US 1784157 A
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Dec. 9, 1930. N. E. OGLESBY ET AL I 1,784,157
PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR' ATOMIZING MATERIALS F'RCM MOVING AIRCRAFT Filed March 9, 1929 K v INVEN TObR. Nzclmlg s Qqles y BY Fleming 1?. Mal/er W fig/WWW ATTORNEY.
Patented Dec. 9, 1930 NICHOLAS E. OGLESBY FLEMING B. WEAVER, OF EDGEWOOD, MARYLAND PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR ATOMIZING MATERIALS FROM: MOVING AIRCRAFT Application filed March 9,
1929. Serial No. 345,856.
(GB-ANTED UNDER HIE ACT- OIIABOH 3, 1883, AS AIENDED APRIL 30, 1928; 370 0. G. 757) This invention described herein may be manufactured andused by or for the Govern ment for Government purposes, without the payment to us of any royalty thereon.
This invention relates in general to the dispersion of chemical substances and more particularly has reference to a method and apparatus for dispersing fluids from moving aircraft.
Previous to this time, the various apparatus and methods employed for ,dispersingchemlcal agents from moving aircraft have been for the most part of limited application to the actual tactical requirements of warfare and not adaptable to certain modern requirements. The most eflicient systems and devices heretoforejused'have been directedto v the generation of smoke by the introduction of suitable materials .into the exhaust manifolds of airplane'motors, and the spraying of liquids in substantially the opposite direction and at-an approximate equal velocity to that of the aircraft upon which they have been installed. While a number of the ex'pedients of this character for dispersing materials have been successful to some degree, those directed to the first mentioned type cannot readily be installed on modern aircraft,'from which the exhaust manifolds have been removed to decrease the fire hazard in crashes as well as to improve the mechanical operation. In the latter variety mentioned, the ob]ect has been to prevent atomization of the/materials and hence, as will be apparent by reference to the description hereinafter, these are not suitable for the purposes of this invention.
' In the past, it has been sought to prov de devices capable of dropping certain hlgh boiling materials in large drops from considerable heights with comparatively slowplanes. A toxic or vesicant fluid, such as that commonly termed mustard gas, 15 usually used, with the effect of producing a hlghly persistant blanket of material on the area over which it is dispersed. I
It will be appreciated that it is not always desirable to contaminate ground over a considerable period and thus prevent occupancy until the area is cleared. If comparatively non-volatile material is used and dispersed in large drops, 'as was sought in the prior apparatus, this condition will manifestly obtain. If on the other hand it is sought'to atomize the liquid so as to render it more volatile,'the com licated structures whichhave been provide in the past are not suitable I 1 for the small and fast planes which usually are better adapted to this purpose.
In warfare, it is often advantageous to to produce as high a number of casualties as possible among enemy troops on a specified area so that an advance may be made immediately to occupy such territory. It isv obvious that the groundshould be contami- 05 nated for only a short period in an instance of" this character (as would also be the case where it was sought to exterminate objec tionable insects or similar agricultural pests) where immediate occupancy of the area is de-- 7i sirable. It is not alfiways desirable. moreover, thatcurtains of smoke be dispersed from considerable heights, as a low screen is often sufficient, if not more advanta eous, and may be more economically and safe y produced by fast movin planes on which light apparatus is installe than by the heavy apparatus which formerly required the use of large aircraft.
An ob'ect of this invention. isto provide a metho and apparatus for atomizing fluids discharged from aircraft.
Another object of this invention is to provide a method arid apparatus for dispersing comparatively non-volatile fluids from aircraft so that they will berelatively nonpersistent on the, ground.
Still another' object of this invention is to provide a method and apparatus for producing low hanging and highly obscuring smoke screens. i
A further object of this invention is to provide a method and apparatus for dispersing irritant and vesicant materials from an airplane that will. not afiect the pilot or contact with the plane. v
A still further object of this invention is to provide a method and apparatus for releasing receptacles containing dangerous 1m ,invention. F1 are 2 1s a side elevatlonal view show ing t e apparatus installed on an airplane. igure 3 is an end view of the closure mechanism on the discharge line.
. Referring by numerals to the drawings in which the same and similar elements are designated by like symbols of reference throughout, and more particularly to Figure 1, there is shown a tank 1 adapted to act as a reservoir for the particular fluid it is desired to disperse. The shape of the apparatus and its location on an airplane, as will more fully hereinafter appear, may vary for the particular purposes for which it is desired to use the same, and for installation on different types of planes.
