US 1792453 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
V Feb. 10, 1931,' E F./ R. L. THOMAS *1.792,453
BLISTE'R ORNAMENTED WOVEN FABRIC -Filed Aug. 1o, 1929 l 1 WARR @dz DAC/f.. s FACE+ /2 5 T8 MONS/- FACE.' y 21ml/ HARNESS 4 ssii# $2 l, DRAFT: zsj/ 0K5 v /CKS SHUTTLEBOX MOT/OA COARSE STUFFER S WOT BOARD FACE WARRS ALL URA -BAC/f WARR l ONLY 2 RAVON FACE WEFT w 1 HARNESS UP 2,3,4,D0WN RNOT5POARD- 3 RAVONFACE WEFT QZ HA RNESS a UR 2)4, DOWN JACQUARD-, 5
EVERY BAC/f WARP HOLDS UP HARNESS IDLE THROUGH R/CRS 42,3,4 `JACQUARD ACTS WHEN SELECTED l COARSE $7`UFF`ER$ FACE WARPS ALL UP ai B2 2 RAYON FACE WEFT HARNESS 2 UR/,ffl DOWN RNOT BOARD @UR- "l a2 E2 3 RAVONFACE WEFT L HARNESS 4,UP lla, DOWN STRUCTURAL BACK WEF TB2 Patented Feb. 10, 1931 UNITED STATES PATENT; OFFICE A FREDERICK R. I. THOMAS, 0F CLAREMNT, NEW HAMISHIRE, ASSIG-NOR T0 MONAD- NOCK MILLS, 0F CLAREMONT, NEW HAMPSHIRE, A CORPORATION OF NEW HAMP- v SHIRE BLISTER-ORNAMENTED WOVEN FABRIC Application ld August 10, 1929. Serial No. 384,814.
This invention relates to a double woven fabric of the type known to the trade as Marseilles quilt-ing, characteristically lornamented by raised figures of one of the component cloths, defined and separated by stitching connecting the back component cloth to the front component cloth, this stitching in the areas of the back and face cloth closely connected by any Weave structures establishing the pattern by its differences of actual lrelief from the blistered surface constituted by the remainder.
One object of the inventlon is to provide for increasing-the decorative effect of the pattern by increasing both the physical relief or elevation of the blisters, and by providing for making the face cloth in such a way as to make it selectively reflecting in respect to incident light. A preferred expedient for securing this appearance in the face cloth is to make it throughout as a satin, preferably a weft satin, the weft system of yarns being highly glossy, polished, of substantial size, and, lying closely in widthwise parallel relation, little interrupted by structural engagement with the warps except where thel attern ties the satinface to the backing fa ric.
A further-ob]- ect of the inventionlis to provide a patterned back surface showin the face pattern, in contrasting colors, i desired; a further object is to, provide that this fabric back shall be capable of being finished by a brushed nap. A further important object of the invention is to provide for weaving the fabric in such a way as to avoid undue' stress and wear on the warps, and to enable an effective fabric to be made ofl relatively coarse sley and pick at maximum speeds. The invention provides a new method or art of weaving as well' as the new genus of fabrics produced.
The invention-will now be described in connection with .the illustration of one species of various l part-icular characteristics of the patterns. In the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 1 is a section along the weft yarns and across the Warp yarns in diagram, showing the related perspective appearance of the face of a fabric of one pattern;
Fig. 2 is a diagram showing the relation of Warp and weft on the face of the fabric, a preferred harness draft and a preferred relation of jacquard healds and knot boards;
Fig. 3 is a diagram table explaining a preferred relation of the picks of the weft or shuttle-box motion to warp shedding; and
Fig. 4 is an enlarged diagrammatic View of a backing fabric.
