US 1795161 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 3, 1931. v C w R E I 1,795,161
APPARATUS FOR TREATMENT OF AIR Filed Sept. i8, 1925 4 Sheets-Shet 1 INVENTOR.
\ ATT NEY 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 v INVENTOR.
c. w. BRABBEE APPARATUS FOR TREATMENT OF AIR Filed Sept. 18, 1925 March 3, 193 1.
March 1931. c. w. BRABBEE APPARATUS FOR TREATMENT OF AIR Filed Sept. 18, 1925 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 G I hm flw/f/ a W .1 1 1 WW II n h WM l lhloz fl a fl II II. 1 V Z i I a H a 4/ I I v W a w L .n m z w fl n 1 x g i w W s m i m, 0 J M/ Z w z i 7 M n 7% INVENTQR.
March 3, 1931.
Filed Sept. 18 1925 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Patented Mar. 3, 1931 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CHARLES W. BRABBEE, 0F BRONXVILLE, NEW YORK, ASSIGNOR TO AMERICAN RADI- ATOR COMIANY, OF NEW YORK, N. "Y., A CORPORATION OF NEW JERSEY AP PARATUS FOR TREATMENT OF AIR Application filed September-18, 1925. Serial No. 57,240.
My invention relates to new and useful improvements in methods and apparatus for treatment of atmospheric air, and more particularly of that character or type employed for treating atmospheric airso as to impart thereto desired temperature and humidity for supply to or ventilation of living or working apartments.
One of the objects of theinvention is to provide an improved apparatus for efficiently supplying air of the desired temperature and humidity.
A further object is to provide an improved apparatus of the character specified, which will initially take air at atmospheric conditions of temperature and humidity and modify the same to produce air of a predetermined temperature and humidity.
'Another object is to provide an improved means for supplying relatively cool and dry air during the summer se eon, or in hot climates, irrespective of thg temperature and humidity of the out-dool air. I
Other objects will in part beobvious and in part be pointed out hereinafter.
The invention consists in the improved apparatus, tobe more fully described hereinafter, and the novelty of which will be par-' ticularly pointed out and distinctly claimed.
In the accompanying drawings to be taken as a part of--this specification, I have illustrated a preferredyembodiment of an apparatus embodying' my inventio n and in which.
drawings I Figure 1 1s a view n side elevation of a preferred embodiment of my invention, the
same being partly insection, and with certain portions broken away. I
Fig. 2 is a "rizontal longitudinal section through Fig. '1';
Fig. 3 is an'enlarged transverse section showing an air-treating element infront ele-, vation;
Fig. 4 is an enlarged detail View of an air p flow controlling means;
Fig. 5 is a detail sectional view through a door structure employed in the apparatus; Figs. 6 and 7 are detail transverse and longitudinal sectional views through a window structure employed in the apparatus;
Fig. 8 is a detail section on the line 8-8 of Fig. 3.
Referring to the drawings by characters of reference, 1 designates a base or floor structure, preferably oblong in plan and constructed of concrete or other suitable material. At the ends of the floor structure are raised abutments or platforms 2, 2*, also preferably of concrete and employed for a purpose to be'presently described. Upon the floor 1 and between the platforms 2, 2 is a horizontally disposed oblong basin or pan 3 having a bottom 4 and vertical side and end Walls 5, 6, respectively.
Upon the platform 2, which is at the air other. Leading to said ducts 7 and 11 is an air supply duct 13 leading fromany suitable supply of atmospheric air, for example, any
point outside the building where the apparatus may be installed.
In the duct 7 is located any suitable form of air-heating apparatus l i preferably, but
not necessarily, consisting of one or more sections of hot,blast radiators or heaters supplied with steam, hot water, or other; fluid heating medium from any suitable source and controlled in any suitable manner as, for
example, valve controlled inlet and outlet pipes 14*, 14", respectively, see Fig. 2. It will be understood that air passing through said duct 7 will be heated by said heating apparatus. The heating apparatus may be emloyed in winter to preheat the air before the latter is subjected to the treatment to be hereinafter described.