If non-corrosive chemicals are employed, such as mustard gas and the like, steel or such alloys as duraluminum may be used in constructing the tank. Where corrosive agents are employed, however, such as titanium tetrachloride and stannic chloride, it is deemed desirable to construct the reservoir out of commercial material, preferably of the commercial metal known as Monel.
A line 2 communicating with the interior of the tank is suitably secured to the bottom thereof by welding, or in any other suitable manner connected to an elbow 3 through a coupling' i. The discharge line formed of the pipes 2 and 3 is preferably made of the same material as the tank 1. It is manifest that one pipe may be employed if it is found more suitable, although for installing the apparatus on different types of planes, it is deemed desirable to make up the discharge line in two sections, so that various elbows forming the nozzle may be substituted to 1m surethe discharge of the chemicals at a proper distance from the plane.
of the vertical part of the discharge line to prevent the liquid being sucked up the outside of the discharge line, as would otherwise occur, with the resulting m ury to the This and 3, held by a bolt or other suitable attaching means 7 fastened through the center of the cap. One end of the-crosspice-G is pivoted on a shoulder, not shown, attached to the side of the nozzle by a bolt 8, and the other end allowed to rest in a notch formed in a shoulder 9 suitably mounted on the opposite side of the nozzle. The free end of the crosspiece is provided with an aperture 11 adapted to receive a pull cord or other suitable operating medium for connection with a convenient point in the cockpit ,of the airplane upon which the apparatus is-installed.
It has been found that it is essential to vent the material in the container to insure a rapid, and uniform discharge of the liquid filling. For this purpose, a vent line 12 projecting to the top of the tank 1 is encasedin the discharge line formed by the pipes 2 and 3. The end of the Vent line 12-terminates at the same point as the mouth of the nozzle, so that the cap 5 can act as a closure for both the discharge line and the vent line.
The tank 1 is provided on the top with an aperture for receiving the fluids which it is desired to disperse, provided with a conventional cap or closure 13. In addition, a plurality of lugs 14 and 15 are suitably secured on the top of the tank for attachment to a suitable carrying mechanism on an airplane.
It is deemeddesirable, as in the illustrations shown, that the lugs be of a similar type to those usually provided on bombs, so that the tank may be instantly released from the plane. if a forced landing or other contingency arises in which the presenceof highly reactive substances on the plane would be hazardous to the personnel or persons on the ground in proximity to a crash.
In practice, it is advisable from both the standpoint of safety and of convenience that the tank be loaded before it is attached to an airplane. In filling the tank, a stand is prefera ly providedto hold the apparatus a sufficient distance above the ground or floor to protect the nozzle and the valve. A void should be left in the tank after it has been filled to allow for expansion of the liquid due to temperature changes, and after the required amount of the material which it is desired to use has been loaded in the container through the filling hole with the valve closed, the tank is then sealed with the plug or other closure 13.
When mounting the tank, the airplane upon which it is desired to install the apparatus is preferably rolled into position directly It has been found that complete atomiza-- tion of liquids is obtained when they are poured from moving aircraft, due to thecounter-longitudinal motion of the air at the instant the fluid is released, thus making it possible to discharge highly persistent materials in comparatively non-persistent form on the ground. It is'apparent that this makes possible entirely new tactical uses of the highly persistent chemical agents heretofore employed for contaminating areas over long periods.
It is manifest that'the invention is in no wise restricted to the use of any particular substances and that while reference has been had to liquids composed essentially of a single chemical compound, it is also adapted or the dispersion of solutions, suspensions, emulsions and the like containing an active chemical ingredient.
Where it is wished to use the apparatus for laying low hanging smoke screens or for sky writing, either titanium tetrachloride or stan-.
nic chloride is most generally used, while in distributing vesicant substances where highly toxic and irritant properties are desirable, mustard gas is most usually employed. For
, the extermination'of agricultural pests such as the boll weevil or mo uito larvae in.
swamps, other materials may found which will serve more suitably for the purpose.
When it is desired to discharge the material after a proper altitude and course have been attained by the plane, and wind velocityl and direction estimated, the control wire 16 is pulled, thus Openingthe valve at the end of nozzle 3 and setting the material free to flow out by gravity feed. In general, the most favorable position is one upwind from the target, with due allowance given for the drift of the plane. Atomization of the li uid takes place at the instant of discharge, lie to the counterlongitudinal motion of the plane, as previously explained.
