angle of incidence of the incoming rays striking. the respective faces,

to Fig. 1, the windowjof FigQ S beingasectiononthelineuVIlI r received light is directed on to the faces 2 and 5. The faces 1, 6, form a border or frame to the light admission opening constituted by the window aforesaid.

The tube constructed as illustrated in Fig. 1 is adapted to collect and reflect rays from whatever angle they may arrive between zero and 180 and to direct the rays downwardly.

The light reflected upwardly by the reflecting faces 8 and 4 is returned downwards towards the sides 2 and 5 by the reflectors 6 and 1 contiguous to window XX, at the same time the reflectors 1 and 6 are capable of receiving light emanating from low angles, i. e. from near the horizon, and of directing this low angle light downwardly into the device.

It will be seen, therefore, that the tube has two characteristics; it includes reflecting surfaces, viz. surfaces 1 and 6, by which at least a double reflection of the incoming light takes place to acquire the ultimate downward direction of the light to the sides, and the reflecting faces which immediately downwardly direct the incoming light impinging on them.

The direction of incoming light is clearly indicated by the lines shown on the diagram, for instance, the line II shows the path of light entering from very nearly the horizon on the right hand side of the tube, the rays striking the face 6 and then reflected downwardly towards the panel 5, the line 11-11 indicates the path of a ray entering from immediately above the sign and striking the bottom face l. This light is reflected on to the top face 1 and then directed down- \vardly from that face to the opposite side face 5. The line III-III indicates the path of a ray of light striking the face 5 and being reflected (downwardly) according to the ordinary law of optics to the opposite side face 2, if it does not pass through (as indicated in the figure) sign characters on the side panel 5. The line IVIV indicates the path of a light ray entering from an angle towards the horizon on the left hand side of the tube striking the side face 2 and then, if not passing through, is directed across the tube and slightly downwardly. towards the face 5, similarly to the ray on path El -III.

The path shown by the lines VV shows the entry of light from vertically above the tube and striking the bottom face 3 which is reflected thence to the face 6 and then downwardly to the side face 2.

From the foregoing it will be seen that supposing the faces 2 and 5 are sign panels that all the light received from horizon to horizon is directed through the sign panels and emerges in all directions. By such an arrangement an extensive field of vision for the sign is obtained and a greater brilliancy than heretofore. is avoided.

It will be obvious that the curvature of the walls of the tube may vary in accordance with the width of the opening X-X of the tube and in accordance with the desired angle downward of the reflected light.

The faces 1 and 6 may provide concave reflectors as shown or they may be plane reflectors. Also the bottom reflectors 8 and l may be set at a smaller angle to the contiguous sides 2 and 5 respectively so that they form a re-entrant angle equal to an angle between the sides 3 and 4 shown in Fig. 1.

Generally speaking, it may be stated that the walls of the tube are optically constructed so as to reflect all the light entering through the opening XX on to the side Walls such as 2 and 5 of the tube.

If necessary the glass utilized may be a reinforced glass, e. g. a glass in which wire netting is embedded.

By such form of construction all the admitted light is utilized by the reflection and At the same time dazzling repeated reflection to pass throughvthe sign walls of the device and as the sign walls themselves are reflectors, if the light does not pass through the actual characters on the sign walls it is reflected back to the characters on the other walls and not absorbed by the walls.

The reflecting surfaces of a sign as herein described, may be made up from separate panels instead of being integrally formed and the curvature of the several surfaces may be attained by utilizing strip material. A tubular sign constructed, for instance, according to Fig. 1 may be made of corrugated or ribbed glass, and such construction attains a diffusion of the incoming light which is subsequently reflected through the sign panels.

To give an ornamental grounding to the characters themselves, muflied or shaped glass may be employed, such as ornamental or cathedral glass. Alternatively, the char acters may be formed in ground or frosted glass so as to give a matt effect.

Whatever the glass employed for producing a repeated reflection within the advertising device, or to vary the ornamental nature of the sign shown up by the illumination, the reflection of the admitted light, as herein described and claimed, results in rays of light passing through the sign characters and emerging in varying angles.

