|Publication number||US1789827 A|
|Publication date||Jan 20, 1931|
|Filing date||Oct 18, 1926|
|Priority date||Oct 18, 1926|
|Publication number||US 1789827 A, US 1789827A, US-A-1789827, US1789827 A, US1789827A|
|Inventors||Mckay Stewart R|
|Original Assignee||P E Selby Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (22), Classifications (23)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Jan. 20, 1931. 5 R, MCKAY BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2 Sheets-Sheet l Filed Oct. 18, '1926 Jan. 20, 1931. s. R. MCKAY BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed 001;. 18, 1925 Patented Jan'. 2o, 1931 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE STEWART R. MUKAY, 'OF SHAKER HEIGHTS, OHIO, ASSIGNOR OF ONE-HALF TO I. E. SELBY, INCORPORATED, OF CLEVELAND, OHIO BUILDING CONSTRUCTION This invention relates to building construetion and has for one of its objects to do' away with a great deal of wood, such as wood joist and studding, and to eliminate the necessity 5 for plastering, thereby providing a construction which avoids a great deal of the disadvantage of wood, such as shrinkage and which is rendered more nearly reproof than ordinary Wood buildings, my improvements being particularly adaptable for use in construction of dwellings, garages and other buildings, which are commonly framed out of lxlvood and are plasteredonwood or metal lat A further object is to provide certain details which will enable the erection to be accomplished more rapidly than with a building ordinarily framed with wood which can be erected at a cost comparingr favorably with wood framed structure.
A further object is to provide a practical method or means ofwquickly applying and effectivel securing in position gypsum board adapl to be used in place of lath and plaster in t e side walls, partitions and ceilings, as well as to replace the ordinary wood sheathing. By the use of this gypsum board which is manufactured and delivered ready for use in strips of predetermined width (now about four feet in width) and in any length suitable for handling and ap lying to the structure (now up to about twelnve feet in length) with my improved means for securing the gypsum board at its 'edges or where the joints occur together with devices which I have provided for bracing the vsheets of gypsum board between the joints, a very smooth surface is provided suitable for receiving directly thereon the decorations in the `form of wall paper, sanitos or decorating paint with either a smooth or antique surface. By these improvements eliminating the necessit for lathing and plastering there is avoide not only the most troublesome Apart of buildin construction but also delays incident to tle application and drying of ordinary plaster and the unfavorable effect that the moisture, which must be ut in plaster, has on kiln-dried or finish as well as doors.
The above and other objects are attained by my invention which are here briefly summarized as consisting in certain novel details of construction and combinations and arrangements of parts which will be described in the specification and set forth in the ap-V pended claims. l
In the accompanying sheets of drawings wherein I have illustrated the main features o; my invention in the preferred form-thereo Fig. 1 isa fragmentary pers lctive view looking at a portion of the insi e of a lstructure formed in accordance with my invention, parts being broken away and in section for the sake of clearness.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged detail sectional view illustrating one form of that part of my inyention relating to the means for securing the sheets of gypsum board.
Fig. 3 is a similar view showing a slight modification. j
Fig. 4 is a detail sectional View to illustrate how the steel I-beam j oists and studs are framed together.
Fig. 5 is a horizontal sectional view through a corner of the structure to illustrate how the gypsum board may be utilized and secured in place to provide the sheathing and to replace the lathing and plaster.
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary perspective View to illustrate how the gypsum board for the ceiling is secured to the ceiling joists and also illustrating how the strips or sheets of the gypsum board are secured together at their edges or at the joints and also how they are braced between the joints to insure against saggin Fig is a detail lperspective View illustrating particularly t e manner in which the artitions are formed and secured to the joists above the partitions. f
Fig. 8 is a plan view of the parts shown in Fig. 7 showing the I-beam joist by dotted lines for the sake of clearness.
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary perspective view showlng one of the braces for the gypsum I board, and lumber, w ich is commonly used for the trim Fig. 10 is a fragmentary perspective view to illustrate how the strips of gypsum board forming the walls are held in true, straight condition at their upper and lower edges and illustrating how the boards forming the ceilings are joined thereto.
Fig. 11 is a View similar to Fig. 7 but omitting the I-beam joist and illustrating a modiication in the construction of the support for the partition gypsum board. In Fig. 1 I have illustrated a portion of the structure, the parts shown including a portion of the outer wall and portions oftwo floors which may be lirst and second or any pair of floors above the first. The frame work consists mainly of light steel I-beams forming the studs 10 and similar I-beams forming the joists 11. In a buildin to be used for a residence these studs and joists are preferably arranged approximately four feet apart. The I-beams themselves are light sections which can be handled conveniently even in the maximum lengths required. Generally for a residence the studs will extend continuously from the foundation to the upper ioor joists.