If titanium tetrachloride is used for producing a low hanging smoke screen or for sky writing, a very dense cloud is produced as the material is atomized, which settles and drifts with the wind. It has been found that the apparatus describedabove, when loaded with this material is suitable for producing smoke screens for ground uses up to an altitude of a hundred feet, spreading the smoke very rapidl from the plane to the ground.
l h instances where mustard gas or other pilot or other per? similar persistent toxic or vesicant liquidsare used, extremely large numbers of very fine drops are produced which drift with the wind and fall to the ground, and work efiiciently at the same altitude. The area over which the atomized gas may be spread is of course dependent upon the size of the container em- .ployed for holding the material.
In the case of the latter materials, the extremely minute droplets of the gasor similar liquid produced by the atomization of the material on contact with the air readily evaporate after reaching the ground, so that while a large number of casualties may be obtained, the material is relatively non-persistent and an area so contaminated can quickly be occu pied by other troo s without harmful results.
It is manifest t at the same will apply in the use of similar substances which are dispensed over fields or on swamps where it is necessary that the substances have no ill effects on persons enterin the area operated upon shortly after it has een spra ed.
It will be at once apparent that t is method f has many advantages over that heretofore em? ployed, where it has been essential to wait'for several days and careful attention aid to the weather before an area over whic gas had been distributed could be occupied. 11 general, cool weather has often tended to prevent occupancy of sectors which have been heavily gassed for periods of several weeks.
The minute droplets afforded by the atomization process as presented by the present apparatus are so dense that they can be effectively and uniformly distributed over entire areas, depending upon the quantity of liquid dispersed, so that an object the size of a man within the specified sectors can be affected unless completely protected.
The great reduction of weight in the apparatus which has been made possible through elimination of the use of pressure with the necessary mechanical appliances,
and by dispensing with any atomizing equipment which has burdened previous devices, allows the installation of this apparatus on small pursuit planes operated by a single pilot. The simplicity of operation which merely requires pulling a cord located in the cockpit and thus allowing the material free to discharge, also recommends itself over the complicated structures heretofore necessary. It'is highly desirable that apparatus in which s ial atomizing equipment is not provide be installed on fast planes, as it has been found that the speed of the plane affects the atomization process, inasmuch as the counter motion between air and liquid is the atomizing influence.
The economy which is afforded in atomizing materials also isof marked advantage where the weight carried by a plane, and particularly small planes, is an essential factor, as by atomizing materials, far wider mustard areas may be contaminated than can possibly be accomplished where the substance 1s dropped in its normal state, as was previously done.
There is thus accomplished by this invention a method and apparatus for atomizing materials discharged from airplanes and in which the previous atomizing and pressure being contaminated by the reduction of weight and the increase in capacity for containingmaterials, and also allows for the dropping of relatively non-volatile material 1n comparativelxnon-persistent forms without injury to the" airplane or personnel operating the same.
While we have shown and described the preferred embodiment of our invention, we
Wish it to be understood that we do not confine ourselves to the precise details of construction herein set forth, by way of illustration, as it is apparent that many changes and variations may be made therein, by those skilled in the art, without departing from the spirit of the invention, or exceeding the scope of the appended'claims.
We clai 1. An apparatus for atomizing fluids from moving aircraft comprising, means to store the fluid, a line communicating with the storage means opening at a discharge point, a vent line communicating with the storage means, and common means closing the discharge line and the vent line.
2. An apparatus for atomizing fluids from moving aircraft comprising, means to store the fluids, a line communicating with the storage means opening at a' discharge point, a vent line encased in the discharge line terminating at. the discharge point,-a closure to normally prevent discharge and venting of the fluids and means to. remove the closure.
An apparatus for dispensing fluids comprising a containerfor storing the fluids, a discharge line communicating with said container at a relatively low point thereof and opening at a discharge point remote from the container, a vent line encased within said discharge line, having its internal end opening near the top of said container and its external end at the discharge point, and a closure to normally close both said discharge and said vent lines.
4. An apparatus for dispensing fluids comprising a fluid container, discharge and vent lines communicating with the interior of said container through the same opening, both of said lines terminating at a discharge point remote from the container, and a'common closure for closing both of said lines. v
5. An apparatus for dispersing fluids com prising a fluid container, discharge and vent lines communicating with the interior of said container and terminating at the same point externallyof said container, and a common means'for closing said lines.
In testimony whereof we aflix our signatures.
NICHOLAS E. OGLE SBY. FLEMING RHWEAVER;