The invention also involves anovel method of manufacturing daylight signs which method consists in forming the tube from glass, as, for example, by blowing and converting the tube into a mirror, whereby a novel form of advertising device is produced, viz. a sign constituted by atube of transparent ma" terial, e. glass, of which the walls constitute a carrier for, or are converted into, re

the window fleeting surfaces, except for. the area occupied by the sign characters, andal longitudinally disposed area as a window :for the admission of light, whereby the light admitted thrnugh e reflected withinthe device and dissipated through thesign characters.

Conveniently, the characters may be forined during the formation ofthe tube, as

for exampleyby blowing or moulding. To this end the mould may have an interchangeable portion carrying' the signcharacters so that the mould may be easily adaptedl for each sign to be constructed. 1

The conversion may be attained by an applied coating "of reflecting material or metal, or by chemicallyforminga layer of reflecting substance. the carriers for the mirrors. v r v Signs as'herein describedlirray be formed by' mirroring the outside or the inside of the tube, preferably-the outside; the mirror being. translncentz Charactersinay be delineated by applyingopaque lacquerwto thebutside oi tl'ietube except forthe area covered by the characters, and in this way thetranslucentinrrror will be converted into a mirror propenexcept for the sign character areas whichwould be translucent permitting the transmission of light rays;

Alternatively, the characters :be formed orrthetube by'sand blasting or otherwise abradingthe tube."

The delineation of'tlie sign bharacters: may

be ei'lected by selectively inodifyingthe transluccnt characteristic cfthe noirrorito form contrasting areas delhieatingIthe signs.

Figures, 2 6, Fig'. U e y l in which the characters of the sign aresand the signcanbe supported? Preferably; howeveigpart otthe mirrored surface is rendered opaqueyso that the sign characters are delineated byjthe. difi'usionot the light through them againstfithe dark ground As hereafternror'e fully explained fatubular signmay be com pletedby sealing-the ends o'fthe'ftube against admission of light, tor "instanceyby the use ofend platesbymwhi-ch to the diagranilnatic 2=shows a glasszwall Gr Referring now blasted asindicated at G and thew-all silvered toforina mirror as indicated at Sexceptfior the "areacovered by the characters of thesigii.

A mirror may be formed by the use oifa silver nitrate SllVGIIHg' solution. or mercury aina'lgaih or by applyingrnetal foil. and then a transparent lacquer will be applied to? pre- Yvent-r the 1i1irror so formed blackening nnder at1nosbheric effects."

Alternatfvely, as in Fig; *3; the silvering .may be en the outside of the wall covering it entirely, or 'as'jsho'wn, excepting the areas over thesign characters. In this case the silvering 'will be coyered with a "backingxexcept where it cover's the characters) usually presenting blachfsurfaceso In eithercase the wallssbecome admitted even if th centrai may conveniently b as to produce thegreatest contrast between a C silhouetted by the grounding will have sub stantially the same effectas if they weresand blasted 011 plainglass. The mirror maybe applied to the back as indicated, andma's already explained with referenceto Fig, 3..

Furtherythe charactersmay be obtainedtby etching; or grindingas well ICHQ Wn JH the art. To increase the reflection value or artlstic eifect ofthe wall, the Wall maybe; formed from ribbed or muffled glass, as in dicatedin l ig; 5 by reference G2 or m gmas maybe-of the kind known dral glass.

as ornzunentalm or; cathe Witha .view to Still t me brightening. the-characters the glass lnay be thinnrin the area in which the characters are formed.

