|Publication number||US1783383 A|
|Publication date||Dec 2, 1930|
|Filing date||Jun 19, 1928|
|Priority date||Jun 19, 1928|
|Publication number||US 1783383 A, US 1783383A, US-A-1783383, US1783383 A, US1783383A|
|Inventors||Montrief James V|
|Original Assignee||Montrief James V|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (20), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Dec. 2, 1930. J. v. MONTRIEF 1,783,383
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed June 19," 1928 5 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTO James V. nnIP'ie Dec. 2, 1930. J. v. MO'NTRIEF 1,783,383v
- BUILDING CONSTRUCTION FiIed June 19, 1928' s Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTO.
Jar nes V. IfInnTr-L ATTORN EYS.
Dec. 2, 1930. J. v. MONTRIEF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed June 19, 1928 3 Sheets-Sheet '5 D Q FQ i INVENTOR.
J "1 5V TIunIr-ief ATTORN EYS.
Patented Dec. 2, 1930 v JAMES v. MO TRI'EF, or isninenronr, TEXAS B ILnin'e consrauc'rxon Application filed June 19,.
This invention relates to improvements in building constructions. 1 The primary objectof this invention is the provision of novel means for detachably assembling the various portions of a Wall construction in a durable and eflicient relation, and in such manner thatthe same may be assembled by relatively unskilled labor, without the use of mortar between the joints of the building blocks.
A further object of this invention is the provision of a building construction inoluding a novel wall structure made up of aplurality of parts which are relatively detachable, and have a salvage value which is practically 100%, in that-the different sections comprising the wall are not interconnected by any permanent connection such as cement, mortar, and the like, but the connection for 0 the sections is detachable and admits of the relative disassemblage of the parts.
A further object of this invention is the provision of novelmeans for vertically and transversely supporting and reinforcing the wall construction with a plurality of parts which do not depend for their stability upon any mortar bond.
[1; further object of this invention is the provision of a wall structure for buildings, and the like, which may be formed of a plurality of blocks without a mortar bond held together by means of horizontal reinforcing means which in effect reinforces the horizontal rows of blocks intoa beam-like formation; the improved building construction including means to vertically reinforce'the blocks in a cooperative beamrelation between a foundation and a cap plate; improved means being provided to tie or anchor adjacent andsuperposed blocks together.
Other objects and advantages of this invention will be apparent during the course of the followi g detailed description.
In the accompanying drawings, forming a part of this specification, and wherein similar reference characters designate corresponding parts throughout the several views,
Figure 1 is a side elevation of the improved wall construction, showing portions thereof 1928. Serial No} 286,556.
in section to designate the novel details and features thereof.
Fi ure 2 is a-frao'mentar vertical sectional b a vlew taken through the improved wall construction showing lation of building more particularly the reblocks and the means for vertically reinforcing the same.
Flgure 3 1s a .llOl'lZQllilEtl sectional v ew taken through portions of the wall construction, substantially ure 2.
on the line 3 3 of F ig- Figure 4- is a fragmentary sectional View showmg a corner of wall constructlon formed after this lnvention.
Figure 5 is a fragmentaryperspective view of a block such as will be placed in the body of the improved wall. v
Figure 6 1s a perspective view of a corner block for the wall.
Figure 7 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view taken through the vertical reinforcing means which vertically ties the superposed blocks of the building together; the structure including means to make the foundation bear some of the roof load should the wall be made of light blocks which might fracture.
Figure 8 IS a fragmentary side elevation of a horizontal reinforcing member used to tie a plurality of blocks in a h-oriaontal row, into a beam-like structure.
Figure 9-is a side elevation of a novel tie or anchor for conn blocks together.
ecting individual adjacent In the drawings, wherein for the purpose ofillustration is sl iown only a preferred emis mounted for the support of a roof D or analogous superstructure.
