US 1793188 A
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Feb. 17, 1931. c NOERENBERG 1,793,188
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Feb. 4, 1928 5 Sheet s-Sheet 1 C/arence E. N0renber BUILDINGCONSTRUCTION Filed Feb. 4 192 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 alien W1 0 Feb. 17, 1931. c, NOERENBERG 1,793,188
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Feb. 4, 1928 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 1 q l \96 Q 5:
Ill/77! Patented Feb. 17, 1931 PATENT OFFICE CLARENCE E. NOERENBERG, OF LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA BUILDING cons'rnuc'rron Application filed February 4, 1928. Serial No. 251,768.
This invention relates to building construction and while the features of the invention are applicable to the construction of build-' ple family dwellings of one, two or three stories in height. While modern engineering methods and theoretical and applied scientific developments of recent years have been applied to the problems of construction of tall large buildings, such as skyscrapers, and of those in which the floors are expected to carry 1 heavy weights such as in warehouses, or buildings of special type such as factories, etc., the great majority of the smaller buildings of today are still being constructed with little advance beyond the methods of a century ago.
As these smaller buildings still are usually constructed, the raw materials are brought in their unfabricated form to the site where the building is to be erected and the structural frame of the building is laboriously built up bit by bit by cutting each'part to fit, by hand labor and attaching it to the parts already erected, usually without detailed drawings -or directions and dependent on the individual ability and skill of the workman. It is an unprogressive, wasteful, inefficient, slow and hand-labor method of construction, and the result is highly defective and must perforce in time exhibit its innate disadvantages. Such a method takes very little advantage of the use of machinery and of modern production methods, and just as the structural frame is defective, so do the enclosing wall "covers ings fail that are hung upon it, whose func- 40/ tion it is both to resist the elements and to present the decorative qualities that the "occupants desire. I
Whether-the exterior walls be of wood or i brick or concrete, the wooden structural frame nailed together nowadays, it offers little resistance to the action of cyclones or earthquakes.
The general object of the present invention is to provide a buildingconstruction for a. structural frame of a building which contains none of these defects, which is homogeneous for both walls, floors and roof, the units of which can be fabricated in a factory by the use of machinery and under modern production methods with a minimum cost for hand labor and materials, and which can be erected on the site easily and quickly with a minimum use of hand labor and of heavy assembling machinery, and yet the units of which I are so adaptable that any style of plan, of
architecture, or of number of stories can be used with ease, quickness and economy.
A further object of the invention is to provide a building construction that has a struc- 7o tural frame the parts of which are made of a tough rigid, light-weight homogeneous material, using this same material for floor, roof and wall elements, and which are readily assembled and so arranged and fastened together that the floors and roofs are joined to the walls with rigid joints forming a rigid frame the walls of which are so rig.- idly braced that wind and earthquake, expansion and contraction, or movements, between parts have little efiect and little tendency to produce cracks in the wall covering.
A further object of the invention is to provide a building construction that produces an attractive, durable and relatively inexpensive building in which the use of wood is avoided except as desired for decoration, thereby producing a building that is practically fire proof, termite proof, and vermin proof; and one in which the frame audits enclosing covering will neither rot, shrink, warp, crack nor swell.
A further object of the invention is to rovide a building construction that provides wall units of such a type that furring and lathing materials on whichthe protective and decorative coverings of plaster and stuc- .co are placed, and to which stone, brick, tile or terra cotta are anchored and tied, can be supported directlv on the 'Fromnu Me MW imits either on one face or on both faces of the unit, (in the latter case leaving an air space between the faces) rendering the building warm in winter and cool insummer and giving the structure high insulating values against the transmission of heat and sound.
further object of the invention is to provide a buildingconstruction that avoids the necessity of setting up a frame for the building as a separate operation, but that in the setting up of the wall units on the foundation to produce the walls of the structures upon which the lathing materials are directly hung, simultaneously at the places where the meeting edges or adjacent edges of the units come together, provides in that very meeting the structural columns (thereupon existent within the walls and integrally part of it) which are thereby immediately prepared to receive the loads that come from the second floor and/or roof beams or trusses to be supported at these junctions. The same operation and means that connect two wall units together to form the wall, simultaneously form the structural columns built-in within the wall. A
A further object of the invention is to provide a construction for dwellings that contains wall units constructed and set up in such a way that they cooperate to form a structural frame for the building in which the beams or trusses are located in the. meeting planes of the walls units'and, rigidly attached to the structural columns formed at each junction of the wall units, so that they cooperate to form a rigid frame preventing the subsequent forming of cracks in the plaster on the interior of the walls.