For framing together the wall studs and joists and to eliminate as much as possible special fabrication of the steel, framing angles 12 are preferably provided, these extending horizontally or at right angles to the studs, adjacent the joists of each Hoor and being preferably secured to the studs by so- Ganga hook toits is (See particularly Fig. 4)
which pass through the angles and are hooked over the anges of the studs, these angles being used both for framing purposes and for spacing the studs, keeping them in true parallelism and in proper alignment with respect to the joists of the different floors.
At the upper ends of the studs a pair of these angles is employed as illustrated at the upper part of Figg 1. The top floor joists are secured to these angles by means of short angle lugs 14 riveted or bolted to the joist and to the. inner of the two angles 12. The outer or companion angle 12 is employed to support a wood plate to receive the roof rafters which may. be formed of wood.
At the junction of-the wall studs 10 with the joists of the floors beneath the topmost floor a single angle 12 is employed and is, in this instance, utilized for bracing and spacing the studs and also for another purpose to be referred to presently. The joists of these floors (which in the ordinary dwelling are Jthe joists of the first and second floors) are preferably secured together by stampings- 15, a pair of which are employed at the junction o each Hoor joist with the associated wall stud.. These stampings have U-shaped or doubled portions 'formed to t around the inside ianges of the. studs Yand the ends of the stampings are extended outwardly in the form of flanges which are riveted or bolted to the webs of both the vertical studs and horizontal joists.
f The advantages derived from the use of .these stampings Ain framing together these floor joists with the upwright wall studs is the elimination of considerable fabrication and furthermore for structures, such as dwellings and the like, I-beam sections are employed where the flanges are not sufciently Wide and have not sutlicient strength to admit of the use of ordinary framing methods employed in the steel work of buildings wherein heavier sections are utilized and are required.
My invention does not A contemplate the elimination of all the wood now required for dwellings and other structures of a likenature but on the other hand I propose. to
use both Wood and steel, the structure being aptly termedV `a wood-steel building. Acoordingly, I place directly on the floor joists 11 of the different floors wood sleepers 16 to which the wood flooring 17 is applied in the usual Way. The sleepers 16 preferably consist of ordinary 2 x 4 sleepers supported edge.-A
wise on the joists as illustrated at the lower part of Fig. 1 and they are preferably secured to the joists by wire hooks 18 which are nailed or otherwise secured to the sleep# I ers and are hooked under the upper flanges of the joists.
Coming next to an important part of my invention it will be observed that I provide in place of thev ordinary lathing and plastering and on the inner sides 'of the wall studs and on the under sides of the floor joists sheets of so-called gypsum board, the sheets applied to the side walls being designated 19 and the sheets applied to form the ceilings tend vertically of the studs, their side edges being at or adjacent the center lines of the studs whereas the sheets 20 of the ceilings extend erosswise or at right angles to the joists, as illustrated in F ig. 1.
Before describing how t lese sheets of gypsum board used for the inner walls and ceilings are held in place it might be mentioned that similar sheets of gypsum board designated'21 are provided to form the outer walls to take the place of the ordinary sheathing, these sheets being applied like the sheets 19 but to the outer faces of the studs 10.
To ill out the corners where the corner .s
studs 10 occur (seeFig. 5) a corner angle 22 is provided, this being secured in place by 'suitable braces 23 which are securedto the angle 22 and to thecorner studs 10 as illustrated in Fig. 5, and auxiliary sheet-s 21a constituting extensions of the outer sheets 2l extend between this angle and the outer flanges of the corner studs 10.
A very important feature of my invention in connection with the use of the sheets of gypsum board to form the inner and outer walls and ceilings, are sheet metal pressed or rolled securing strips which extend the full length of the sheets and receive and interlock with the edges of the sheets for their full length, as well as having continuous interlocking connections with the flanges of the Wall studs 10, floor studs 11 and with the corner angles 22 and with angles or channels used in forming the partitions as will be explained presently.A
These strips are in cross section somewhat Z-sha-ped in yform having reversely folded portions forming grooves, one to receive the edge of the gypsum board and the other to receive the edge of the I-beam or other mem- 'ber supportin the board. The cross sectional shape of these securing strips may be varied' somewhat, the precise shape depending upon the shape of the edges of the gypsum board, i. e., whether the edges are square or beveled. In Fig. 2 and in the other ligures except 3, the gypsum board is shown as having square edges and in these figures the securing strips are designated 24, these strips each having a groove 24a which receives, with a tight fit, the edge of the gypsum board, and, and oppositely facing groove 23?), to receive the flange of the I-beam or other supporting member. It is an important feature that the securing strips tightly engage the flanges of the I-beam or other supporting member and when they are slipped onto the tapered flanges, a wedging action is produced which draws the part which receives the gypsum board tight against the'face of the supporting member so -that the wall roduced by the gypsum board is smooth an flat. Furthermore, in all instances the strips are arranged back to back as clearly illustrated in Fig. 2 and other figures so as to leave nogap between the strips.
