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Publication numberUS1785802 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 23, 1930
Filing dateNov 16, 1923
Priority dateNov 16, 1923
Publication numberUS 1785802 A, US 1785802A, US-A-1785802, US1785802 A, US1785802A
InventorsAdams Henry
Original AssigneeAdams Henry
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Atomizing jet nozzle
US 1785802 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

H. ADAMS ATOMIZING JET NOZZLE I Filed Nov. 1923 Dec, 23, 1930;

02'! par Steam or air Sectional View Patented Dec. 23, 1930 PATENT OFFICE HENRY ADAMS, 0F PLAINFIELD, NEW JERSEY ATOMIZING JET NOZZLE Application filed November 16, 1923. Serial No. 675,150.

My present invention relates to a new method of atomization of fuels, and that improvement involved in a burner apparatus therefor, and has for its special object the at- 5 tainment of a more efficient atomization of flowable fuels, such as liquid or dry colloidal materials of any combustible nature.

This burner is very efficient in its operation when utilized as a jet-nozzle in burners of thetypes disclosed in my co-pending United States applications, Serial No. 614,419 filed J an. 23,1923 Serial No. 622,335 filed March 2nd, 1922, and No. 665,454 filed Sept. 28, 1923.

One particular advantage of my improved nozzle, is the means whereby the fuel, liquid or pulverulent, is subjected, during its flow through'and from the nozzle, to a plurality of sequential mechanical atomizations whereby the fuel is more finely divided, than where only one atomization takes place before combustion, thereby creating a more intense heat than heretofore encountered with a great saving of fuel.

In the operation of my nozzle, steam is the preferred atomizing medium, at about 1 00 pounds per square inch pressure, and while air may also be used under the same conditions, preferably in some usages, superheated steam is desirable. The disruptive, expanding action of steam in passing to atmospheric pressures makes it themore desirable medium for atomizing the fuel, than In the preferred form of use, my jet-nozzle is well adapted to hydrocarbon burners, and

while it operates well in this regard, I do not desire to be understood as limiting my nozzle to this single industrial purpose. A large field of utility is available in which the atomization of liquids for various purposes, and

the creation of finely divided'colloids are essential.

The function of the so-called hydrocarbon burner, however, is simply one of atomization and the term usually implied is therefore a misnomer. It has been experimentally determinedthat oils of a relatively high Baum 25.28, require more air for areas'onable'degree'of atomization than is necessary for'supporting combustion. For this reason a mechanical atomizing burner is continually gaining prestige.

The general principle applied in mechanical burners is the application of heat and pressure upon the oil, whereby the same is caused to wire-draw through an orifice. The latent heat in the oil, and, to a greater or lesser extent, the energy represented above the critical temperature of hydrocarbon causes it to flash into a mist, with a tendency to burn the less volatile constituents that are present in the air, causing exothermic heat reaction, the resulting fractionation thus fixing of a portion of the carbon contents of the o1 I have found that the idealcombustion of oil results when the oil can be finely divided, then intimately mixed with oxygen, and the combustion delayed until the vapor has developed into a reasonable volume. This I have been best able to accomplish by generating mist by means of my nozzle, delaying combustion and diffusing the hydrocarbon vapors by means of a blast from an atomizing nozzle from which superheated steam issues to atmospheric expansion.

Another object of the invention is to reduce the cost of operation to a minimum. This is done by using a nozzle whichis designed for the complete expansion of the atomizing steam stream, thereby obtaining the greatest velocity possible of the steam, gjfusg as it is being used for re-atomizing the In the drawings accompanying, Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view partly in elevation of my device; the section being-taken on the line 11 of Fig. 3. y M W Fig. 2 is a fragmentary enlargement of the coacting atomizer elements;

Fig. 3 is a front view; and I Fig. 4 is a perspective view of the atomizer deflector.

My device is so constructed so as to permit it to be readily attached by ordinary pipe fittings at its desired operative point, and to this end, the body, which is in the form of an expanding duct casing 1, has at its rear end a threaded extension 2, whereby to be afilxed to a steam connection, not shown.