The foundation B is of any approved charactor, and is although the same specific construction. The building preferably reinforced concrete,
is not to be limited to any construction of course-may include a plurality of base walls 10 as comprising the foundation B, and inwardly of the top surface 11 thereof are anchor nersof the buildin ed eye bolts 12, at the cor 1 g construction, and at any intermediate points along the foundation sills between the corners, where it is desirable to provide vertical reinforcement and tie connections for the wall construction C. The eye bolts 12 include bottom anchor means embedded in the preferably cementitious foundation B, and the loops or eyes of the same extend upwardly above the top surfaces 11 of the wall portions of the base B to provide openings 13, as illustrated in Figures 2 and 7 of the drawings, for detachably re ceiving the lower hooked ends of vertical connecting elements 15, which in the draw ings are illustrated as rods, although flexible elements may be used in place thereof, such as chains.
Referring further to the wall construction C, the same is preferably made up of hollow concrete building blocks or tiling. The blocks may be of any construction or materials, and a plurality of the same are provided. In general, building blocks, connected by vertical tie and reinforcing means, provide vertical columns at the corners of the building, the said columns or corner structures of the walls B being connected at their upper ends by horizontal beams or rafter plates. At any location along the beams the blocks may be connected to the foundation B by vertical tie and reinforcing means, which also ties the intermediate portions of the wall blocks or sections together. The blocks are laid in horizontal rows in interconnected relation with the blocks forming the corner columns, and horizontal reinforcement is provided for horizontally connecting the corner columns together within the area of the wall.
More specifically referring to the general features of the wall construction above mentioned, a lower horizontal line of blocks 10 are laid directly on the foundation B, and superposed on the blocks 10 is a second upper horizontal line of these blocks 10. The joints between the blocks of the lower row are staggered with respect to the joints between the blocks of the next upper row. This staggering or overlapping of the blocks of one row with adjacent rows is continued tlnroughout the height of the wall.
At the corners of the wall C, if the wall is a dead end wall, alternate blocks throughout the height of the corner construction are end facing, to stagger the joints, so that at the corner construction formed by the juncture of two side walls, alternate blocks are turned at right angles to each other, that is, with their longitudinal axes at right angles, so that the ends of blocks in alternate rows at the corners face on one wall and the sides of the remaining blocks of the corner construction face on the same side of the wall. The corner blocks 1O are special, as shown in Figure 6.
The blocks 10 and 10 are hollow, that is,
formed similarly to conventional hollow tiling or hollow concrete blocks, and providing the outer and inner sides 16, and the ends 17, which are of predetermined thickness. The interior of each block is provided with a web 18 parallel with the ends 17 of the block, and subdividing the interior of the block into a pair of rectangular or oval compartments 19 which are open at the top and bottom of the block. a
It is'readily apparent that when the rows of blocks are in superposed relation, there will be vertical passageways provided through each of the walls C. These vertical passageways at the corners of each of the walls C are of j iarticular advantage, since the tie or vertical connecting rods are disposed therethrough.
A. connecting and superstructure supporting beam 20 is provided at the top of each wall C, extending the length of the all C, and the ends of which are apertured for receiving the upper ends of the tie rods Above the beam 20 the tie rods 15 are screw threaded for detachably receiving the clamping nuts 21 which are Cltlll'lPQtl upon the beam 20. The nut 21 at the corner of each of the walls is adjusted on the rod 15 tight against the beam 20, and as the hook, at the lower end the rod 15 is connected to an eye bolt '12, the corner blocks 10 on each of the corners of the building are tied together, that is vertically clamped together, to stabilize the positioning of the same.
The attachment of the rod 15 in this manner is rendered easy, in view of the fact that the aligning passageways or voids in the blocks at the corners of the wall are e posed so that the rod 15 may be slipped downwardly therethrough towards the foundation or base B at the bottom of each of the corner passageways thus formed. by the aligning voids of the corner blocks is disposed the eye bolt 19, and the lower end of the tie rod 153 is provided with a laterally otl'set J -shaped hool; 25 which is laterally insertable into the aperture opening 13 of the eye bolt. After this placement of the tie rods the beam 20 is connected at its ends to the upper ends of the tie rod 15 in the nut clamped relation defined. It is readily apparent that this connects the wall C at its ends, providing a horizontal beam tie at the top thereof.
If the wall C is sulficiently long it may be desirable to provide vertical reinforcement, both at the corners of the building and intermediate the ends of the wall, and to this end intern'iediate vertical tie rods 1.3 may be connected between the base B and the beam 20 in the same relation as above described.