It is to beunderstood, however, that instead of utilizing strips extending the full length of the gypsum boards I may utiliz-e short sections placed either end to end o r at intervals along the edges of the gypsum boards. I
Preferably, the square edge sheets of gypsum board are inset slightly along their edges so that the exposed flanges of the securing strips where they fit around the edges of the gypsum board, will be slightly inset permitting the depression to be filled with prepared plaster indicated at 25, so that the surface will be absolutely smooth and flush where the joints in the gypsum board occur. Throughout the major portion of the building, the securing strips for receiving'the edges of the gypsum board and for fastening them to the structural supporting `menibers, will be of uniform shape, or cross section-in other words of stock form. But, in some places in the structure, slightly special securing strips will be utilized, as for example, at the corners of the structure. These securing strips are indicated at 24C.
If the edges of the gypsum board are beveled either 011 a straight or curved line, the securing strips will be of a form substantially as shown at 26 in Fig. 3. This will leave, between the edges a V-shaped groove adapted to be filled with prepared plaster 25 so as to leave a smooth surface the same as in Fig. 2 and permit paper, sanitos or other material to be applied to the walls thus formed, reference being had to the inte-rior walls.
On 'the outer walls, the outer sheets of gypsum board designated 21 may be ycovered with any suitable material, such as shingles, stucco,lordinary siding or brick. In some instances it may be desired to omit the outerwall of gypsum board, whichv in Fig. 5 forms the sheet, and to form the outer wall of suitable material, such as brick placed next to the outer flanges of the I-beam studs and when this is done at regular intervals, the brick can be conveniently anchored to the Lbeam studs lby reinforcing rods 21d em* bedded between the joints of the ybrick and hooked around the flanges of the studs. These reinforcing rods vpreferably extend from the flange of one studthrough the brick tip the flange of the adjacent stud as shown in The top edgesof the vertical sheets of gypsum board forming the upright walls are preferably received-in grooved sheet metal channels to keep the edges true as indicated in Fig. l0 at 27. These channels have rinwardly extending flanges 27a to receive the adjacent edges at the ends of the gypsum board sheets forming the ceiling. At the bottom of the vertical gypsum board sheets, channels, such as indicated at 28, are preferably employed. The channels 27 and 28, if desired, can be secured to the top and bottom edges of the gypsum board by nails, tacks or screws.
As previously stated, the sheets of gypsum board at present aresupplied in substany may be of the form indicated in Fig. 9 at 29. These are suitably secured to' the framing. angles 12 and are preferably provided with studs or prongs such as indicated at 29a, adapted to be driven into the gypsum boards.
- As many of these bracing strips will be' employed between adjacent studs asmay be found desirable, two such bracing strips are now regarded by me as being preferred, but if `the 'gypsum board has sufficient inherent stiffness, al single bracing strip will be ainple. Possibly in some instances they may be 'om'.tted altogether.
Where the ends of the gypsum board sheets in the ceiling come together, I prefer to employ a bracing and` securing strip such as.
indicated at 30 in Figs. 1 and 6. These strips are flanged and formed toprovide a pair of opposftely facing grooves arranged back to back as indicated in these figures to receive the 4edges of the-gypsum board and onthe back side -of the gypsum board the strip is provided with a body portion suitably formed i f which are located at points other than at the end ledges of adjoining sheets where the bracing-members 30 are employed as just eX- plained. Y Such additional bracing strips are indicated at 3l'and they may consist ofangle irons which may, in some' instances, be
formed of sheet metal, and which are sultably secured at intervals by bolts or screws to the gypsum board sheets. I contemplate securingthe ends 'of these strips to the flanges of the joists by swinging clamps 32 which are preferably bolted to the ends of the strips 31 and after the strips are applied these clamps are designed to be swung outwardly over the flanges of the joists as indicated in Figs. 1- and 6.'
