US 1786435 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 30, 1930. s. KOMFALA 1,736,435
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP Filed June 11, 1928 2 Sheets-Sheet l I 4622M IINVENTOR.
Dec. 30 1930. s. KOMFALA 1,786,435
GENTRIFUGAL PUMP Filed June -11, 1928 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 1 NV EN TOR.
A TTOR Pate nt ed Dec. 30, 4 l l v um- 'reojfi's m'rss PATENT OFFIQE'i STEVE xourfata, or DENVER, COLORADO CEN'IBIF'UGAL PUMP Application filed. June 11, 1592s: Serial No. 284,641.
My-invention relates to pumps, and more and eddy current losses and the use of noneespecially to centrifugal pressure pumps, of the centrifugal force to provide velocity of adapted to impart energy to fluids. discharge at the expense of pressure, is adapt- In the ordinary centrifugal pump,the drive able to high pressure without resorting to shaft drives a rotor having curved blades or -multistaging.' I I curved passages in a transverse plane, or the A further object is to provide such a pump, rotor maybe composed of a series of radiatwhich will operate with equal efiiciency with ing arms having passages and connected only either direction" of'rotation of the rotor. at their hub. I A further object is to provide such a'pump In centrifugal pumps having rotor pas; which may be operated with theminimum of 55 sages of unequal sectional area the tendency power when itsoutput is restricted below-its is to permit, in the rotor, short circuits, or to maximum capacity, or entirely cut off.
- create eddy currents in the fluid being A further object is to provide such a pump pumped. \in which the discharge; pressure will not sub- 3 5 1n centrifugal pumps provided with sepast'antially rise above or drop below the rated co rate rotor arms having passages and. connect-' pressure of the pump at a given uniform edonly at the hub, there is a tendencyto cause speed, evens-though said discharge is partially outside of the rotor, short circuits or eddy cur or entirely shut off.
rents, in the fi'uid being pumped. A further object is to provide such a-pump,
3, In centrifugal pumps havmgrotor' paswhich, due to the equalized capacity of its -05 sages curved in a transverse plane, the-cenchannels maintains a substantially uniform trifugal force combined with the curved pass velocity upon the fluid as it'pas'ses through sages, acts to increase ordirect the velocity the pump. of the fluid being pum ed at the expense of I attain the above objects by providing :1 3. the centrifugal force, which naturally de constructiontein which the rotor has an axial 7o creasesthe resulting pressure: K intake having a distributor which divides the In centrifu al'pumps' in general, any confluid into channels, while it is still moving. tour, or prop'o tiori, either Within- 01 wlthout axially. f p a 1 the rotor, which prevents the perfect streams The rotor is composed of a round smooth so lining of the fiuid being pumped in its surfaced disk provided with equally spaced 73 complete passage through the pump, acts to straight radial, holes or channels of uniform decrease the -eflicien'cyof the pump, .and the cross section along their entire length: each 7 possible pressure that canbe developed in any hole connecting direct'with one of the above r one pump. mentioned axial channels. r
The objectiof this invention is to provide a The rotor is mounted in a housing provided so centrifugal pump in which the short circuit withstufiing boxes, and with preferably a and eddy current lossesare reduced to a minisingle outlet, the interior of the housing being mum. I V Q smoothand havingl ample clearance with the A further object is to provide such a pump rotorpall *of whic is described more inde- "4) in which all ofthe centrifugal force is emtail below and is shown' clearly in the draw- S5 pl oyed to provide pressure, and none of'it' is ings, inwh1 ch: f v employed to provide velocity at the expense, .Figurel 1s anelevatron of the intake side f pressure, v v y of my. pump, with the intake pipe'removed.
