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Publication numberUS1791299 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 3, 1931
Filing dateDec 4, 1928
Priority dateDec 4, 1928
Publication numberUS 1791299 A, US 1791299A, US-A-1791299, US1791299 A, US1791299A
InventorsHarry Bernard
Original AssigneeHarry Bernard
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Musical wind instrument
US 1791299 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb. 3, 1931. H. BERNARD 1,791,299

MUSICAL WIND INSTRUMENT Filed Dec. 4. 1928 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 IN VENT OR WWW Feb. 3, 1931. H. BERNARD MUSICAL WIND INSTRUMENT Filed Dec. 4, 1928 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVEM'OR z W N IIIIIIIA v IIIIIIIII IIIII ZrI/A Patented Feb. 3, '1931 uNl'i rlD ST TES may 333x4111), or CHAMBE fiSBU PQG PENNSYLVANIA when, wmijfiiisrn'tiiu E na appnzia n filed Deeeniber 4, 4928. .Serial No. 323,6 33.

Thisinvention relates-t0 improvements in musical Wind instruments of the typehavi'ing lateral air vents from which different tones are emitted, such as oboes, flutes, saxophones, elarinets, and etc., and particularly refers to a wind instrument having the normal series of lateral vents for the production "of its full gamut'and an additional number oflateral vents organized with and forming part of the wholeseries oftone emitting vents, t o'allow a player to-starttheproduction -'of musical 'gamuts at moretha-n one place, 'in a manner similar to that followed by a piano player in'executin'g a changeof octaves.

This application particularly relates to the subject matter discl'osed in my prior application .for Letters Patent,Serial 634,831,

filed April 26th':-,-1923, on struments. v i

In all musical wind instruments previously invented complete chromatic scales could not musical wind inindividual keys, as in'thecase'of key -operat-ed wind instru ments' like the organ or key operated string instruments like the piano as apart of the normal playing movements of the player of the musical wind instrument. v

Owing to the rapidsuccession with which the different musical tones of a composition must be produced in the manual playing of a portable wind instrument of the type embraced herein. perfect organization of the vents employed forthe selectiye production of the full scale of full tones and semi-tones, with the view of reducing the sweep required in controlling hand and fingermoveinents, to provide positive and easy selection, to'permit of the production of music in perfect time. without distortion of tones, is required. To accomplish this, with all the requisite mechanical control necessary for selective "ent operation, I conceived the construction, unity, successive disposition and operating means disclosed in this application.

By the aid of my improved musical wind instrument it is made possible for a player to manipulate his or her fingers over a group of tone emitting vents, and still operate with the same routine"after a change of gamut location a's described. By this improved organizationof air vents and the controlling mechanism-therefor, proper execution of'the art is made easier for the 'studenta'nd theprofessionah and each' player may then well concentrate upon the perfection of musical skill, rather than bediverted withthe work -v of training the fingers and arms to gain speed selectivity with instruments of inferior design and incomplete equipment for the pro "duction of perfect music. 'In 'addition to the above objects I al so' wish to "provide a saxophone having all of the tone emitting vents located'in the horn along an approximately uncurved length thereof, (-and-al'soto provide aihorn-bell on the instrui ment' extending]but-slightly ata relatively low rising angle' from the normally inclined horn or instru nentjtwhen inthe position 7 "-held by a player in playing) which will con- ='be easily executed, owing to' the'fact that-all semi-tones could not be produced except with stitute a liquid trap'tocollect and hold the water drained through'the' born by the condensation of moisture from the breath of the player, and by mouth leakage. so that the 4 knees'of the player will be protected against \v'ettingbr saturation from the usual discharge of the water.

A further object of the invention is the provision of a spring for operating the individual keys for each vent, which is constructed with companion legs designed to lie in non-parallel planes, and to have a'clasping or retaining action upon the material through which they are inserted, with the longer of "the twolegs exerting tension upon the vent controlling key'to move it to or hold it open positiornor otherwise actuate it.

' A still further object of the invention is the provision of a means for controlling certain of the upper group of vent controlling keys, from the lower end of the instrument.

A still further object of the invention is theprovision of a musical instrument with flat key valve seats and a moisture proof, yielding valve pad for each valve seat. to-

gether with an air-tight housing for the slide valve, particularly the upper part thereof, to insure a concentration of the air stream set in vibrating motion by the player in the horn with the least effort and greatest possible technique. a

The musical wind'iiis'trumnti disclosed by this a pplication is equipped with a system of tone emitting ventsjand selectively operating controls therefor, by means of which the player may realize the gamut progression.