Convehiehtly, this may be attainedfiby fornia ing the chara'cters on each side of theglass as'indlcated at C and C in Fig. 6: o Alterna tiyely,,theglassinay be thicker inthersarea. a

ofthe characters, which latter may be ino-t lded integrally with the pla'te r a Any of the constructions mentioned with regard toFigs4, "5 and 6, maybe utilized whetherfithe silyering is either inside or outside' as described with reference to: Figs. 2

andi3pg In the constructions shown in Figs? and 8 the is advertising device. comprises walls all integral withi'one anothen ahd is ofltnbnlar form and open attlle top for the'adrnission of lightthrough lSOWfrornthe slkyi if Light will enter thebpen top of the deyice through all anglesthrough ISQ 91 (as/the sign is hung with the Wl IldOWV -lII" a horizontal plane, the 180 includes allithe lightayaih side walls directly;erindirectlyif V In stating that the adyertising deyice is the backs of each of: the several: walls' to the fopen? at the top it does-not in fact ineanthat there is necessarily no top'wall. There is in fact a topwallof glass whichyasbe'fore stated may be muflled. or ribbedglass; e; a window, thereby the adyertisi. levice is open for the "admission otlight. it is not necessaryijfor the WllOlGiOffillGl to-constitute anaopenifng forlight, in some positions of a sign sufiicient li 'l oi thetop wall is opaque." :1

The tubular design 30ft. ady'ertis formed by b tube in glass, as neran efe eexplained; aha

it maybe i device 7, g the by providing end frames 7 carrying opaque walls, 8, 8, to which hooks 9 may be secured for the purpose of suspending the device from a cantilever system diagrannnatically indicated at 10.

The characters on the two signs may be in staggered relation so that a mirrored surface is opposed to a character and vice versa.

Light entering the open top will strike the convex face of the top walls, the side walls and the bottom walls, which latter are joined together preferably to obtain a somewhat parabolic form for the lower portion of the device, from which the light will then be transmitted either directly to the side walls 2 and 5 including the characters C and which are silverecl as hereinbefore explained so as to convert these walls into mirrors over areas not occupied by the characters. or to the concave top walls 1 and 6 from which the light is reflected back again to the opposite wall carrying the characters C.

By such an arrangement the light which comes from various directions through the open top is reflected again and again until it is brought to the desired direction, viz. through the characters C.

Although advertising signs in the form of tubes or prisms have been shown, obviously these forms can be varied in shape in various ways so as to attain the main object of the invention, viz. utilizing the whole light entering the open top by repeated reflection until finally the light passes through the characters.

A device of the kind described is cheap to manufacture as all the walls formed from glass may be made in one operation and the silvering of all the walls may be done at one and the same time, only the top wall being omitted from this process. In the same way to provide the contrasting ground 011 the de vice a black lacquer may be applied to the outside of the tube leaving only the top wall and the actual characters, and further, it should be understood that the characters may themselves be covered with a coloured lacquer when it is desired to give the characters a colour, although this might also be attained by colouring the reflective surfaces of walls directing'light through the characters.

Instead of forming the walls of a transparent material such as glass, the tubular casing forming the advertising device may be formed from material such as synthethic resin, celluloid, cellulose, gelatine, mica or other translucent or transparent material which lends itself to the manufacture of a device with the walls all integral with one another.

The method of manufacturing signs involving moulding or blowing a plurality of walls all integral with one another, may be also applied to a device wherein a silhouette or vignette is reflected.

The device may be completely tubular as herein described or substantially of channel section, for instance, by omitting the top wall.

Instead of forming a device, as herein described and illustrated, with the walls integral, a hollow advertising or like sign may be constructed to comprise a plurality of flat and/or curved panels which are capable of transmitting or diffusing light through the areas occupied by the characters of the signs and of reflecting light from the contiguous areas, particularly when frosted glass is required to be utilized.

A device according to the invention may include means such as a fitting in the top wall for the reception of an incandescent light so that the sign may be used at night time where diffused light is not available.

The characters of a sign, instead of being side walls and corresponding top and bottom walls being designed so as to be adapted to form reflectors to reflect light entering the open top directly or indirectly to the side walls, and particularly covers a glass tube comprising seven facets as illustrated in Fig. 1 of the drawings herein, that is to say, three at the top of the tube, the intermediate top facet forming the opening X-X for light into the tube, two bottom facets and two side facets, the arrangement being such that if the facets are formed into mirrors the admitted light striking the top facets is di rected to the opposite side facets, the light striking the bottom facets is reflected to the top and thence to the side facets, and the light striking the side facets and not passing through them is directed to the opposite side facets.