A further objectis to prdvide such a pump, Figure 2 is a central vertical section on the I Hie-which because of freedonijrom short circuit vline 2-52 of Figure 1. v 90 and unaffected by any of the ether parts.
centrifugal passages 4, whose combined cross sectional area is substantially equal to the cross sectional area of the intake shaft passage 5. I
In making the passages 4 in the ,rotor 1, I prefer, for the purpose of illustration, to use a solid disk and to form the passages by drilling, stop ing the point of the drill at the center line of the shaft 2; the passage 5 in the shaft 3 is also bored, thesquare bottom of the bore being on the center lines of the pitssages 4. V
Any other proper method of obtaining the same or substantially the same passages may be employed, if desired. I
If, as shown in the drawings, four passages 4 are employed, this preferred method of construction provides what might be called a four sided pyramid 6 at the .end of the dpassage 5, each face of the so-called pyrami' being concave, due to the cutting edges of the drill which forms the passages 4.
The axial distributor 7, formed in any proper manner and of any proper material, is made to fit in the passage 5 of the intake shaft 3, and as shown, the outer edges of its four tapered wings fit' into keyways cut in the inner face ofthe' shaft 3. This acts to prevent rotation of the distributor? with respect to the shaft 3 and maintains itswin s a igned with the edges which separate't e concave faces of the so-called pyramid. Any other pro er method of constructin" and aligning t e distributor may be use provided it is reliable and satisfactory:
The four wings of the distributor thus p'ovide four separate channels, each channel ing directly connected with one of the passages 4 of the rotor 1. The purpose of the distributor wings being made tapered is to decrease the shock of imparting rotary move ment to the fluid in its axial progress toward the assages 4.
Tlius, as the fluid bein pumped enters the distributor 7, it is gra ually divided and made to revolve in four parts, andfrom that time on till it is discharged .from' the rotor 1, each of these four parts remains separate,
By this construction the fluid while still moving axially is positively rotated, and due to the concave faced pyramid its direction is changed from axial-to radial with little frictional loss, and due to the substantially uniform cross sectional area of each fluid stream from the inner portion of the distributor 7 to the outer end of its passage 4, a stream line effect is produced within the rotor which not only does not permit short circuits or eddy currents within the rotor, but which also maintains the efficiency of each fluid stream through the rotor as the capacity and fluid velocity is increased, or as the revolutions per minute and pressure per square inch is increased.
In the drawings, therotor 1, drive shaft 2 and intake shaft 8, are all shown as of one piece ofmetal. The rotor, however, may be made of any material desired, or to meet the conditions of any special case, and the construction instead of being completely integral, can be wholly or partially built up, to fit any set of requirements, or the judgment of any designer or the requirements of any conditions or set of conditions, so long as the result is a rotor with disk and drive and intake shafts which act together substantially as one piece. x
Likewise,'the distributor 7, may either be made ofmetal or may be made of any desired or required material to fit any given case.
' The distributor may be made separate from the rest of the rotor as shown in thedrawings, or integral therewith as maybe desired, or as the conditions of each case may dictate, so long as the final'result is that the distributor rotates as'one piece with the rotor and combines with the centrifugal passages 4 to form separate fluid streams through the rotor when in operation. 7 r
Thehousing consists oftwo pieces, the case 8 and t e cover9.
, The case 8 is provided with a bearing to properly reteive and support the drive shaft 2, and is also provided with packing 10 and a packing gland 11, the position of the gland, and the pressure on the packing being controlled by the gland nuts 12, on the studs 13. Any other proper method or construction of bearing for mounting the shaft and of packing for prevention of leakage may be em- 7 ployed if desired.
The side of the case 8 may be strengthened and braced by ribs such as indicated at 14.
The case is provided with the threaded discharge port 15, and may if desired be provided with one or more other discharge ports as indicated by dotted lines at 16, Figure 2.
charge ports is not vital so long as the construction is such as topermit stream action of the fluid passing thereto. If one discharge port is used, it-should be threaded to receive the standard pipe whose cross sectional internal, area is equal to or the nearest below that of the intake assage 5.
.The case8 is a so provlded with a proper Y mounting base 17, of any desiredproportions mounting and attachment.