A further object of theinvention is to provide a building construction that contains a structural wall frame made up of wall units of rectangular ladder like form containing vertical side bars, one at each vertical edge of the unit, and horizontal crossbars spaced at intervals in the height of the unit the vertical side bars being so shaped and arranged that when two come together, one from each of adjacent units, and are fastened together, they form a structural column, that is to say, a built-up as well as built-in column that gives the wall strength and rigidity in itself and, to which the beams or trusses can.
be readily connected to the walls at the meeting planes of the units.
A further object of the invention is to provide a type of buildingconstruction which in addition to satisfying all of these aforesaid objects, is easily, 'efficiently'and economically adaptable to all the infinite variations that exist in the design and erection 'of dwellings under the numberless different conditions that arise.
Further objects of the invention will apand combination of parts to be described hereinafter, all of which contribute'to produce an efficient building construction.
A preferred embodiment of the invention is described in the following specification, while the broad scope of the invention is pointed out in the appended claims.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a perspective showing a crosssection through a building in course of construction and embodying this invention, certain parts being broken away and shown in section so as to illustrate details of the invention.
Figure 2 is a view similar to Figure l, but illustrating a two story building embodying the invention.
Figure 3 is a perspective illustrating the manner in which a beam such as a roof truss is supported on the structural column forme by the junction of two wall units.
Figure 4 is a perspective showing the details of the lower end of a corner of the building illustrated in Figure 1.
Figure 5 is a perspective of the frame of a typical wall unit and illustrating the way in which the crossbars for supporting lathing materials may be arranged.
Figure 6 is a view similar to Figure 5, but with certain parts broken away and showing another wall unit in a position to match up with the wall unit shown in Figure 5; this view shows the way in which the lathing material is supported on the cross bars.
Figure 7 is a horizontal section particularly illustrating the preferred construction which is employed at the corners of the building; and
Figure 8 is a horizontal cross-section through the wall and illustrating the relation of the wall units.
Referring to Figure 1, A illustrates a house embodying the invention. It will be noted that the walls of this house are formed of wall units 1 supported on a .foundation 3. Two of these wall units are illustrated in Figures 5 and 6 in different stages of construction. The wall unit 2 illustrated in Figure 5 embodies merely the steel frame of the unit. In other words,"each of these wall units is formed of a steel frame comprising two vertical side members 3, and a number of horizontal cross members 4 spaced at intervals. These side-members are preferably made of some structural shape such as channel iron with a web 3 and flanges 3. 'In any event, the vertical bar is built into the frame 2 in such a way that it has a flange on the inner side of the wall for supporting the outer facing of the wall, and a flange on its inner side for supporting the inner facing or plaster of the wall. For this purpose'the flanges 3 extend structed so that they cooperate .to facilitate side bars are preferably held slightly apart as will appear hereinafter.
In order to facilitate the attachment of plaster 'or stucco, the frame is provided with girts or crossbars in the form ofhorizontal bars 4, the ends of which are welded to the" vertical side-bars. The lathing materials are fastened directly ,to these cross-bars or, if desired, the wall unit may be made ready for attaching various sorts of metal lath or stucco reinforcing-by attaching vertical bars" 5 to the bars 4, the points of contact 6 between these bars being tied with wire, or otherwise securely fastened. On the bars 5, which would be on the inner side of the wall, lath, such as standard metal lath, 7 is attached. This same construction may be employed on the outer side, and back plastered also if desired. If desired, on the side of the frame which is .to form the outer side of the wall, wire mesh 9 carrying specially prepared paper ,8 on its inner side can be attached.
This wire mesh with the paper attached to it may be procured ready made. After the wall units are set up alongside of each other in the manner described, and the wire mesh and/or metal lath attached thereto, stucco may be f edges of the vertical flanges of the bars 12.
applied to the outer side of the wall and plaster to the inner side.
It should be understood that the Wall unit described is a typical wall unit and the construction is such as it would have where the wall is without a window. Whenever the panel must carry a window, the panel is provided with cross-bars 10, such as illustrated in Figure 1, between which the window frame 11 is mounted.