Referring now to Figs. 1 and 2, the fabric preferably is woven on the basis of a single uniform warp which may or may not be divided for a differential let-off between those warps predominantly used at the back of the fabric and those predominantly used at the face. While it is an object to produce `a fabric .in which the face is relatively less tense in every dimension than the back, it is not,necessary, under conditions of weaving about to be explained, that this difference shall be provided by any actual difference of let-ofi1 for the back warp. To this end, therefore, a single warp consecutively entered in the dents of the reed may be employed. In order to produce the desired fabric it is suflicient to divide this Warp for the purpose of shedding so that a part of it may be manipu- .lated in one way4 independently of the manipulation of another part in relation to the entrance of wefts. In the instance to be described, forexample, the warps intended to enter into the face fabric may be every recurrent pair separated by a single intervening for example four; and one complete shedding series for the purpose of this invention may repeat on a similar number of picks entering the face cloth only; for example four.
Such a four-four pattern for` a weft satin face is illustrated b the harness draft and adjacent fabric in ig. 2, which shows the weave concatenation for the type of weft satin diagrammatically, in connection with the harness draft; this specific fabric is also shown in section in Fig. 1 at F. The warps w", lws, w10, w11,'etc. are face warps and the warps fw, w12, etc. are back warps. These warps may be and preferably are like yarns; in the usual case, they are colored for certain pattern effects explained below.
It will be observed that the type of face satin weave indicated in Fig. 2 and shown in Fig. 1 implies no more by way of motionsof the face warps to'be given bythe loom than shedding of a warp drawn in the he'alds of a four-frame harness according to the harness draft in the order .1, 3, 2, 4 for the passage of a similar number of successive face wefts and when hereinafter a satin weave is referred to it is to be understood as inclusive of such a broken four-leaf twill as herein specifically illustrated as well as other twills including true satins such as may be used in securing the desired surface effects. This order of shedding and picking is quite independent of any order resorted to for shedding and picking the back warps for the structural back` ing fabric.
In order to weave the back component B of the cloth it is preferred to resort to a oneand-one or plain weave,- Fig. 4, by which the successive warps w3, fp, fw, w12, w15, etc. are interwoven with a suitable weft for` the back. A preferred order of picking the structural ack wefts B1 and B2, Fig. 1, in respect to the face wefts, as illustrated, is to weave a pick for the back fabric weft after weaving each two intervening picks of the face fabric. Any other suitable weave structure of the backing fabric may be resorted to within the invention.
It is .often desirable, however, for the purpose of giving the fabric weight, and preventing the flattening of the blister pattern, and is recommended, to include between the face fabric F and the back fabric B an unwoven series of stufers S, which may be coarse cotton yarns, tied in. according to` the blister pattern; and a preferred order for the inclusion of these stuii'ers is to lay them in the open shed between the face and backing warps on picks alternating with picks alternately of the structural back yarn B1 and B2, which may be the same or different kinds of yarns. As shown in Fig. 3, the preferred order of weft introduction is thus to pick a coarse stuifer S, the face warps all being up, then to pick a suitable face weft a1 with harness 2 up, 1, 3, 4,. down; to pick another face weft a2 with harness 4 1, 2, 3, down; and
then to pick a structura back weft B1 with the face warps all up; and then to repeat.
So far as explained no provision has been made for shedding the back war of the series fw, fw, w12, etc. to produce t e one-andone or other desired back fabric structure. Bearing in mind that the fabric to be produced is to be ornamented by connecting face and back fabric, it is implied for a full capacity for complex pattern that every intersection of warp and weft, at least to the gauge of the backing fabric, shall be adapted for pattern purposes to a structure tying, binding, or stitching the face cloth F and back cloth B together. It is preferred and recommended that every back warp of the series 3, 6, 9, etc. be controlled independently, and td avoid breakages and wear, ex-4 clusively by a acquard actuated heald, sling, eye, or other lifting connection. As a practical matter, this of course implies independently controllable lifting by exible cords or wires or their equivalents for each back warp, and it is preferred and recommended that the necessary cord-guide, knot or repeat boards ofthe jacquard mechanism be arranged to be worked up and down to enable them to be utilized for the structural shedding of the back warp, whereas the independent motion of the back warp` for the pattern tying-toether of the two fabrics is the function of inependent lifting, one at a time, of each of the back warps; according, of course, to a perforated-card pattern and the griffe bar mechanism of the usual Jacquard loom. For the purpose of structural shedding, it` is necessary only to .divide the jacquard connections between the warp eye of whatever kind of flexible connection is in use and the griffe hooks into recurrent series, and to pull these series up alternately, or in any other desired order, after uevery third pick of the described series of four wefts. A convenient way to do this is to arranger the alternate jacquard connections to tliewarps 3, 6, 9, 12, 14, etc. to be controlled by knotted cords, or wires having stops on them, and to move these alternate series separately by a comb or a erfora'ted board hereinafter referred t'o as a not board. I do not herein claim the loom devices by which I prefer to perform these operations.