The cover 9 is provided with a bearing for the proper reception of the intake shaft 3,
- and is provided with the packing 19 and the internally threaded gland 20. Any other proper method or construction of bearing for mounting the shaft 3 and of packing for the prevention of leakage may be employed if desired, or the bearing may be dispensed with in some cases. 7
a The gland 20 is provided with a counterbore atits inner end so that the packing 19 .will act not only to pack against leakage from the housing out along the shaft. 3, but
A willalso packv against leakage from the passage 5 around the inner end of the gland 20:
- rotor 1.
The position of the gland 20 and the pressure on the packing 19 are controlled nuts 21, on the. studs 22. The intake pipe 23 is threaded into the gland 20. Any other method or constructionffor packing against leakage from the passage 5 and for the con- 30 motion of the intake pipe 23 'may be used if desired so long as the results are practical and reliable.
The side of the cover 9 may be strengthened and bracedby ribs such as indicated at 24. The'cover 9 is properly centeredon the case 8 by the shoulder 25 or in any other proper manner, the joint between thembeing made tightby the gasket 26. Under some conditions it may be desired to dispense with the gasket 26 and use a ground joint between the case 8 and the cover 9, but I believe in most cases the gasket construction will be preferred. v
The cover 9'is held securely to the case 8 by the capscrews 27, the cover and case then combining to form a tight housing for the rotor. v
The housi'n may be properly bu lt up of any number of-pieces joined together in any suitable manner so long as the final assembled unit is reliable and satisfactory.
The housing is tobe so proportioned that there will be ample cross sectional'area for the passage of the fluid being pumped from the rotor passages 4 to the discharge passage 15 in either direction, and regardlessof the direction'of rotation of the rotor.
The in-ner'sur'faces of thehouslng are preferably to be smoothly finished, the circumferential face being concentric with the It will now be seen that all the objects by the a sought have been attained by the construe-V tion described and illustrated There is aminirn-um of short circuit and provided with'a discharge port, a rotor coneddy current losses; all of the centrifu al pressure'without multistaging; in fact a sixteen inch rotor at 3600 revolutions per minutegives' 420 pounds per square inch pressure with water.
Since the construction of the rotor and of .the housing is perfectly symmetrical, the direction of rotation of the rotor is immaterial.
The pressure being due entirely to centrifugal force can not exceed ordrop below its rated amount at its rated revolutions per minute, even though the discharge is partially or entirely restricted. V
And since the pressure can rated amount, the power required to operate the pump at a certain speed will" decrease as the amount of fluid discharged is restricted. And, since the total sectional area of the fluid streams from the entering of the distributor to the outer end of the rotor passages is substantially uniform and the housing is concentric with the rotor, making all passages outside of the rotor substantially of equal sectional area, it follows that a substantially uniform velocity will be maintained upon the fluid as it passes throu h the pump. I aware of various modifications that might be made by a competent mechanic to suit diflerent situations and requirements, so I do not wish to limit my protection narrowly to theexact construction described and illustrated} but what I claim as new, and desire to protect by Letters Patent, is as follows with straight radial passages in communica-- tion therewith, a concavefaced pyramid at the inner end of said intake passage having a concave face ali ed with each radial passage, anda distri utor in said intake passage provided with channels adapted to register with said radial passages and said concave faces whereby the fluid pumped is divided 1nto separate streams during its-movement through said intake. passage and provided with streamline paths of travel from the in? take peass'age to the radial passages said channels ing separated adjacent their outer cir-z cumference at the outer end of the distributor by walls of small radial extent, tapered portions being removed from the central part of said walls.
' 2. In a centrifugal pump, a closed housing centrically mounted to rotate in the housing and spaced from the internal circumference thereof, the rotor being provided with a central intake passage and straight radial passages in a transverse plane and in communication with the intake passage, and a distributor having axially extending tapered wings in the intake passage contacting the inner surface of said intake passage along their longer I *side and adapted to form at their inner widest portion separate axially extending channels longest adjacent the inner wall of said intake passage and adapted to form at their inner widest portion separate axially] extending channel's aligned with the radial passages, and means forming curved communicating passages between the axial channels'and their respective radial passages.