' At the lower end of each frame it is provided with two bars 12 which are attached on opposite sides of the vertical bars 3*. These bars 12 are preferably in the form of angle iron with their vertical flanges welded to the flanges of the channels. Between these bars 12 angle clips 13 are placed (see Figure 8) with their flanges welded to theedges of the flanges of the channels; the horizontal flanges of the clips are welded-to the upper The horizontal flanges of these clips have holes to enable anchor bolts to be applied to i secure the'wall units to the foundation or foundation sills. Similar cross bars 12*,are provided to connect the'side bars at the upper end of the frame.
The upper ends of the wall umts are conthe attachment; of the roof trusses 14 of the building. For this purpose, the outer sides of the vertical side bars 3 are provided with gusset plates 15, which may be of the rec- ;When the panels are set up alongside of each other, these gusset plates 15 'come into alignment but are slightly apart, so as to receive a vertical plate 16 which is provided at the end of a beam or'truss (see Figure 3). This gusset plate 16 fits into position between the gussets -15, as illustrated in Figure 3, and is supported in position by bolts 17 placed in two vertically spaced holes which have been previously punched in the gussets. These bolts 17 have suflicient diameter to take up the shear due to the weight of the truss and roof and it is, therefore,unnecessa-ry to provide any seat for the end of the truss to rest upon. The bolts should fit tight in the holes so that a rigid joint is formed between the truss and the column formed by the adjacent units.
ridge plate 18 to which the truss members 19' a are welded. In order to brace the trusses, each ridge plate is provided on opposite sides with clips 20, to which-horizontal ridge bars 21 are secured by means of bolts 22.
If it is desired to give the columns formed by the vertical bars 3 greater rigidity and a greater moment of inertia, this can be accom; plished by providing one or more filler blocks or spacers in the form of thick plates, such as the plate 23. These plates may be welded on one side. ofeach wall unit, but if desired aligning bolt holes may be provided in the' vertical bars 3" and loose spacer plates may be held in position, and bolted there when the wall is erected.
The invention may be embodied in. a twostorybuilding such. as illustrated in Figure 2. This necessitates the use of floor beams 24 for the second story. The end of these beams are secured bolts 25 between gusset plates 26 which pro ect out from thevertical side bars 27 of the wall units 28. These gusset plates 26 are similar tothe gusset plates 15 described in connection with Figures 5 and 6. At the heads of the columns 29 that are formed by the union of the vertical side bars of the wall units, similar gusset plates 30 are. provided for supporting the roof trusses31.
It will be noted that at the corners of the building the webs of the vertical side bars of the panels will not abut against each other so as to forma structural column of the same form as in the walls, the webs of the vertical bars are secured together by means of rigid angle clips 49 (see Figure 7 secured to the webs by the bolts 50. These clips cooperate with the vertical members 51 of the panels to form a skeleton column. In forming the wall, this skeleton column may be built out to form a regular corner construction, as illustrated in Figure 7. ,In doing this, the reinforcing mesh 9 with the paper backing 8 is applied to the corner by bending the mesh to form an angle 52, coinciding with the true position of the corner of the building. If desired, instead of extending the reinforcing and stucco out to form a right-angled corner, a beveled corner may be formed by applying the reinforcing wire and paper diagonally across the skeleton column, as indicated by the dotted line 53.
What claim is:
1. In a building construction, a wall composed of a plurality of wall units, said wall units having vertical side members and mounted so that the side member of each units lies adjacent to the side member of the adjacent wall unit, each of said side members having an integral web eitending sub stantially through the entire thickness of the wall terminating at the ends of the unit, having a width determining the thickness of the wall, and having an outer flange extending substantially in the plane of the wall on the outer side of the wall, means secured to the said flanges for attaching the'outer facing of the wall to said unit, and means connecting each side member with the side member of its adjacent unit and cooperating with the said flanges to form the structural column within the wall that supports the roof.
2. In a building construction, a'wall composed of a plurality of wall units, said wall units having vertical side members andmounted so that the side member of each unit lies adjacent to the side member of the adjacent wall unit, each of said members having an integral web substantially at right angles to the plane of the wall extending substantially through the entire thickness of the wall, terminating at the ends of the unit, having a width determining the thickness of the wall, and having an inner flange extending substantially in the plane of the-wall ontheinnerside of the wall, means attached to thesaid flanges to carry the inner facing of the wall, spacers between the webs of the adjacent units, and means connecting each side member with the side member of its adjacent unit and cooperating with the said flanges and webs to form the structural column within the wall that supports the roof.