Separating the duct 13 from the ducts 7 and 11 is controlling means to regulate the inflow passage of air thereto from said duct 13. This means may take a number of forms within the'spirit and scope of my invention, but preferably comprises a plurality of upper and lower ivoted shutters or adjustable louvres 15, horizontally pivoted, as at 16, to a suitable framework, including vertical side frame members 15?. These shutters are ar ranged in two groups, one of which, 15", controls duct 11, and the other of which, 15,
controls the passage 7. The outer or swinging ends of said sets of shutters are connected pivotally to operating bars 17, 17 respective ly, by means of which the shutters of each set may be operated simultaneously. The shut .ters may be operated in any suitable manner, but I prefer to operate the same by the following means: To the bar 17 is secured a flexible connection 18 leading to any suitable point and adapted to be operated manually or by power means (not shown). This flexible connection may pass upward and be guided by one or more sheaves or guide pulleys 19, and connected to the bar 17, on the upper set of shutters is a flexible connection 20, which passes upward and over a guide pulley 21, and thence downward, the end being connected to the connection 18 below the pulley 21, as at 18. The arrangement is such that when the connection is pulled upward, the lower set of shutters is raised or opened to increase the air flow through duct 7, and shutters 15 gravitate toward closed, position to reduce the air flow through the duct 11. When the connection 18 is paid out, the shutters 15 gravitate toward closed position, and through connections 18 and 20 raise the upper set of shutters 1'5 toward open position. By this arrangement the relative quantities of air flowing through ducts 7 and 11 may be regulated. or the supply to one duct completely out off, and to the other duct maintained at a maximum.
At their inner ends the ducts 7 and 11 deliver the airinto a chamber 22 supported within the pan 3 and comprising vertical side walls 23 and a horizontal top wall 24 forming an elongated passage or chamber which is substantially rectangular in cross-section. Withinthis chamber 22. are arranged aplurality of air washers 25 intercepting the flow of air'through said chamber,.said washers se'ryinglto lower the;teinperature oftheAair to a desi i'ed point andimpart thereto a can tain maximum relative'hjimidity for fexu ample, 90 to 100 per cent. Each of these coolers orwashers comprises lfront and rear spaced vertical walls 26, each including a rectangular frame 27, preferablyyof suitable angle or channel-iron, the vertical and horizontal members ofwhich are -connected and braced by vertical and horizontal transverse members 28, 29, also of angle or channel-iron, and forming a plurality of openings 30, each of which isclosed by a rectangular sash or frame 31 having wire mesh or screen 32, as clearly shown in Fig. 3, to permit free flow of air through said walls. It will be understood that both the front and rear walls of the washers and coolers may be and preferably are of the construction just described. The sash or screens mentioned may be, and preferably are, detachably secured in place by bolts 33 and clips 33, or any other suitable means.
In the space between the walls 26 and the intermediateupper and lower ends of each chamber, are one or more plates 34 inclined transversely toward one longitudinal edge and supported in any suitable manner, as by the angle members 29 of said walls. sup ported on each plate 34 is a receptacle in the form of a trough 34 projecting across the space between the walls 26 and extending lengthwise from one side wallto the other of the chamber. These troughs 34; are inclined lengthwise from one side wall to the other of each chamber, for a purpose to be presently described. Upon each of these troughs 34 is supported a mass of suitable material to form a large number of staggered passages through which air may flow in passing through said walls, said material consisting, preferably, of more or less irregularly shaped bodies or elements having comparatively smooth surfaces. These elements by preference consist of rocks or boulders 35 of such size and shape as to permit passage of air therebetween, and being smooth, rounded river or seashore stones of about egg size that is, from approximately two to four inches greatest dimension. Supported preferably above each mass of the rocks or boulders is a horizontally disposed spray pipe 36 extending transversely of the partitions and having discharge openings 37 along the lower portion thereof to deliver water at a desired temperature to the upper portion of the mass, so thatthe water flows downward in a film over the surfaces of the boulders, thereby presenting a large or extended surface of water with which the air contacts intimately in passing through the walls and intervening spaces of the scrubber or washer. The spray pipcs are supplied with water at a desired relatively low temperature from any suitable source through a supply pipe 38 and branch pipes 39, which lead, respectively, to the-spray pipes and" are controlled by suitable handoperated valves 40'. 'By this arrangement air flowing through the washer will be cooled approXimately to the temperature of the water esay, about 5 F. above the water temperature, and have a certain maximum relative humidity-say, 90 to 100 per cent. Any excess humidity in the air above the saturation poiiit is discharged into and flows out with the descending water into the basin 3, whence the water passes outward through a drain 41 and waste pipe 42 to a suitable catch basin, not shown. .By inclining the troughs 34, the water at the bottom of each water from an upper compartment does not v flow on to the boulders in a lower compartment.