W'ith the above' and other objects in view the invention consists in certain new and useful cmnbinations, constructions, and a l'rangcments ofparts, clearly-"described in the fol-- lowing specification, and fully illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which Fig. 1 is a side'elevation.

Fig. 2 is a longitudinal sectional view, on an enlarged sca'le, showing the slide valve in one position with relation to the tone emitting vents of the'horn. I

Fig. 3 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional view showing the same slide valve in .another position, i with reference to a part only of the same vents,- the balance being omitted for simplificationonly.

F ig. 4 is a plan view of the horn showing the housing of theslide valve and the vents of the housing, with certain operating parts removed to expose the construction of the housing and the system of vents.

Fig. '5 is a transverse sectional view taken on line 5 of Fig. 1, showing the mounting of one of the vent control-ling keys and its spring, and also showing the detail construction of the housing.

Fig. 6 is a detail plan view of one of the operating elements, or lever rods.

'Fig. 7 is a detail plan view of another rod, showing the two positions in which the terminal but-ton of the rod may be placed.

Fig. 8 is a detail transverse sectional view showing the mounting of an operating spring.

Fig. 9 is a detail view in longitudinal section, on an enlarged scale. showing the closed end of the housing which houses the upper end of the slide valve and positively prevents leakage of the vibrating air stream at the point of its maximum intensity.

Fig. 10 is a detail fragmentary plan view. on an enlarged scale, showing two vent keys and the relation of the shiftable button of the operating lever thereto.

Fig. 11 is a similar view of two other keys.

F 12 is a detail view in enlarged longizzdinal section showing the angle of inserlion of the U-shaped spring used for actuating the vent key.

Fig. 13 is a detail fragmentary view, part l v in section, showing the U-shaped spring and the nonparallel disposition of the legs thereof.

Fig. 14 is a. detail sectional view showing the angular disposition of the holes through which the spring is inserted.

Fig. 15 is a detail sectional view of a pillar.

Fig. 16 is a detail transverse sectional view of the horn bell. showing the yoke which carties the slide valve lever.

Fig 17 is a detail transverse sectional view through the mouth tube, showing the improved reed clamp for the mouthpiece.

Referring to the accompan -'ing drawings A. designates the horn of a saxophone, which is formed with a short horn bell Pi, located at its lower end. while the uunithpiece is ind ion-ted at C.

The upper end of the horn is provided with a short. slightly tapered inlet portion Ca. which is disposed at a convenient angle to the body of the horn. which extends down- \vardly. in the normal playing position, gradually increasing in diameter by reason of its tapered construction, until it connects with the horn bell B. This horn bell is disposed at a slight upward angle, and is relatively short. so that itdoes not obstruct the zones of playing movements executed in operating any of the keys controlling the lateral vents of the instrument.

The lateral vents are all located in the horn between the curved upper end portion Ca. and the short horn bell B. in a series disposed in a straight line and which extend through the upper side wal! portion of the horn. This series of vents D are shown to be eighteen in number. and are designated 1 to 18, reading from the upper end of the horn downward l A housing 19 is attached positively to the. side of the horn. This housing is pcrferably constructed from a single sheet of metal, bent upon itself to form a box-like tubular structure. with the upper end of this structure provided with an end wall 19!; which positively closes the chamber of the housing against all air leakage. This housing is provided with a s ries of arms 20, which project laterally thereof and are shown to be formed from the bottom wall 197; of the housing. 'lhese arms are curved or extended outwardly toward the plane of the outer face of the housing and are spaced at their ends from the adjacent side wall of the housing. All joints are sealed by solder or otherwise against. leakage of air through the housing, but the bottom wall 1% and and the top wall 19 of the housing are formed with vent openings registering with the vents 1 to 18, inclnsi an? the horn.

In the valve chamber 21 of the housing 19 .,tl e slide valve 22 is arranged to reciprocate. 'lhis sli'de valve is a. moderately thin piece of .sheetjnetalg in the, nature of a, strip ;of 'metal ';m 1,.nng1 fitsintlie 'clia nber against}; the top and bo t,tom l..wal ls and the sidewalls thereof. ;'I;he lowenendjbf ,the slide projects below theQlewcifend of the housingand is 0 of transverse openings' adapted toreg'ister ner Th s leverhas a po nted nn rend with oneorniore ofthefizents of thefhorn and :Tlielftzeiltop'e'n ugs of the housing and the hon i'ireZshpwn to sniall circular openings, :1 h ll s any othersriitirbleshzipe could-be Y us z v]nle soine of theopeningsof the slide c'i're 'lar,,whi le others are elongated, I oa's'to give avarying valving acti0n.

