US 1798724 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 31, 1931. H. B. CHALMERS AEROPLANE CONTROL Filed July 30. 1929 2 Sheets-Sheet l March 31, 1931.
H. B. CHALMERS AEROPLANE CONTROL Filed July 50. 1929 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 v Patented Mar. 31, 1931 PATENT OFFICE HENRY IB. CHALMERS, on NEW YORK, N. Y.
AEROPLANE CONTROL Application filed July 30, 1929.
The main object of my invention is to provide a simple but efi'ective and reliable apparatus for controlling the various movements of an aeroplane.
Another object is to provide a construction in which the various control movements are co-ordinated naturally to the movements of the body of the pilot so as to facilitate actuation and thus greatly increase the safety of operation of the plane.
Another object is to provide means of control entirely by means of the hands leaving the feet free for other purposes. This is particularly important when it is considered that it is frequently necessary for the pilot to be strapped to his seat at which time it is very desirable that he should be able to use his feet for other'purposes, which is extremely diificult if the pilot is obliged to also use his feet for operating directional controls.
In fact, in an ordinary construction it is frequently necessary for the pilot to actuate the controls .in a direction contrary to the instinctive movements of the body and those 2 due to inertia. These features are particularly important with inexperienced pilots and especiall in emergencies.
Speci cally I have sought to provide a unitary or single control whereby the longitudinal, directional and lateral controls or steering means may be actuated by a single handle or stick. It is customary to utilize foot pedals for the vertical rudder so as to turn to the right or left. It has been customary to utilize a single stick or lever for operating the horizontal controlling surfaces for longitudinal control and also for controlling the ailerons or other devices for maintaining' lateral control and stability.
The directional control surface is common ly termed the rudder. I wish it understood that the invention is concerned primarily with the mechanism by which these various components of control are themselves directly 4 or indirectly actuated.
In its preferred form my invention contemplates a rotatable shaft extending fore and .aft which serves as a support and in turn actuates the ailerons through control wires or otherwise. This shaft is supported in suit- Seiial No. 382,124.
able bearings above or beneath the pilots seat. To this shaft is hinged by a special yoke on a horizontal axis a vertically extending stick or lever to the lower end of which is connected the elevator wires or similar devices, actuated by tilting the stick forward and back. The turning of the main shaft for controlling the ailerons is effected by tilting the stick to the right or left as the case may be. This lever or stick is also rotatably mounted and is provided with one or more handle members for rotating the stick and actuating the vertical rudder by wires or other suitable means.
Fig. lis a diagrammatic perspectiveview showing the general relation of my invention to an aeroplane and its controls. It should be understood, however, that the invention is not limited to any particular type or construction of plane.
Fig. 2 is a vertical rear view and partial section showing the principal parts of the apparatus involved in my invention.
Fig. 3 is a side view and partial section of the same.
Fig. 4 is a horizontal section and plan view of the improved apparatus.
The main shaft 6 extending fore and aft of the plane is supported in stationary bearings 7 and is connected by wires 8 or otherwise to the ailerons.
The vertical control stick 10 constitutes the main actuating lever and is mounted in a yoke having arms or forks 11 which are hinged to the forks 12 on the front end of the main shaft 6. The hinge connection may be effected by means of suitable bearings 13 which make it possible to assemble and disassemble the parts conveniently. These bearings support the control stick 10 on a transverse axis so that the control stick may be tilted forward and back.
An extension .14 projects downwardly from the control stick 10 and serves as a means for actuating the elevator wire 15 or similar dev1ce.-
The arm 16 which is hinged to a bearing member 18 which extends transversely through the stick and is connected by suitable wires 17 or otherwise to the vertical.
rudders. This arm 16 swings transversely with the rotation of the stick 10 on its vertical axis but it is not affected by the tilting of the stick 10 forward and back.
The tilting of the stick 10 from side to side of course turns the arm 16 somewhat on an axis longitudinal of the plane but this has no control effect on account of the universal connection between the rudder wires 17 and the arm 16. Similarly the rotation of the stick 10 on a vertical axis has no material effect on the elevator wires 15 because of proper universal connection between these parts. So also the tilting of the stick 10 from side to side has no appreciable effect on the elevator wires 15. Obviously the operation of the parts as above described has no effect on the main shaft 6 except when the vertical stick 10 is also tilted from side to side.
For constructional purposes the sleeve 20 is secured to the forks 11.11 and the ring 21 is secured to the stick 10 immediately below the sleeve 20 and serves as a stop to prevent the stick from being pulled upwardly. The.
bushing 22 is secured to the stick 10 by means of a tapered bolt 23 with suitable nut and cotter pin so as to support the control stick on the bearing sleeve 20. By withdrawing the bolt 23 the control stick may be dropped down through the sleeve 20.
Movement of the control stick 10 is preferably effected by two handle .members 25-25 on opposite ends of the T-shaped piece 26 which is secured to the upper end of the stick 10 by a tapered bolt 27, nut and cotter so that the handle members may be conveniently attached or detached.
It will be understood from the foregoing that the main shaft 6 may be provided with a number of such control sticks for multiple control for testing purposes or otherwise. It should also be understood that if desired one of the controls of a plane might be made as herein shown and described and that the plane might also be provided with the usual type of control stick and the usual accompanying foot pedals so that the plane can be controlled either by use of my invention or by the usual method.
The handlesmay be provided with suitable triggers for actuating machine guns or releasing bombs or for controlling signallin means, etc.
Obviously the stick may have a single handle, for instance the cross piece of the T 26 may have a one-hand grip.
It'should be understood that changes may be made in details of construction and arrangment without departing from the spirit or scope of my invention.
Aeroplane control apparatus comprising a shaft mounted in bearings and extending longitudinally of the plane and rotatable in its bearings, a yoke secured to said shaft and havin side arms, a second yoke having arms hinged mally horizontal axis, said second yoke having a normally vertical bearing, a control stick rotatably supported in said bearing and to the arms of the first yoke on a nor-