The lower end of each of the troughs are spaced from the adjacent end' wall of the compartment, as at 34, so that the water flowing lengthwise of the troughs will be deposited at the end of the lower section and flow down through the latter Without assing over the mass of boulders therein. ach trough may be supported in any suitable manner, but preferably rests at one portion upon the high point of plate 34, and at the opposite edge is supported by brackets or feet 34"- resting upon the lower edge portion of the plate 34.
It will be understood that the cooling Water, if not initially of the necessary or desired low temperature to produce the desired cooling efi'ect, may be cooled as. required by any well known cooling coil and refrigerating system (not shown).
In the preferred embodiment shown, 'I have employed three of the washers described, and
the same being of identical structure, the description given of one will suffice for all. These washers are spaced apart from each other, as shown, to provide spaces 43 which are traversed by the air, and in which excess moisture carried by the air may be deposited in the pan 3.
Adjacent the-lastor third washer in the series, and spaced therefrom, is a drier structure 44, which may be, and preferably is, of
the same structure as the washers, but is not supplied with water spray pipes, the air passing over the rocks or boulders in said drier and depositing thereon any excess of waterv carried thereby. The walls of the washers 'andsaid drier are provided at their 11 per portions with openings 45., vth'rough w ich the boulders may be supplied to the upper chamber or section of the washer, said openings being closed by hinged panelsor plates 46 secured in place by bolts and clips 46 ,;or
other suitable means. 'Theboulders are placed in the lower section'or compartment'of the washer before the uppeiyiplate 34 and trough 34 are securedin placel I provide means at theoutlet end of the air washing and cooling chamber rplreheating the cooled air so that the temperature of the. latter will be raised to thepoint at which it is to be delivered for use, and so that the air will have a desired humidity. This means comprises an air blast heater 4? supported within an air duct 48 located on the platform 2, said duct being constructed in the same manner as the duct 7 heretofore described. The hot blast heater comprises a plurality of radiator sectionswhich may be of any type suitable for the purpose, and supplied with walls of duct 48, the top wall of duct 48, and
an upper wall 50.. These ducts 48 and 49 open into a mixing and delivery chamber or passage 51, which serves a purpose to be pres- .ently described.