The outer, or nozzle end generally denoted by 3, is larger in diameter than the end 2, and the tapering expansion chamber 4, extends from the end 2, through the body in progressive increasing area to atmosphere. at the end 3. This last noted end of the body 1, is provided with an integral annular flange 5, which has a threaded pipe boss 6 located therein, into which is mounted one or more fuel feed pipes 7 fragmentally shown in section; see also Fig.3.

Upon the front face of the flange 5, there is alfixed, by means of bolts or studs 3, Figs. 1 and 3 a chambered fuel distributor ring 9, this ring being provided with an annular fuel port 10, which is fuel-fed by the fuel pipes 7, so that the front of the device is surrounded by an oil-fuel duct in which oil, under pressure, is fed radially past the jet orifices 11, through a series of radially arranged oil jets 12, which are preferably cut into the inside face of annular fuel distributing ring 9 and which jets communicate between the fuel port 10, and the jet orifices 11.

Located within the wide mouth 3, of the expander nozzle body 1, is a cone-like deflector baffle 13, the function of which is to direct the steam, after it has attained its greatest expansion, to the jet orifices 11, so that at these various points, see Figs. 2 and 3, the steam issues to atmosphere at very high velocities, in the direction of the arrows A, Fig. 2.

This deflector-baffle 13, as shown in Figs. 1,

. 3 and 4 is provided near its larger outer diameter with a series of peripheral lugs 14, which when the battle is in operative position-as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, space said baflle in position and simultaneously form the plurality of jet-orifices 11, said orifices 11 preferalgly spaced between adjacent fuelorifices (12 1 a The outer larger end of the deflector-baffle 13 is provided just beyond the spacing lugs 14, with an'annular grooved atomizer disk 15, preferably integral, and this is so spaced or set as to be located substantially axially opposite the series of jet-orifices 12, sothat when the fuel oil,under pressure, impinges, at high speed and pressure, into the groove 16, it is thrown back in a finely divided condition there to be caught up by the issuing high ve locity steam, and carried outwardly as indi-. cated by the arrows A, in a highly atomized condition, and to this extent the bafile redirects two streams, one of steam and one of liquid fuel, both travelling at right angles to one another.

Although not shown, the deflector-bathe 13 may be afiixed in its operative position indicated in Fig. 1,.by any obvious suitable means.

In use, having been connected into a steam line by the threadedend 2, and a fuel line by broken up, which constitutes a second atomization. Then the fuel which has spread out and rebounded is caught up by the issuing high speed steam jets and is again and finally broken up in transit, inthe atmosphere into a final, finely divided mist and is carried thence to combustion, in burners such as are shown in my previously noted pending patent application.

The impinging action of the fuel, as it passes from the jet orifices 12', to the groove 16, of the reflector-baffle 13, is indicated by the arrows X, and the rebound action is indicated by the arrows Y, in Fig. 2. The final passage of the highly atomized fuel stream consisting of the mixture of steam and fuel is indicated by the arrows A, in the same figure.

I have also discovered that the sharp edges formed on both sides of the atomizing groove 1.6, also tend to greatly aid in thefinal atomization of the fuel, due to their co-operative action with the expanding steam stream, which tends to greatly increase the disruptive turbulence at the point of issuance of the stream.

In practice, the steam and, fuel entering devices of the nature, herein disclosed, are ordinarily controlled by the usual valves whereby the, pressures and volume ofsteam and fuel may be, variably controlled to suit conditions, but suchvalves are not shown, as this method is well understood.