The above description has been confined chiefly to the outer walls, floors and ceilings and little mention has been made of partitions, The inner and outer sides of the partitions will, in every instance, beformed of sheet-s of gypsum board with their edges received in the grooves of securing strips. In
most instancesthe securing strips will be.
similar to those heretofore described and designated 24 and 26 and 'in that event they will be interlocked to. the flanges of upright supporting -members which, in some instances, will consist of I-beam studs similar to those used in forming the outer walls and in'other instances they can be conveniently formed of angles o'r channels as indicated in Figs. 7 and 8 where the supporting members are shown a's-made up of two pairs of angles 33, which at their upper and lower ends will be fastened by angle plates 34 to the flanges of the joists above and beneath. Hook bolts similar to the hook bolts 13 shown in Fig. 4 will be preferably employed to secure the angle plates to the flanges of the I-beam studs. In this instance, the outer flanges of the pairs of angles take the place of the flanges of the I-beam studs of the outer walls and i'ioors and the securing strips, such as strips 24,.will receive the adjacent edges of the sheets of gypsum board here designated at 35 and will fasten them to the flanges of the angles the same as to the studs. Y A
Instead of using either I-bea-m studs or angles as in Fi gs.'7 and 8, to form the upright securing members'to which the gypsum board sheets of the partitions are secured, these members may consist of special sheet metal channels arranged in pairs as shown at 36 in Fig. 11, in which vevent they will be provided at their edges with flanges forming grooves 36a to receive the adjacent upright edges of the partition forming gypsum board. At their upper ends, these channels may be fastened to the upper and lower I-beam joists by angle plates 34 similar to those indicated in Figs. 7 and 8.
lVith the construction, above described all the advantages enumerated in the early 'part of this specification are obtained very effectively.
It is to be noted that While in the ordinary Wooden building the joist and stud are arranged on. about 16 inch centers, I arrange the light I-beam studs and joists on approximately 4 foot centers and by the use of the intervening bracing and stiffening members, such as the vertical bracing and stifenin'g members 29 between the studs and the hori-4 zontal bracing and stiffening members 31,' between the joists, tlieeffect of a Wood frame with 1G inch centers is obtained with a minimum amount of steel. .f
I do not wish to be confined to the precisel arrangements and details shown herein, but
- aim in my claims to cover all modifications which do not depart from the spirit and scope of my invention.
Having thus described myinvention,=what I claim isi 1. In a building construction, a frame hav-. ing flanged steel frame members, wall forming gypsum board adapted toform the inner or outer wall surfaces, and sheet metal strips for securing .the same with their edges adjaportions fitted'ontothe flanges of thelsteel y I 65 `face, and bracing members for the sheets of 2. In a building construction, horizontal and vertical steel frame members, sheets of gypsum board for forming upright and ceiling walls, and sheet metal securing strips having grooves which receive the edges of the gypsum board and additional grooves which receivethe flanges of the steel frame members whereby each gypsum board is individually secured against the inner or outer face of the frame members 3, In a building construction, horizontal and vertical steel frame members, sheets of gypsum board for forming upright and ceiling walls, and sheet metal securing strips having rooved portions which receive the edges ofi7 the gypsum board and additional grooved portions which receive the flanges of the steel frame members, the last mentioned grooved portions fitting onto the flanges of the frame memberswith a wedge action so as to draw the first named grooved portions tightly against the faces of the frame members whereby each gypsum board is individually secured against the inner or outer face of the frame members.
' 4. In a building construction, flanged steel frame members arranged on predetermined centers, sheets of g psum board forming the inner or outer wall7 frame members with the edges of the adjoining sheets close to each other so as to form a substantially unbroken surface, and pairs of sheet metal secu ring members having grooved portions arranged back to back and receiving the adjoining edges of the gypsum board sheets and having other grooved portions separately fitted around the flanges of the frame members whereby each gypsumboard is individually secured against the inner or outer face of the frame members.
5. In a building construction, flanged steel frame members arranged on predetermined centers, sheets of gypsum board forming the inner or outer walls and having their edges at substantially the centers of adjoining frame members with the edges of the adjoin` ing sheets close to each other so asto form a substantially continuous surface, and pairs of sheet metal securing members having grooved portions arranged back to back and receiving the ledges of adjoining gypsum board sheets and having other grooved portions separatelyiitted around the flanges of the frame members, Vand bracing members lying between adjacent frame members and engaging the sheets of gypsum board between their edges.
6. In a building construction, vertical and horizontal flanged steel frame members, means including 'upper and lower angles for framing said members together, sheets of gypsum board securedl to said frame members to -form a substantially unbroken surs and having their edges at substantially the centers of adjoining other floor.
gypsum board' arranged between the frame vertical and horizontal frame members, ymeans including upper and lower angles for framing said members together, sheets of gypsum board secured to the faces of said frame members and arranged so as toform'a `substantially unbroken wall, surface, and
bracing members arranged between the frame members and at their ends secured to the angle framing members and between their ends being secured to the sheets of gypsum board.