"Tl .'ll ve1'op ei ing' la is of a size equal in fnaingnr OQthatof the ventopening ehons ng and hem; the next valve ope inn'g afl Sho'wint'o "have thesame width but: twice the. length as the vent opening 2 of j the horn and lipusin i Thevalve opening 3a ishf the same size, length and shape asthe vent opening Thelneit -valv,e opening 4a .gs'bf the same size, shape and length as the ,\'fent.opening4 ofthe horn. The .next suc- -.cee'-.t ing veppening 5a has'twi ee the length ingiyiilve opening 6a is of the I. SZll'l lt:1t}llgilll,,Zltlfi. width asthe vent opening Q -z; fl'l ie.valve.opening is ofthe same size and length asthervent opennig 7.. The valve .35 opening 8a is twice the length but thesame opening'ild, is thesanie length and width as the vent opening .9. The valve opening 10a is the same length and width as the vent opening 10. The valve opening 111.: is. twice the length but the same width as-the vent openthe same length and width as the vent cpen- 05 n}: 18.

. The valve is arranged to have two positip ns, one being illustrated In Fig. 2 and the other in Fig: 3. In the former figure the :2

vents 1,4, 7,10,13. and 16 are shown to be to closed. while thevents 2, 3, 5. 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14,

15 and18 are shown to; When the,

slide valve moves downwardly a distance equal to the length of any ofthel ent openings. and a slight addition thereto. the'vent openings 1, 4, 7, 1O, 13, and lfi willhe opened;

the other. i A "earinghole or element'22 .4 I H p lever2 t, WlllCll 1s pivotedlat25' to the yolze'tZti,

eiated go' "hingsbi the valve housin t v I D 'on tthe lower end of'the lvalvefan d' 1 i'wl erebyfthe pltiyer may readily ls l Wh rle im A 51 m nectedto theshdeval ve and acts toholil-the opening. fi aml; the. same width.

..width,asl thefvent opening S. The valve.

while the ventopenings 2}, 9, l2, l5, andlfi,

will he closed. At the same time .th'e vent fopenings 25 5, '8, l l,' 14, and l '7 \vil l remain open while the valve-1s in both of thcse'position s and while moving from one position he slide valve is shifted tron. oii Position'ttheother by means of a hand'pperated attached to the horn; bell in any suitehleinaii- 'whi'h engages the bearing liol 'i'iderl-"with a closed loop 24?) ifinger h actuate tln 50 22b is coni same in; its initial position shew-11 in Figl fi'l.

A red :28 extends through thearins 20 and on this'r'od a series 'offlat key valves 29 an s5 mounted by means of the elongated eye-s 29a;

iEach ofthes'e valves is formed with a-ploclget which carries a pad29b ofinaterial'known under the trade-name of Artgun'i, and sold extens vely 111 stationery storeshfo'r erasing and cleansing paper an'clfahricsfete, 'rhi -TL material is not composed-'of'rubber and does not break down; :decznv, or disintegrate from the efi'ect of moisture orwaten'oi oil. 'I' "ave found by long experieneethat it"is partieularly adaptedlfer use a pad for completelyclosing the vents 'of innsical I in merits. These nstruments are frequently filled" and experience has shown that ruhbci aiinht be relied ,lipon' astheoil used soon t 'letfstheia: useless 'and as leakage develops "the musical I instrument simiifieantly fails to 'igiv e proper service. But l have also feuiidthat the :C- cessful use of these vzilve lpads involves -a frank departure from c'urrciit and long" sn.--- :53 tainedpractice in designingnndmakiiig mixsical wind instruments. 7: It h'ash'een the common and'traditional practice to cu'piip the material surrounding the v'alve opening or vent of the horn and usethis asa valve seal. but such a valve seat wonld'rapidlv break np the relatively fragile cushioning material l-IHOWII as Artgum'. which I employ. l have therefore designed :1 fiat valve seat, formed by employing a. uniform fiat fare on the lions ing wall and providing the vent ora-ninszs in this fiat wall. The valve pads of A rtguzn engage this flat surface anal experieng-v has shown that they will last indefin tely, without special attention. and will not break up 5:0 under the action of the oil. and month juices to which they are exposed.