It will be desirable under certain circumstances to provide horizontal tie connections throughout the length of the wall C, and simple and novel means are provided to effect such result in the nature of horizontal tie rods which extend longitudinaly between certain rows of the wall; the tie rods at their ends being connected to the corner blocks at the ends of the wall. Thus, such tie rod construction is illustrated in Figure 8 of the drawings, as consisting in the provision'of relatively adjustable horizontal rod sections 31 and 32, which at the outer ends thereof are provided with downturned anchor extensions 3% in right angled relation to the rod sections 31 and 32; these anchor extensions 34 having projections or anchor teeth 36 on the inner faces thereof, that is the faces which face in the direction of the run of the tie rod 30. At their adjacent endsthe rod sections 31 and 32 are formed in novel relation. The rod 31 is'preferably provided with a lowered offset 3?, which at the free end thereof is provided with a ring or loop 33 disposed in a plane at right angles to the run or axis of the rod section 31. The rod section 32 is straight and at its end adjacent therod section 31 is adapted to be threaded through theopening of the ring or loop 38. The ring or loop 38 is provided with a set screw or bolt which is adapted to be clamped against the end of the rod 32 which extends through the loopor ring 38 in order to connect the rod sections 31 and 32 in an adjustable longitudinally aligning relation. 7
The horizontal tie rod structures 30 are of course placed during the horizontal placement of the blocks which form the wall G.
locks 10 and 10 are formed in a novel relation for the reception of the rods 30, as is illustrated in the various views of the drawings. The blocks in the facing edges of the superposed rows between which the horizontal tie rod construction 30 is to be placed, are provided with grooves l0. These grooves 40 are provided in the blocks adjacent the outer wall. part 16 of each of the'blocks, inwardly of the edges of the end and partition wall parts 17 and 16 respectively, as is illustrated in Figure 4i of the drawings. Preferably half of the thicknesses of the rod portions of thetie rod construction 3 are embedded in the blocks of the lower row and the remain ing half of said rod sections are in the blocks of the upper row, so that the rods 31 and 32 are snugly received between'the upper and lower rows with the facing edges of the upper and lower rows of blocks in abutting relation, so as not to leave any crevice or cracks therebetween. In the placement of the rod construction30 the anchor extension 341- of the rod portions 31 and 32 are inserted in the end voids or compartments 19 of the corner blocks 10 atthe corner ends of the wall, with the rod portions31 and 32 extending towards each other and lowered into the aligning grooves 40. of said blocks, and with the rod section 31. Such a tool may then be used as will pull the rod sections 31 and 32 together, with suiiicient force to clamp .the
teeth 36 of the anchor extension 34 into the end blocks in the row on which the tie construction 30 is anchored, and while under such pulling force the set screw 40 is clamped upon the'rod 32, and this ties the rods 31 and 32 together against relative longitudinal movement in either direction.
The horizontal tie rod sections 30 are of course provided in any approved number along the wall C, and they are applied as above described during formation of the wall C. Due to the fact that the grooves 40 are provided closer to the outer sides of the blocks, the compartments 19 are not obstructcd by the horizontal tie rods 30, so that the vertical tie rods 15 and 15 may he properly placed when the wall is formed to that extent where it is desirable to clamp the vertical rods in the relation above described.
It may be desirable to provide means for quickly tying adjacent blocks to. each other and anchoring theblocks of one row into the blocks of a lower row. This means may consist in providing an inverted Jshaped anchor or tie 50, best shown in Figure 9 of the drawings, as comprising a long shank or leg 51 and a shorter shank or leg 52parallel with the leg 51 and connected therewith by means of a right angled connecting portion 53. The tie member is formed of bar material bent to form and the legs 51 and 52 are spaced suiiiciently to snugly lit within adjacent sockets at theends of adj acent blocks.
The blocks 10 are preferably provided at each of the ends thereof with vertical passageways 55 therethrough, which are in parallel relation; the top surfaces of said blocks having right angled grooves 56 leading to the adjacent end faces of said blocks, as shown in Figure 5. On the top surfaces of the blocks 10 within which the grooves 56 are formed, it preferred to provide dead end passageways or sockets 60 which lie between the passageways of the blocks, and extend about one-half thru the thickness of the blocks; being intended to receive the extremelower ends of the legs 51 of the anchor 50 as will be subsequently described.