It is obvious that various modifications may be made in the detailed structures herein out lined withoutdeparting from thescope of the claims. a

. What I claim is: k V

1. In combination, a duct gradually tapering towardits inlet end; an abutment member in the discharge end ,of the duct comprising a conical portionpointing toward the inlet end and peripherally spaced lugs around the periphery of the conical portion extending to the wall of the duct to provide atomizing fluid passageszgsaid member being provided forward of said lugs with an annular groove therearound and means for injecting --fuel.into said groove. 7

V .2. A burner comprising means for contract ing a stream of atomizi ng fluid to a narrow annular cross section therebyincreasing its velocity to a maximum spaced bafies around said cross sectionto provide stiff streams of atomizing flui iand low pressure spaces be-.

around said cross section to provide stiff streams of atomizing fluid; means for directing jets of fuel radially inward forward of said baflies; and means having an abutment face substantially perpendicular to and receiving said jets for violently jarring and disrupting the fuel of the jets, said face being shaped for then directing the disrupted fuel into said streams.

4. A burner comprising means for contracting a stream of atomizing fluid to a narrow annular cross section; spaced baflies around said cross section to provide stiff streams of atomizing fluid; means for directing jets of fuel inward forward of said baflies substantially at the battles; and means for violently jarring and disrupting the fuel of the jets and then directing it into said streams.

5. .A burner comprising means for contracting a stream of atomizing fluid to a narrow annular cross section thereby increasing its velocity; spaced baflies around said cross section to provide stifl? streams of atomizing fluid and low pressure spaces between adjacent streams; means for directing jets fuel radially inward forward of said cross section; and means for heating and violently jarring and disrupting the fuel and directing the disrupted fuel forwardly and radially outwardly into said stiff streams thereby to be further atomized and mixed with the stream.

6. A burner comprising means for gradual- 1y expanding a stream of atomizing fluid; means for contracting the stream to a narrow annular cross section thereby increasing its velocity; spaced bafiies around said cross section to provide stiff streams 'of a-tomizing fluid and low pressure spaces between adj acent streams; means for directing jets fuel radially in ward forward of said cross section; and means for heating and violently jarring and disrupting the fuel and dividing and directing the divided fuel forwardLy and rearwardly and then substantially radially outwardly into said stiff streams thereby to be further atomized and mix'd with the stream. i v

7. A burner comprising means for contracting a stream of atomizing fluid to a nardirecting it into said streams to form a fuel mlxture; said last named means having sharp edges over which said stream and mixture pass for further disrupting the mixture.

8. In combination, a duct having a discharge end; an abutment member in the discharge end comprising a body portion peripherally spaced from the walls of said duct to provide therebetween a passage for a stream of atomizing fluid; said member being provided therearound forward of said passage with an annular groove; and a fuel distributing means having inwardly pointed radial fuel ports directing fuel radially against the face of the groove at the deepest part.

9. In combination, a duct having inlet and discharge ends; an abutment member in the discharge end of said duct comprising a conical portion pointing toward said inlet end and peripherally spaced lugs disposed around the periphery of the conical portion and extending to the walls of the duct to provide passages for streams atomizing fluid therebetween at the discharge end. said lugs being approximately as wide as said passages: saill abutment member being provided therearound forward of said lugs with an annular groove close to said streams; and means for directing fuel into said groove cause the fuel to rebound into said streams.

10. In combination, a duct having inlet and discharge ends andgradually tapering toward its inlet end; an abutment member in the discharge end of said duct comprising a peripheral portion atall parts spaced from the walls of the duct .to provide a constricted annular passage for the stream of atomizing fluid at the discharge end; means for directing jets of fuel radially inward just forward of said passage; and means for violently jarring and disrupting the fuel of the jets and then directing it into said stream.

11. In combination, a duct having inlet and discharge ends and gradually tapering toward its inlet end; an abutment member in the discharge end of said duct comprising a conical portion pointing toward said inlet end and peripherally spaced lugs disposed around the periphery of the conical portion and extending to the walls of the duct to provide passages for streams of atomizing fluid therebetween at the discharge end; said member being provided therearound forward of said lugs with an annular groove having sharp side edges; a flange disk around the discharge end of the duct having an intramarginal fuel inlet port; a fuel distributing disk secured flat against said flange disk and having a forwardly flared inner peripheral face; said distributing disk having an annular oil port adjacent to said flange disk communicating with said inlet port and inwardly pointed radial fuel ports directing with, the stream.