The shedding of the back warp for a oneand-one backing is by alternate lifting of alternate warps; but each of these warps may be independently lifted according to af'pattern during throw of the face and `any ofV of'free facecloth, as well as in diaper-patl terned, diagonally patterned, or other ornamented ground patterns in which the back cloth and the face cloth are relatively closely bound togethei` by bindingl or tying stitches consisting of warps of the back cloth brought forward to engage wefts of the front cloth. These binding points, lines or areas are typically shown at C, Fig. 1.
It will now beapparent that'at the stitch points C, Fig. 1, the stufer weft S as well as the face wefts go to the rear face of the cloth. If, as recommended, the fabric is carried out with a colored warp and a white or contrasting pair of silk or rayonface wefts al, a2, the back cloth shows' a colored pattern like the face, but what is the satin blister surface on the face is on the back a flat area of one-andone weave of the back fabric B; and what is the stitched valley or depression C on the face is on the back a three-part weft stitch of the yarns a1, a2, S. In the case of the colored warp, the structural wefts B1, B? may be of the same or a-different color, and the lstuffer S may be the same color as the warp or the same color as the face yarns a1, a2.
A satisfactorily u standing face blister is produced without urther precaution than the mode of weaving explained above. The face wefts al, a2 are preferably subject to little shuttle tension. It is preferred in some cases to cause the relative looseness of thel front face F as compared with' the back face B in a greater degree, and this may be accomplished merely by weaving the structural wefts B1, B2 with asufficient shuttle tension. To secure a super-elevation of the blisters, at least one of the structural wefts B1, B2 ma be a yarn of relatively great thickness, pre erably a twisted rayon yarn, which will normally stand up from the 'back face; after the weaving is completed the back face of the fabric, Fig. 4, is subjected to the action of a .napping or gigging brush of the kind famillar to manufacturers of blankets andvother brushed woolens, which has the eect of raising a covering nap on the back surface of the goods, and at the same time, of pullinglaterally on the backface runs of this weft B'2 to extend them to arc-shaped loops Bx, shown in Fig. 4, the formation of which pulls lengthwise upon the wefts B2, and contracts the back fabric laterally. This contraction after weaving, although of only two or three per centum in the length of an alternate weft component of the back fabric, is found satisfactorily to decrease the relative widthof the back fabric as compared with the face or satin blister of the fabric, and goods so finished display their satin blisters much more prominently than goods not sofinished. The highly glossy face o'f the satin blisters shows the pattern by reflection of bright and dark edges, and the relatively tense back fabric -displays this effect in an enhanced way.
In the manufacture of bed-spreads, the jacquard pattern may provide va weft-wise cutting line and a warpwise cutting line of closely-bound double-cloth for the finished edge of the goods, which may be bound by over-edge taping, or by over-edge stitching with a suitable sewing machine, or otherwise, or the goods may be woven of a great width by this method of weaving, and the indi# vidual bed-spreads cut from the wide goods on a type of trimming and over-edge sewing machine producing an over-edge finish, which may or may not follow a scalloped or other `ornamental line Warpwise or weftwise of the goods.