In the assemblage of the tie members 50, it is to be noted that they are placed upon those rows of blocks which donot have the horizontal connecting means 30. In assemblage,-"with' the blocks in the wall end to end, the shank 51 of the J-shaped tie member 50 is slipped downwardly into oneof the end passageways 55 until the lower end thereof extends into the intermediate socket 60 in a block of the next lower row. The free end of theother shank 52 will then slip into the passageway 55 of an adjacent block in the same row, and the connecting piece 53 will be seated in thealigning grooves 56 on the tops of the two blocks which have thus been connected. lVith the blocks of a row end to end it is to be noted that the adjacent passageways 55 of said blocks are spaced according to the center line spacing of the legs 51 and 52 of one of the tie members 50. This holds the blocks 10 in an end to end relation which willprevent them from pulling apart. It is preferred that the grooves 56 are deep enough to receive the entire thickness of the connecting piece 53 of the tie members 50, as shown in Figure l. The corner blocks 10 have to be grooved and recessed a little different than the other blocks. to receive the ties 50, and as shown in Figure 6 of the drawings, one end of the corner block 10 is provided with the vertical passageways 55 in the same relation as described for the block 10, and with similar top grooves 56. At one side of the block 10 towards the opposite end, the same provided with two vertical mssageways 65 acapted to re ceive the long shanks or legs of the tie mem bers 50; the upper and lower faces of the said blocks 10 being provided with grooves ('36 in right angled relation to the passageway 65 and outletting on the nearest side of the said blocks. It is to be noted that both the upper and lower faces of the corner blocks 1O are provided with the grooves 40, and (36, in order to make Liem rights and lefts for position lengthwise at either of the walls forming a corner intersection of a building structure. The assemblage of the anchor membe s 5) the corner blocks will. be apparent from the foregoing.-
Under some circumstances it may be desirable to use a light weight block, or of a material which will not stand heavy'floor or roof loads. Under these circumstances z, while it is desirable to retain the vertical tie rods 15 which clamp the blocks between the rafter plate and the foundation, some means may be provided to support the roof or floor load to prevent an excessive or destructive fracture of the blocks. To this end, at any place in the wall, but preferably where the tie rods 15 are located I provide a supporting conduit 70, lnivinga cap 71 screw threaded on the lower end thereof, flanged for support upon the top surface of the foundation B, and extending upwardly through the aligning voids or passageways 19 of the blocks, and at the upper end having a reduced portion 73 defining a shoulder 7st at the 111110- ture thereof with the lower part of the conduit 70. The top ed 'e of the portion 73 terminates below the top surface of the topmost blocks in the wall. Slidalbly received in the upper reduced portion 73 is a follower 76, which has a flanged head 77 adapted to bear against the under surface of the rafter plate or top beam 20. A spring 78 under powerful compression engages beneath the head flange 77 of the follower 76 and a washer 8O supported on the shoulder 74, and normally acting to force the follower 76 upwardly against the top beam or rafter plate 20 to bear some of the roof load in event circumstances are such that a fracture of the blocks 10 or 10 might occur. This conduit construction also provides protection for the tie rod, against water and moisture which may seep through the crevices of the blocks into the voids.
Upon completion of the wall C the superstructure D may be placed thereon. In case the superstructure D is a roof, the ends of the rafters or girders 50 thereof may rest on the beam 20 in the conventional manner.
it recognized that the structure of the building blocks or sections 10 may vary widely, and if desired the passageways at the corners of the walls for receiving the rods l5 may just snugly receive said rods.
in lieu of the adjustable horizontal tie rod construction 30 above described, the sections 31 and may be connected by means of a turnlmckle arrangement to bring the same together for clamping the blocks of any particular row or rows into a snug fitting arrangement. The anchor extensions 34 are also to be considered broadly, since various means may be provided for anchoring the rod sections 31 and 32 in the end blocks at the corners of the wall.
It is entirely feasible to construct the corners of the wall only as the initial part of th e wall formation, and the corner blocks of the wall thus being vertically superposed they maybe connected in a stable relation by means of the vertical tie rods 15, and the remainder of the wall may then be completed after the formation of the corner columns, so to speak. In lieu of clamping the beam 20 directly to the top of the corner columns of the wall construction, a metallic or other cap may be used at each of the corners to which the vertical tie rod 15 may be clamped.