The flow of air from the outlet end of the cooling chamber to the ducts 48 and 49 is controlled by suitable means, preferably comprising upper and lower sets of shutters or adjustable louvres 52, 53, the plates or shutters of each set being pivoted at their inner ends, as at 54, on horizontal bars 55, supported by vertical frame members 56, in the same manner as the louvres 15 heretofore described. The outer ends of these sets of louvresare alsoconnected pivotally tooperating bars 57 58, respectively, which are adapted a; be operated by means similar to that'heretofore described for operating the bars 16,17, the corresponding elements and connection being designated by similar reference numerals withletter exponents. By the controlling means just described, either of the ducts 4-8, 49 may be simultaneously controlled so that one ma be completely closed and the other opene for maximum air flow, or the air currents flowing through said ducts may be proportioned relative to each otherso that a mixture may take place in the chamber or passage 51 to'produce a desired temperature and humidity. The passage 51 delivers the treated air to a fan or other impeller (not cated opposite'the space :between the washers so that conditions in said chamber may be observed. The.,opposite side wall of the chamber may be provided with hinged dpors 60, alsopreferably glazed, and adapted to permit access to. the space between hewashers when desired, said doors being held closed by any suitable means during operation of the apparatus. The operation of the above apparatus is as follbivs: Air, for example at normal atmospheric temperature and humidity supplied from any suitable source, is fed through passage 13 and ducts 7 andll to the interior of the cooling chamber. In summer when the temperature and humidity of the air is relatively high, the heating function of the preheating'element 14 may be suspended, so that the air at its normal temperature and humidity passes into the cooling and washing chamber. For purposes of example, the temperature of the air when initially supplied to the cooling chamber may be approximately 95 F., with a humidity of 50 per cent. \Vater at a desired or proper temperature-say, approximately 50 to 60 F.-will be supplied to each of the washers or scrubbers, and will flow down in thin films or divisions over the surfaces of the rocks or boulders, thus presenting a large and extended surface to be intimately contacted by the air flow. The air admitted to the chamber flows through the washers in succession, passing through the spaces between the boulders, and contacts intimately the extended surface of cooling water, and thereby is reduced gradually in temperature by the time it has passed through the last Washer. Also in passing through the washers, the air coming .in contact with the films of water on the boulders and while having its temperature reduced, has its moisture content successively increased, reaching graduall y toward the saturation point, and at this point, and below this point, the surplus of humidity falls or rains out, automatically reducing the absolute humidity of the air per unit of weight. It willbe seen that in passing between the elements or boulders that the air is retarded and bafiied in contact withthe water flowing over the boulders, so thatthe air is efiiciently subjected to the cooling and humidifying action. A portion of the air cooled to approximately 50 to 60 F., i. e., substantially the temperature of the cooling water, and approximately saturated, for example to 90-100 per cent. humidity after passing through the drier to have excess moisture removed therefrom, passes to the reheating element 47, where the temperature of the air is increased, but the percentage of its relativehumidityisdecreased, for example, the temperature of air initially at 95 F. with 50 per cent. humidity, will, in the washers, be reduced to substantially 50 to 60 F., but with 90-100 per cent. humidity, and then -when -reheated by element 47 will have the temperature increasedfor'example, to substantially 150. F., with corresponding percentageof humidity, i-. e., lower than 90-100 per cent, say, 4-5 per cent. relative humidity. h
This reheatedair with its corresponding percentage of relative humidity is then mixed in the chamber 51 in.suitable proportion with the cold air (or that air which hasnot been reheated) at approximately the saturation temperature, say, 90-100 per c'ent.,hum idity to produce inthemixing chamber a supply of air at a desired temperature with its corresponding, humidity-for example, 75 F., at which the humidity will be approximately 40-60 per cent. It will be understood that by adjusting the louvres 52, 53, proper proportions of the cold and the reheated air may be mixed in the chamber 51 to produce a wide range of desired temperatures.
My invention is attended with a number of advantages, among which are the following: By use of the stones or boulders, a large film surface of water is presented to the air flow, which results in effective lowering of the air temperature to approximately that of the cooling medium, without the air taking up too much humidity from the water. The use of the stones or boulders imparts to the air a. refreshing odor, due, I believe, to ozonization. The use of the upper and lower sprays in each washer maintains a substantially uniform Water temperature at all points in the Washer, so that all strata of air in the flow are uniformly cooled to a temperature substantially that of thewater.
Also the air can be effectively cooled low enough with 90-100. per cent. humidity, and I am able to reheat and mix air currents to produce air of.usable temperatures with desirable relatively low humidity.
By controlling the temperature of the incoming air, and also of the water flowing over the stones, I am able to produce air at any desired temperature and any desired humidity, that is, the apparatus can be employed to dry air for cooling purposes, or to humidify for technical purposes.
, What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is 1. An apparatus of the character described comprising a passage or chamber for air to be modified, air intake openings leading into said chamber, means for heating the air entering certain of said intake openings, means for controlling the passage of air through certain of said intake openings and into said chamber, air-cooling and humidity-imparting means intercepting the flow of air through said chamber, delivery ducts extending from said chamber, means for heating the air traversing certain of said ducts, a mixing chamber communicating with said ducts. and means for controlling the discharge of air from said first-named chamber through said delivery ducts and into said mixing chamber.