The key valves are engaged by U-shapi-d wire springs 30. one leg 30!? of which is longer than the other leg 30?). These legs converge slightly toward each other. so that they will have a clasping; action upon the I material through which they are inserted. as shown in the drawings. The housing is provided with I inclined holes and both legs of the spring iilG are pushed tlii'o'iigh these holes, 50 that the longer leg 30a will engage the underside of the adj ace'nt key valve, the shorter arm' s'erv ing to 'h oldtlie'spring in place; by a clasping acute. I also" use diverging legs on'the s i 7 The lower end of the rod 28' is equipped with an'ang'ula'r haiidle 28andthe upper end carries a sinall-arinfi bf on which ,the small button or fihger 28fc'isfjpivoted. This button or fingeriis desigii'ed tb' engage onje'of the upper key valvesaii'd tofac tu ate this valve whenthe roditself istuin'ed by means of the in movin the harid'froin the bell location to the month end of the instrui'nent is conserved and the player has better control over the ,tirodu ction of tones in correct musicalorde'r. .The button or finger is des gned to bear against a spring opened valve on its outer surface while it would bear against the inner surface of a spring closed valve. When the rod 28 is rocked the finger will hold the valve or key which it en ages to its seat so-that the vent commanded y it will be held closed. In the arrangement illustrated, the player would have the choice of either of the two uppermost keys, butonce the button or finger is shifted to alignment with one of these keys it would onlyoperate to hold this key closed.

On the' extreme upper end of the housing an arm 32 is fixed; which isequipped witha terminal pin 33; On the upper portion of the rod 28 an additional leverro d is mounted to rock; it being mounted on the rod 28 ,by means of integral eyes 34 and 341 .This lever rod 34 is'equipped with a lateral lug 35 which is engaged by a spring 36, the opposite end of the spring being engaged with the pin 33.

The lug 35 is designed to bear against the uppermost valve key and the tension of the coil spring 36 is exerted to main tainthis valve locked against the opening action which its own Ushaped spring tends to produce, By rocking the lever this spring is thus alldu'qed to function and the valve will open. Forthis purpose the spring 36 must be able to overpower the individual spring of the valve key.

As an auxiliary locking means I provide a small lever 37, which mounted uponthe pillar 38 at the upper end of the horn. This lever is designed to be shifted upon the pillar by manual operation at its location, while the lever 34 permits of operation ata point distant from the key operated, or locked against operation.

' "The slide valve has a limited movement from thepositiofi'shownih Fig. 2 to the position' shown in Fig. 3. The operating lever which shifts this valveb'ackand forth, to- 'gether with its cooperating spring, is proividdjwith a projection 240, which is de- 'sign'd tof'limit the slidihg movement of the valve, andwhieh' abuts'on the horn bell fdr "t'l i s*p'ur' stwlien the lever is rocked against j are tensidn cf the s ring;

L I It isinot'ed that every third valve opening j 'iselon ga'ted so tliat'i't will hold the Vent registering with itopen in eitherof the two positi'on's which thevalve can be shifted to.

vents are thus arranged to enable the 1 player to execute chromatic scales. As shown the vents are arranged in clusters of three to each group, each cluster or groupof three vents b'eing controlled by a single spring actuated'ke'y; and the central vent of each such by the intermediate openingof each cluster,

or of each couple of full tone vents. The precise tuning which will be given to the series of vents will vary with thestandards of the ma niifacturer, and, does not'call for any rest ictions in this description. The plan disclosed is merely typical of one adaptation of the invention.

In Fig. 17 I show an improved reed clamping mouthpiece,'which includes the frame or case 40. which is formed with opposed lugs 41 in which the trunnion or hearing pins of the eccentric rollers 42 work. These eccentrics are shifted radially by means of the arms 43, so that various degrees of pressure may be applied on' the reed clamped between the eccentrics andthe case.

It is understood that various changes of detail, structure and relation may be resorted to, within the compass of the protection set forth in the claims, without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. herein declared. f

Having'd'escrihed myiiiv'ention I desire to secure by Letters Patent 1. A musical wind instrument provided with an air passage and a' vent discharging laterally thereof, a key. for controlling the vent, anda U-shaped spring hav ing each of its legs anchored through-the body of the instrument and one of said legs bearing against said key to hold the same in one position. v

2. A musical wind instrument provided with an air passage and a vent discharging laterally thereof, a key for controlling said vent, and a U-shaped spring having both of its legs inserted through openings in a portion of the body of the instrument, and one of its legs bearing against said key to hold the same in one position.

3. A musical \vind instrument having an air passage and a plurality of vents discharging laterally from the air passage, said air passage having an inlet, said instrument having a plurality of vents located near the inlet, keys for controlling the last name-d vents, and means for restraining said last named keys.

4. A musical wind instrument having an air passage and a series of vents discharging laterally thereof, keys for controlling said vents, said air passage having an inlet and said vents being spaced successively from said inlet, and means for restraining the keys of said vent-s nearest the inlet. the keys of the other vents being free of all restraint to be operated at all times.