3. In a building construction, a wall composed of a plurality of wall units, said wall units having vertical side members and mounted so that the side member of each unit lies acent to the side member of the adjacent wall unit, each of said side members having integral web extending substantially through the entire thickness of the wall, terminating at the ends of the unit, having a width determining the thickness of the wall, and having a flange extending substantially in the plane of the wall on the outer side, with means for attaching the outer facing of the wall to the outer flanges,
said side members also'having flanges on their inner sides, with means attached'to the same to carry the inner facing of the wall, and means connecting each side member with the side member of its adjacent unit and cooperating with the said flanges to form the structural-column within the wall that supports the roof.
4:. In a building construction, a wall composed of a plurality of wall units, said wall units having vertical side members and mounted so that the side member of each unit lies adjacent the side member of the adjacent wall unit, each of said side members having an integral web extending substantially through the entire thickness of the wall terminating at the ends of the unit, having a width determining the thickness of the wall and having a flange integral with the web extending substantially in the plane of the wall toward the side face of the unit, means'attached to the flanges for supporting the wall facing, means connecting each side member with the side member of its adj cent unit and cooperating with the said flanges to form the structural column within the wall that supports the roof, and roofbeams in a line with the meeting plane ofv the said side members and supported on the said structural columns. I
5. ln a'building construction, a wall composed collectively of a plurality of wall units forming the wall portion of the structural frame of a building, said'wall units being formed of vertical side bars and of horizontal cross bars spaced up and down at intervals all previously assembled and rigidly fastened together to form complete rigid structural frames or wall units of substantially rectangular shape, said wall units mounted on end and edge to edge so that the side bar of one unit lies adjacent to the side bar of the adj acent unit with means connecting said two adjacent side bars to form a structural column and thereby simultaneously connecting two adjacent units together and similarly successively connecting all wall units together to form a rigid continuous wall having integrally within it and part of it a series of built-in structural columns. lfhe same a means that connects two or more wall units together to form' the wall simultaneouslyforming said structural columns within the wall, and the sand cross bars of successive units simultaneously forming the means of intervals all previously assembled and rigidly fastened together to form rigid structural frames or wall units of substantially rectangular shape, said wall units mounted on end and edge to edge so that one of said vertical side bars of each unit is adjacent to a side bar of the adjacent unit, means connect ing said two adjacent side bars and cooperating with the same to form the structural columns built-in within the wall for supporting the roof beams, said horizontal cross ating to form the structural corner column for supporting a roof, means rigidly connecting the two adjacent side members, and wire mesh extending across the outer side of the corner with stucco carried thereby.
Signed at Los Angeles, California, this 1st day of February, 1928.
CLARENCE E. NOERENBERG.
bars being spaced at intervals and rigidly connecting the said side bars, and operating to brace and stiffen the said built-in columns, and thereby enable the parts of said columns to be of reduced dimensions, said vertical side bars and horizontal cross bars being integral portions of the wall unit and also forming the means of support and fastening of the lathing materials that enclose the whole structural frame.
7. In a building construction, a rigid frame forming the structural steel frame of a building made up of awall on each side of a room or space and a set of floor beams and a set of roof beams or roof trusses, said walls being composed collectively of a plurality of wall units, said wall units on opposite sides of the wall being of the same width as the distance between the roof beams of the building, and being formed of vertical side bars and horizontal cross bars spaced at intervals previously assembled and rigidly fastened to the vertical side bars to compose such wall units, said wall units being mounted on end and edge to edge so that the side bar of one unit lies adjacentto the side bar of an adjacent unit, with means connecting these two adjacent side bars to form a structural column built-in integrally Within the Wall and thereby simultaneously connecting adjacent units to form a continuous wall having integrally within and part of it a series of built-in structural columns constituting the roof-supporting columns of the building, said set of floor beams being fastened each one separately and successively to, andsupported by, the lower portion of such structural columns opposite each other within walls formed of said unitson opposite sides of the room or space, said set of roof beams or roof trusses being fastened by a rigid connection each one separately and successively to, and supported by, the upper portion of such structural columns opposite each other within walls formed of said units on opposite sides of the room or space.
a 8. In a building construction, a pair of wall units whose planes are set at an angle to each other and forming a corner for the building, each unit consisting of a steel frame with side members having a flange lying substantially in the plane of the unit and a web extending substantially at right angles to the plane of the unit, said side members cooper-