2. An apparatus of the character described comprising a passage or chamber for air to be modified, air intake openings leading into said chamber, means for heating the air entering certain ofsaid intake openings, means "for controlling the passage of air through certain-of said intake openings and into said chamber, air-cooling and humidity-imparting means intercepting the flow of air through said chamber, delivery ducts extending from said chamber, means for heating the air traversing certain of said ducts, a mixing chamber communicating with said ducts, and means for controlling the discharge of air from said first-named chamber through said delivery ducts and into said mixing chamber be modified, intake openings leading into said chamber, means for heating the air entering certain of said intake openings, means for controlling passage of air through certain of said intake openings and into said chamber, air-cooling and humidity-imparting means serving to intercept the flow of air through said chamber, said last-named means including a chamber having opposite walls of reticulated material for passage of air therethrough, a mass of individual elements disposed in said last-named chamber forming air passages therebetween, means for flowing water over said elements, delivery ducts extending from said first-named chamber, airheating means for one of said ducts, a mixing chamber communicating with said ducts, and means for controlling the passage of air from said first-named chamber through-said delivery ducts and into said mixingchamber.
4. An apparatus of the character described comprising a passage or chamber for air to be modified, intake openings leading'into said chamber, means for heating air entering certain of said openings,'m'eans for controlling passage of air through certain of said intake openings and into said chamber, ,an air-cooling and humidity-imparting partition intercepting the flow of air through said chamber and including a chamber having opposite walls of reticulated material for passage of air therethrough, said last-named chamber containing a mass of individual elements forming air passages therebetween, means for flowing waterover said elements, delivery ducts extending from said firstmamed chamber, air-heating means for one of said ducts, a mixing chamber communicating with said ducts, air drying means between said cooling and humidity-imparting partition and-said delivery ducts, and means for controlling the passage of air from said firstnamed chamber through said ducts and into said mixing chamber.
5. An apparatus of the character described comprising a passage for air to be modified, an air-cooling and humidity-imparting partition intercepting said passage and including a chamber having front and rear walls,
a plate forming upper and lower compartments in said chamber, said walls including removable frame members supporting reticulated material forming the sides of said compartments, a mass of divided material in each of said compartments and providing spaces for flow of air therethrou h, a filler opening at-the upper portion of t e upper compartment, and a closure for said opening, and means for flowing water over each mass of said divided material. r
-6. An apparatus of the character described comprising a passage for air to be modified, an air-cooling and humidity-imparting partition intercepting said passage and including a chamber having front and rear walls, a plate supported by said Walls and forming upper and lower compartments in said chamber, said walls including removable frame members su porting reticulated material forming the si es of said compartments, a mass of divided material supported in each of said compartments and providing spaces for flow of air therethrough, a filler opening at the upper'portion of said upper compartment and a closure for said opening, delivery ducts extending from said passage and discharging into an air-mixing chamber, and heating means. for the air passing through one of said ducts into said air-mixing chamber.
7 An apparatus ofthe character described cOmprising an air inlet passage having a plurality of ducts therein, damper means to control the flow of air through said ducts, certain of said ducts having heating means therein, a chamber to receive air from said ducts, a baffle across said chamber and having means to continually wet said baflie with water in film form, a dry moisture-eliminating baflie in said chamber spaced from said firstnamed bafiie to provide a moisture-eliminat ing space between said baffles, an outlet passage from said chamber, said outlet passage having a plurality of ducts therein, heater means in certain of said ducts, damper means to control the flow of air through said ducts, and a mixing chamber to receive and combine theair from said'outlet ducts.
8. In an apparatus of the character described, a chamber, an inlet passage to said chamber having a plurality of ducts therein, heater means in certain of said ducts, a plurality of spaced baflles in said chamber, each comprising a mass of individual elements,
OHARLES W. BRABBEE.