8. In a building construction, vertical and horizontal flanged steel frame members secured together, means comprising sheet metal members receiving the edges of the sheets of gypsum board and the flanges of the frame members so as to secure the gypsum board to the frame members with their longitudinal edges adjacent the centers of the frame members, and sheet metal bracing and securing members receiving 'the adjacent end edges of the adjoining sheets and extending between certain of said frame members whereby each gypsum board is individually secured against the inner or outer face of the frame members;
9. In a building construction,'verticaland lhorizontal flanged steel frame members arranged. upon predetermined centers and framed together, sheets of gypsum board secured at their edges to the. faces of .sald frame members with their longitudinal edges coinciding substantially with the centers of the frame members, upright bracing members arranged between the vertical lframe members and secured to the vertical sheets of psuml board, and transverse bracing mem ers extending between the horizontal frame members and secured to the horizontal l sheets of gypsum board.
10. In a building construction, vertlcal and horizontal flanged steel frame members, the horizontalmembers being arranged to form different lloors of the building, and means comprising stampings fitted around the flanges of the vertical franie members for Securing the latter to the horlzontal frame members of one floor.
11. In a building construction, vertical and horizontal flanged steell frame members, the horizontal members being arranged to form different floors of the building, means co1n prising stampings fitted around the flanges of the vertical frame members for securing the latter to the horizontal frame members of one floor, and means comprising angle irons for spacing the vertical frame members, certain of said angle irons serving asA framing members to secure the vertical frame members to the horizontal :frame members of anand ceiling Walls, said sheets -having their abutting edges reduced in thickness, and
. sheet metal securing strips havin lmeans cooperating with the reduced edges and engaging the flanges of the frame members for securing the sheets thereto.
14. In a building construction, a frame comprising flanged steel -frame members,- sheets of gypsum board for forming upright and ceiling walls, said sheets having their abutting edges reduced in thickness, and sheet metal securing strips cooperating with the reduced edges and engaging the flanges of the frame members for securing the sheets thereto, whereby each gypsum board is individually secured against the inner or outer face of the frame members.
15. In a building construction, a frame comprising flanged steel frame members, sheets of gypsum board for forming upright and ceiling walls, said sheets having their abutting edges reduced in thickness, and grooves which receive the reduced edges o the gypsum board, and additional grooves which receive the flanges of the steel framemembers.
16. In a building construction, a frame comprising flanged steel frame members, sheets of gypsum board for forming upright and ceiling Walls, said sheets having depressed portions along their abutting edges, sheet metal securing strips having grooves which engage the depressed portion of the boards below the surface thereof, and additional grooves which engage the flanges of the steel frame members,- and a-'filler in said depressedportions' whereby a smooth, unbroken Wall surface is produced.
17. In a building construction, a frame comprising flanged steel frame members, sheets of gypsum board for 'forming upright and ceiling walls, said sheets having depressions along their meeting edges, means secured in the depressions, for securing the boards to the frame members, and a .filler in said depressions whereby a smooth, unbroken surface is produced.
,I 18. In a buildingconstruction, a framefcomprising flanged steel framemembers,
members bent to substantially S-shape thereby forming oppositely disposed grooves which receive the edges of the gypsum board and the flanges of the frame members.
19. In a building construction, a frame comprising flanged steel frame members, sheets of g ypsum board for forming the Walls, and means coopera-ting with the edges of the boards and engaging the flanges of the y frame members for securing the boards to the latter.
20. A building of the wood-steel type, comprising vertical and horizontal flanged steel frame members framed together with the horizontal members arranged for different floors, sheets of gypsum board secured tothe flanges of the vertical and horizontal frame ,members to form substantially unbroken Walls, wood sleepers entending across and resting upon the horizontal frame members of one or more floors, and wood flooring secured to said sleepers. w
In testimony' whereof, I hereunto aflix my signature.
STEWART R. MCKAY.
' sheets of gypsum board for forming the Walls, andmeans for securing the sheets to the frame members,compris1ng sheet metal
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|U.S. Classification||52/236.3, 52/369, 52/349, 52/434, 52/354, 52/764, 52/275, 52/481.1|
|International Classification||E04B2/78, E04B2/76, E04B1/24|
|Cooperative Classification||E04B2001/2484, E04B2001/2418, E04B2001/2448, E04B2001/2454, E04B2001/2415, E04B2001/2424, E04B2001/2457, E04B1/24, E04B2/7863, E04B2001/2481|
|European Classification||E04B2/78C2, E04B1/24|