fuel against the face of the groove at the deepest part of said groove. I

1:2. A fuel burning process comprising gradually expanding a stream of atomizing fluid; contracting the stream to a narrow annular cross section thereby increasing its velocity; baffling spaced portions of said cross section to provide stiff streams of atomizing fluid therearound; directingjets of fuel in wardly just forward of said cross section; and violently jarring and disrupting the fuel and dividing and then directing the fuel radially outwardly and into said stiff streams thereby to be further atomized by, and mixed 13. A fuel burning process comprising con tracting a stream of atomizing fluid to a narrow ann'ula-rcross section thereby increasing its velocity; baffling spaced portions of said cross section to provide stiff streams of atomizing fluid; directing jets of fuel radially inward just forward of said cross section; and violently arring and disrupting the fuel and dividing and directing the divided fuel forwardly and rearwardly and then radially outwardly into said stiff streams thereby to be further atomized by, and mixed with, the. stream.

14. A fuel burning process comprising contracting a stream of atomizing fluid to a narrow annular cross section therebyincreasing its velocity; baffling spaced partsaround said cross section to provide stiff streams of atomizing fluid; directing jets of fuel radially inward just forward of said cross section; violently jarring and disrupting the fuel directing the disrupted fuel into said stiff streams thereby to be further atomized by, and mixed with, the stream to form a fuel mixture; and then inducing disruptive turbulence in the mixture to further atomize it.

'15. A fuel burning process .comprising gradually expanding a stream of atomizing fluid; contracting the stream to a narrow annular cross section thereby increasing its velocity; baffling spaced portions of said Cross section therearound to provide stiff radially inward between said streams into said spaces there to be atomized; and means for directing the atomized fuel to the streams.

17. In a device of the character'described, in combination, a tapering duct for gradually expanding steam under pressure, a mixing chamber adjacent to the end of greatestdiameter of said duct, an abutment me'mber embodying a conical portion located in the end of greatest diameter of said duct and pointing counter to the flow of steam through said duct and having around the periphery of the base of said conical portion spaccd lugs providing ports therebetween for passage of the steam into said chamber, said member further embodying a portion located in said mixing chamber and consisting of an end face and an inwardly curved surface between said end face and the base of said conical portion whereby fuel oil under streams of atomizing fluid; directing jets of fuel radially inward just forward of said crosssection; heating and violently jarring and disrupting the fuel and dividing and'directing the divided fuel forwardly and rearwardly and then radially outwardly into saidstiff streams thereby tobe further atomized by, and mixed with, the stream to form a fuel mixture; and inducing disruptive turbulence in said mixture to further atomize the mixture.

16. A burner comprising means for contracting a stream of atomizing fluid to form an annular series of spaced steam passages of limited cross section thereby increasing its velocity to provide stiff streams of atomizing fluid and low pressure spaces between adjacent streams; means for directing jets fuel

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2426833 *Oct 17, 1944Sep 2, 1947Power Jets Res & Dev LtdApparatus for mixing fluids
US2809819 *Feb 28, 1955Oct 15, 1957Losada Walter RFuel atomizer for steel furnace
US3409222 *Dec 21, 1965Nov 5, 1968Owenes Corning Fiberglas CorpMethod and apparatus for mixing and spraying two different liquids and means for flushing after use
US3595482 *Feb 18, 1969Jul 27, 1971English Electric Co LtdSpray devices
US3907207 *Aug 7, 1974Sep 23, 1975Brien John W OAtomizing sprayer device
US4284590 *Sep 17, 1980Aug 18, 1981Respiratory Care, Inc.Multiple aspirator for nebulizer
US4726934 *Sep 27, 1985Feb 23, 1988Cabot CorporationCarbon black burner
EP0092002A1 *Apr 20, 1982Oct 26, 1983Central Electricity Generating BoardFuel atomisers for oil burners
Classifications
U.S. Classification239/434
International ClassificationF23D11/10
Cooperative ClassificationF23D11/10
European ClassificationF23D11/10