A musica wind instrument provided with an air passage and having a. housing provided with vents discharging laterally of the housing, said air passage having an inlet, a. valve element in said housing to control all of said vents. said housing having a closed end located near said inlet, whereby air admitted through the inlet by a player is forced to discharge laterally through the vents only.

6. A musical'wind instrument provided with an air passage and having a housing provided with vents discharging laterally of the air passage and housing, said air passage having an inlet. a valve element in said housing to control all of said vents, said housing having a closed end located near said inlet, whereby air is forced to discharge laterally through the vents only, said valve being constructed to operate said "cuts to produce semi-tone changes only.

7. In a musical wind instrument having a row of lateral vents, keys for controlling said vents, key-springs for said keys having rm'erse-turn anchorage with said instrument to engage the keys, and means near one end of the row of vents for controlling keys near the other end of the row of vents.

8. A musical wind instrument having a valve housing provided with a series of vents and consisting of a strip of sheet metal folded upon itself to provide a box-like structure, one-edge portion of the material of said housing being extended to provide a series of key supporting arms spaced from each other and projecting from the housing.

9. A musical wind instrument having a series of vent controlling keys disposed in lined relation to each other, and means operable from one end of the series of vents for actuating keys controlling vents of the opposite cnd of the series.

meansfor"';1oia ene or the other we the said eouplet' ventg-"and'mean snrenneaia' veneer eachj' uplet is-le-tt *"12; musicat'wirfl pro: vided witli'toi'iecouplet' i ntsgthrougheut itsdater al 'v'e iit ialigninerit, 'aii'd intermediate vents-"awaited with-the rouplet seam-1rd a slide for =contiolliiiirl's aijd edu'pletintermeqiareven'tsfi j i v 5 13." In a'inu'sical'wmd instrument with'ton'e couplet ve'nts aiidan' intermediate vent alignnent, a slide controllin" sai'djioupletf vents, and means whereby a d ir'iterniediate' vent is heldcon staiitl y 9' ch to' c'daet with one' o'f the other eo'i'1pletyehts,said means consisting of an elongated aperture in said slide adapted to align at all times with said intermediate vent.

14. A musical wind instrument having a series of lateral vents and keys for controlling the vents disposed in lined relation to each other, and means operable from one end of the series of vents for selectively controlling vents of the opposite end of the series.

15. A musical wind instrument with tone couplet vents and an intermediate vent associated therewith throughout its lateral vent alignment, a slide for cont-roiling said couplet vents, and means whereby said intermediate vent is constantly open to co-act with one of the other of the couplet vents.

16. A musical Wind instrument having a horn provided with a housing having a series of fiat valve seats, said horn having lat eral vents, said lateral vents being arranged in groups of two for emitting fundamental tones and an interl'nediate vent for each group of two vents, and a slide movable in said housing for alternately opening and closing each one of the two vents of each of said groups and at the same time maintaining said intermediate vent open, a key for each of said groups of two vent-s for fundamental tones and one intermediate vent for semi-tones, and a pad carried by each key composed of Artgum, said pad being adapted to seat sungl v on its valve seat to maintain non-leaking control of its cluster of three vents.

17. A musical wind instrument consisting of a horn provided with av series of lateral vents disposed in a continuous row, said vents being arranged in clusters of three vents, the intermediate of said three vents being designed to emit semi-tones, and a common valve vents and 'i'glr l- 10. A musical wind instrument having a cdntrol for said vents arranged to alternately 1:22:

open 'and close two vents of each cluster of vents but to maintain normally. open the in termediate vent-of each cluster, and a spring actuated; key for each cluster of vent-s.

138, A Innsic'el wind instrument-having a horn provided with a series of lateral vent-s erranged-ina continuousrow, keys for controlling said lateral vents, springs for movkeys in one direction only, a lever for selectively restraining, certain of said keys, enda second lever for restraining a key not restrained-by thejfirst lever. 1-9; A musical wind instrument hnving a horn provided with 21 series Oi -lateral vents arranged in a. continuous row, keys for con trolling lateral ventsysp r ings for moving the keys one. d ire ;tion only e lever for movingoertz in of keys ag inst-theaction of their springs, and a leverequipped with a spring for. aetuating the some tQilOldOIlQ of aid: ey nr nc 129 ,34 9 ain v h a i 'its w pr Signed at Brooklyn, in the county of Kings, and State of- New York.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2551177 *Feb 27, 1947May 1, 1951Hector SommarugaSaxophone
U.S. Classification84/385.00R, 984/131
International ClassificationG10D7/00, G10D7/06
Cooperative ClassificationG10D7/06
European ClassificationG10D7/06