The principal purpose of providing the horizontal reinforcement is to protect the wall until the weight of the building comes thereon, and to prevent elongation of the all which would be likely to displace some of the adjacent blocks in any particular row or rows.
From the foregoing description of this invention it is apparent that a. norcl building construction has been provided, in which the block sections may be economically produced under factory conditions much more cheaply than concrete or other masonry may be applied on the building site to provide a wall. The improved wall herein described can be assembled, placed, plumbed and bolted or connected by semi-skilled labor very rapidly. The wall after completion may be provided with a coat of stucco or brick veneer, and any approved interior finishing such as plaster may be provided to make the wall weather-proof.
Various changes in the shape, size, and ar rangement of parts may be made to the form of invention herein shown and described, without departing from the spirit of the same or the scope of the claims.
1. In a wall construction the combination of a foundation, superposed rows of loosely disposed blocks mounted on the foundation to define said wall, the blocks at the ends of the wall having vertically aligning passageways thcrethrough from the foundation upwardly, eye bolts secured in the foundation facing upwardly in each of said vertical passageways at the ends of the wall, members detachably connected with said eye bolts and extending upwardly through the vertical passageways provided by the superposed positioning of said blocks at the ends of the wall, means to clamp the upper ends of said members against the top blocks at the top of the wall whereby to exert a clamping pressure at the ends of the wall throughoutthe superposed blocl from the foundation upwardly to hold the ends of the wall in a stable relation, and horizontal connecting and reinforcing means extending longitudinally of the wall connected at its ends to these blocks at the ends of the wall which are held in position by the vertically clamped memhere.
2. In a wall construction the combination of a foundation, a top beam, superposed rows of blocks between the foundation and top beam, said blocks havingvertical passageways therethrough, tension elements extending through said passageways and connected at their opposite ends to the foundation and top beam whereby to clamp the blocks together in a stable relation, and horizontal connection members extending horizontally through the wall and connected at their ends to the blocks at the opposite ends of the wall.
In a building construction the combina tion of a plurality of superposed building blocks defining a wall, certain of said building blocks at the ends of the wall having vertical openings therein, and a tie rod construction for horizontally tying and reinforcing the blocks in the wall comprising a pair of relatively movable sections having the remote ends thereof provided with clownturned anchors projecting into the openings of the end blocks of the wall, said rod sections at their adjacent ends having means to clamp the same in a definitely adjusted relation.
4. In a building construction an elongated foundation, an elongated wall on the foundation including a plurality of superposed building blocks having vertical aligning openings therethrough at the ends of the wall and at locations intermediate the ends of the wall, a longitudinally extending beam capping the top of the wall, and tie rods under tension connected at their lower ends to the foundation and extending upwardly through the aligning openings at the ends of the wall and at locations intermediate the ends of the wall and being connected at their upper ends to the top beam at the ends thereof and at intermediate locations thereon.
5. In a building construction an elongated foundation, an elongated wall on the foundation including a plurality of superposed building blocks having vertical aligning openings therethrough at the ends of the wall and at locations intermediate the ends of the wall, a longitudinally extending beam capping the top of the wall, tie rods under tension connected at their lower ends to the foundation and extending upwardly through the aligning openin s at the ends of the wall and at locations intermediate the ends of the wall and being connected at their upper ends to the top beam at the ends thereof and at intermediate locations thereon, and tie rods horizontally embedded between the blocks of the wall at a plurality of spaced locations between the foundations and top beam, each of said horizontal tie rods including a pair of sectionshaving an adjustable connection at the adjacent ends thereof, with the remote ends of said sections anchored to those blocks at the ends of the wall through which the vertical tie rods extend.
6. In a wall structure the combination of a plurality of unmortared blocks laid in superposed row relation upon each other, spaced horizontal tie rods longitudinally tensioned and gripping the blocks at the ends of the wall to horizontally clamp the re spective rows of blocks in a beam relation, and vertical tie rods under tension and clamping the unmortared blocks in a beam relation together at spaced vertical locations along the length of the wall.