1. Art of weaving blister ornamented cloth comprising as steps shedding recurrent groups of warp yarns and throwing successive picksl of weft for a satin face fabric; at intervening, times between the said operations operating upon warps intervening between said recurrent groups, to shed said intervening warps in relation to each other to receive throws of weft for a backing fabric; placing said throws ofA weft; laying a stuffer weft between face and backing fabric at times between weaving the face fabric and throwing weft for the vbacking fabric; and operating independently upon eachy of the said warps intervening between the recurrent face-fabric groups to lift them to receive beneath some of them according to pattern successive face wefts and a stuffer weft.
` 2. Art of weaving satin blister ornamented cloth comprising as steps shedding recurrent groups of warp yarns and throwing successive picks of weft for a weft-satin face fabric; at intervening times between the said operations operating upon warps intervening between said recurrent groups, to shed said intervening warps in alternate relation to each other to receive throws of weft for a ono-and-one backing fabric; placing said throws of weft; laying a stufer weft between face and backing fabric .at times betweenv weaving the face fabric and alternating with each throw of'weft for the backing fabric; and operating independently upon each of the said warps intervening between the recurrent facefabric groups to lift them to receive beneath some of them accordin to pat-l tern successive face wefts and a stu er weft.
3. Art of Weaving double fabrics ornamented by satin blister effects comprising as steps shedding in relation to each other warps of recurrentl groups only of' a warp, and throwing successive wefts, for the production of a satin vface fabric on said recurrent warps; .operating on each warp of the intervening warps at each interval between shedding and weft placing operations for the lsatin facel to'open a shed for picks of weft for a structural back fabric` and 4placing said picks; and operating on the said intervening warps to lift some of thern individually according to a pattern during successive picks of face weft to make tying stitches the blisters, having a system of weft yarns in the backing fabric extended into loops b brushing, whereby the backing fabric is aterally shrunk and enhances the relative looseness of theface blisters.
9. Blister ornamented double cloth having a satin face and a one-and-one woven back tled together by warp stitches of the back arranged to form on the face a pattern, and an intervcnin stuffer, the backing cloth showing the ace weft and the stuffer'respectively at -the positions of4 said tying stitches. p
Signed by me at Claremont, New Hampshire, this 7th day of August, 1929.
FREDERICK R. L. THOMAS.
picks of weft for a structural back fabric, p
and placing said picks; placing a stufler weft between said recurrent groups of front face warps and the back warps at `intervals and operating on the said back warps to lift some of them individually according to a pattern during successive picks of face weft and picksrof stuffer weft to make tying stitches.
5. Double fabric having therein a woven face fabric of weft satin weave having weft runs engaged under warps and over groups of warps each comprising at least three warps of the face structure, and having a backing fabric containing fewer warps and fewer wefts than the face fabric,the backing fabric having certain structural warps interwoven above certain wefts of theface according to a pattern. t
6. Double fabric having therein a woven face fabric of weft satin weave having weft runs engaged under warps and over groups of warps each comprising at least three warps of the face structure, and having a backing fabric containing fewer warps and fewer weft-s than the face fabrics, the backing fabric having some of its structural warps interwoven above successive wefts of the face according to a pattern, and above otherwise free weft runs of a stufer yarn lying vbetween said satin face and said backing fabric.
7 Double fabric of the Marseilles quilting type characterized by a face pattern of satin blisters, having therein a continuous face cloth of four-harness weft-satin weave connected to a backing cloth of one-and-one woven plain cloth of a coarser sley and coarserpick, and also having between its faces a weft system of stuffer yarns interengaged with the face andback cloths by tying engagements of certain back warps according to pattern, said back warps passing towards the face side of the fabric over at least one of .said stuifers and at least two of the face fabric wefts.
8. Double fabric of the type having a weft satin face cloth and` a plain weave backing cloth tied together by warp pattern stitches of the back cloth to form ornamental raised