4. In a centrifugal pump, a closed housing provided with discharge means, a rotor con centrically mounted to rotate in the housing and spaced from the internal circumference I vided into separate streams.
thereof, the rotor being provided with a central intake passage and straight radial'passages in a transverse plane in communicationwith the intake passage,'and a distributor having axially extending tapered wings in the intake passage, their greatest length being adjacent their outer radius,'and adapted to form at their inner widest portion separate axially extending channels aligned with the radialpassages, and means forming curved communicating passages between the axial channels and their respective radial passages, the cross sectional area of the aligned axial channels, communicating'passages and ra-- dial passages being substantially uniform throughout their combined length.
,5. In the rotor of a-centri'fugal pump having a central revoluble axially extending intake passage communicating with passages in a transverse plane, a distributor in said'intake passage provided with tapered wings,
" their short sides adjacent each other and centrally located, forming channels aligned with the passages in said transverse plane, whereby entering fluid will be progressively di- 6. In the rotor, of a centrifugal pump hav-' ing a central revoluble axially extending intake passage, transverse revoluble means pro vided with drilled radial holes in communication with said intake passage, a portion. of the end of said holes as drilled forming curved surfaces adapted to decrease the shock of the fluid passing from the intake passage to the said radial holes, and a distributor m I said 'intake passage ,rovided with tapered wings, their short si es adjacent each other and centrally located, forming channels aligned with the said radial holes whereby entering fluid will be progressively divided into separated streams .prior to contact with said curved surfaces.
7 In acentrlfugal pump, a closed housing .7
provided with a substantally circular inte- 5 rior and-with discharge means therefrom, a circular, exterior-1y smooth rotorgconcentrically mounted to rotate in the housing and spaced from the internal circumferential face thereof, the rotor being provided with a central axially extending intake passage, and straight radial passages in a transverse plane in communication with the intake passage, a
concave faced pyramid at the inner end of said intake passage having a concave face aligned with each radial" passage, and walls "adapted to form fluid .channels in said intake 1 00 intake passage for their full length and aligned with saidzconcave faces and radial passage separated adjacent the walls of said passages, said walls being 'oined at their inner ends and separated at t eir outer elids. 8. In a centrifugal pump, a closed housing provided with a substantially circular interior and with discharge means therefrom, a circular exteriorly smooth rotor concentrically mounted to rotate in the housing and s aced from the internal circumferential face t ereof, the rotor being provided with a 'central axially extending intake-passage and straight radial passages in a transverse plane in communication with the intake passage and walls in the intake passage and contacting the inner surface thereof for their full length, separate from each other at their outer ends and joined only adjacent their inner ends, adapted toprogressively form within a predetermined distance, separate fluid channels in sal-d intakecpassage aligned respectively with said radial passages, and
means forming a curved contour between each axial channel and its communicating radial passage.
9. In a centrifugal pump, a closed housing provided with a substantially circular interior and with discharge means therefrom, a
circular exteriorly smooth rotor concentrically mounted to rotate in the housing and spaced from the internal circumferential face thereof, means to prevent leakage from said housingalong said rotor, the rotor being.
provided with a central axially extending intake passage, and straight radial passages in a transverse plane incommuniction with the intake passage, and walls in the intake passage adapted to progressively form within a predetermined axial distance, separate fluid channels in said intake passage aligned respectii ely with said radial passages, said fluid channels being separated adjacent the inner" surface of said intake passage for their full len h, and means forming a curved contour in t e connection between-each axial channel and its communicating radial passage, the walls in said passage being tapered with the outer narrow portions contacting the inner face of said intake passage.
' In testimony whereof Iafiix my signature.