What I claim is 1. An advertising or like sign adapted to i be illuminated by daylight comprising in combination diverging side walls one of which carries the sign to be displayed, reflectors carried by said side walls, converging reflectors contiguous to said side walls at,

whereby theadmitted light. is virtually trapped within the device and controlled until it is constrained to emerge through the characters on the sign wall, 7 V

2. An advertising or like sign according to claim 1, comprising in combinationwith the reflectors contiguous to the light admission opening of thedevice, reflectors opposite the window-connecting thelower part ofsaid side walls adapted to effect reflection to the walls carrying the sign'characters of the admitted perpendicular light.

3. All advertising or like sign of the kind adapted to be illuminated by daylight constructed of open channel form comprising slightly diverging side walls, the upper parts of which converge towards one another and the bottom of the channel being deepest in the middle symmetrical to each side thereof, the said walls and bottom carrying reflectors and one of the sides translucent sign the tube and formed characters. 7

4. An advertising orlike sign adapted to i be illuminated by daylight comprising, a frame like curved reflector bounding a light admission opening, reflecting side walls depending from said curved reflecting surface, and reflectors opposite'said light admission opening connecting the lower part ofsaid side walls said side walls carrying the sign characters of the device, whereby the light admitted through the said frame like reflector is diffused through the sign characters.

5. An advertisingor like sign adapted to be illuminated by daylight comprising a frame like reflector, opposed side walls depending from said reflect-or, reflectors on said side Walls, translucent sign characters formed on said side walls, reflectors connecting the lower part of said side walls, the said reflectors co-operating to control the light admitted through the frame like reflector into the sign to constrain it to move through'sign characters formed on said side walls.

6. An advertising or like sign according to claim 5, formed from a tube of transparent material whereby the frame like reflector, side walls and the reflectors connecting the lower part of said side walls are integrally formed, and metal plates closing the ends of for connection tofsuspending means.

7 A glass tube foriuse in making an ad- 8. A glass tube for use in making an advertising sign," adapted for illuminationby daylight, comprising seven facets, three at the upper portion of the tube including two outer opaque and reflecting facets, and an intermediate translucent top facet for admitting light into the tube, two bottom opaque reflecting facets, and two side facets having both opaquereflecting portions and translucent portions, the arrangement of the facets being such that light admitted through the a window and striking the upper reflecting facets is directed to the opposite side facets, light striking the bottom facets is directed to the upper reflecting facets and thence to the side facets, and light striking the opaque portion of the side facets is opposite sidefacets.

9. An advertising or like sign adap o i a, a

the sign characters and corresponding upper and lower walls and a translucent top wall connecting said upper walls intended forpermitting the admission of light, the said side walls and corresponding upper and lower walls being designed so as to be,

adapted to form reflectors to reflect light entering the top directly or indirectly to the side Walls.

In testimony whereof, I afiix my signature.


vertising sign adapted to be illuminatedbyl daylight, including side wallshaving translucent sign characters thereon, upper and lower walls, anda window intermediate the upper walls, permitting admission of light into the tube, portions of said side Walls and said upper and lower walls being opaque and reflecting, whereby light entering said window and not passing directly through said characters is reflected directly or indie-v V rectly tothe side Walls.

directed to the

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2871598 *Oct 1, 1957Feb 3, 1959Fairhaven Properties CorpDisplay sign
US4136474 *May 11, 1977Jan 30, 1979Belokin Jr PaulIlluminated overhead advertising display
US5450236 *Feb 4, 1991Sep 12, 1995Storra AktiebolagReflector, especially for display signs and road signs and a sign manufactured thereof
US20070211452 *Mar 7, 2006Sep 13, 2007Paul GaunceIlluminated mirror support unit
U.S. Classification40/561
International ClassificationG09F13/14
Cooperative ClassificationG09F13/14
European ClassificationG09F13/14