' 7. In a wall structure the combination of a plurality of unmort-ared bonded blocks placed in loose relation in superposed rows, horizontal tension tie rod constructions at spaced relation along the height of the wall longitudinally clamping the blocks in the rows in a beamdike relation, the blocks of the superposed rows at the ends of the wall having voids therein providing vertical passageways, and tie rods clamping the blocks together at the ends of the wall loosely extending through said passageways and having means associated therewith at the lower and upper ends thereof to adjustably compress the blocks together in a non-obstructing function relation withrespect to'the horizontal tie rod constructions.
8. In a building construction a plurality of horizontally superposed horizontal rows of mortared connected blocks, horizontal tie rod means connecting the blocks of certain of the rows of blocks together, vertical tie rod means connecting the blocks together, and tie members individually connecting the tical adjacent blocks of other of the rows of blocks together against relative movement away from each other.
9. In a wall construction the combination of a plurality of superposed rows of blocks, vertical tie rod means clamping the blocks together in a vertical wall-like relation, and means resiliently acting to take a top load off the blocks under circumstances where an overload threatens to fracture the blocks.
10. In a wall construction the combination of a foundation, a plurality of superposed blocks in wall-like relation on the foundation, :1 top load supporting beam on the blocks, verclampin means connecting the foundation with the beam to clamp the blocks in a compressed wall-like relation, and means acting etween the foundation and the load supporting beam for relieving the blocks of the a load on the beam under circumstances where the blocks threaten to fracture incident to an overload.
11. In a wall construction the combination of a foundation, a plurality of superposed blocks in wall-like relation on the foundation, top load supporting beam on the blocks, vertical clamping means connecting the foundation with the beam to clamp the blocks in a compressed wall-like relation, and resilient means under compression between the foundation and the load supporting beam normally acting to force the same counter to the means which tends to vertically compress said blocks.
12. In a wall construction of the class described a foundation having an eye bolt anchored therein with an eye extending upwardly in exposed relation on top of the foundation, a plurality of superposed blocks having aligning passageways therethrough with the eye of the eye bolt disposed in the bottom part of said passageways, a top member for the blocks, and on adjustable clamp rod having a lower hooked end adapted to be slipped into the eye by insertion of the same downwardly through the aligning passageways of the blocks when they are assembled. said rod having means on the end thereof for engaging said top member for placing the rod under tension to clamp the blocks between the top member and the foundation.
13. In a wall construction of the class described a foundation having an eye bolt anchored therein with an eye extending upward ly in exposed relation on top of the foundation, a plurality of superposed blocks having aligning passageways therethrough with the eye of the eye bolt disposed in the bottom part of said passageways, a top member for tne blocks, and an adjustable clamp rod having a lower hooked end adapted to be slipped into the eye by insert-ion of the same downwardly through the aligning passageways of the blocks when they are assembled, said rod having means on the end thereof to engage greases said top member for placing the rod under tension to clamp the blocks between the top member and the foundation, and means in the passageways of said blocks acting between the foundation and the top member to normally force the latter upwardly away from the foundation.
14. In a wall construction of the class described a foundation having an eye bolt anchored therein with an eye extending upwardly in exposed relation on top of the foundation a plurality of superposed blocks having aligning passageways therethrough with the eye of the eye bolt disposed in the bottom part of said passageways, a top member for the blocks, an adjustable clamp rod having a lower hooked end adapted to be slipped into the eye by insertion of the same downwardly through the aligning passageways of the blocks when they are assembled, said rod having means on the end thereof to engage said top member for placing the rod under tension to clamp the blocks between the top member and the foundation, and means in the passageways of said blocks actin g between the foundation and the top member to normally force the latter upwardly away from the foundation, said means comprising a conduit enclosing the rod in said passageway.
15. In a wall construction of the class described a. foundation, a load supporting beam, a plurality of building blocks between the foundation and load supporting beam upon which the latter normally rests, rela tively movable members, one engaging the foundation and the other the top beam, and spring means under compression therebetween for normally forcing the top beam away from the foundation.
JAMES V. MONTRIEF.
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|U.S. Classification||52/293.2, 52/92.1, 52/300, 52/223.7|
|International Classification||E04B1/06, E04B1/02|