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Publication numberUS1798824 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 31, 1931
Filing dateJun 12, 1929
Priority dateJun 12, 1929
Publication numberUS 1798824 A, US 1798824A, US-A-1798824, US1798824 A, US1798824A
InventorsWhite George Hall
Original AssigneeWhite George Hall
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Condenser
US 1798824 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

G. H. WHITE March 31, I931.

CONDENSER Filed June 12. 1929 awe 14 L04 Patented Mar. 31, 1931' UNITED STATES GEORGE HALL WHITE, OF WASHINGTON, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA oonrnnnsnn Application filed June 12,

This invention relates to an improvement in condensers designed more particularly for the condensation of ammonia gas used in a refrigerating cycle where the ammonia is the refrigerating agent.

The improved condenser is directed more particularly to a means for forclng a body of air over the surface of a body of water to extract heat from the latter on the principle of evaporation; a particular detail of the improvement residing in the provision of means whereb the water surface affected by the air is of extremely large surface proportions notwithstanding the fact that the condenser as a whole is comparatively small and compact. This particular detail resides in the provision of means whereby the water body is divided into a comparatlvely large number of film-like areas, each segregated fromthe others and, each presenting a hollow space within the film through which the air is forced under pressure for evaporation purposes.

A further object of the invention is the provision of means whereby the air in its initial delivery to the condenser is directed into contact with the Water to assist in cooling the same by evaporation.

A further 0 ject of the present invention is in the provision of means for utilizing the Th water films for extracting heat from tubelike structures and in directing the gas to be condensed into a more or less circuitous path lengthwise the condenser and in intimate contact with the exterior of the metallic tubes, whereby the ammonia enters the condenser at one end as a gas and is delivered at the opposite end as a liquid.

A further object of the invention is the provision of means whereby the air under pressure is initially directed through a somewhat elongated passage and during this travel is subjected to the cooling influence of the water of the condenser both by contact of such water with the casing forming the passage and also through the fact that the casing is in part perforated to permit the entrance of some of the water directly into the passage, whereby the air, when reaching the tubes, is appreciably cooled for a more 1929. Serial N0. 370,314.

efl'ective heat exchangTa with the film of water flowing down the interior of the tube.

The invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure l is a view in elevation, partly in section, showing the improved condenser.

Figure 2 is a plan view of the same.

Figure 3 is an enlarged broken vertical section partly in elevation.

The improved condenser comprises a cylindrical casing 1 of appropriate vertical and horizontal dimensions and provided inwardly of its respective open ends 2 and 3 with transverse plates 4 and 5 constituting headers, the arrangement of the headers relative to the casing defining a space 6 above the upper header 4 and a space 7 below the lower 'eader 5.

The casing 1, which may be mounted upon appropriate supports 8, is in open communication at the lower end with a housing 9 closed at the bottom and preferably of greater diameter than that of the casing, the upper margin of the housing wall being inwardly inclined at 10 for sealing connection with the lower end of the casing 1.

The respective upper and lower chambers 6 and 7 of the condenser proper are in communication through a pluralit of tubes 11. ese tubes are supported y and open through the lower header 5,and extend a slight distance above the upper header 4:, as indicated in Figure 1. The tubes may be in any desired number and are preferably arranged rather close together throughout the permissible area, it being understood of course that the tubes are wholly free of contact one with the other.

The upper end of each tube 11 is provided with a deflector 12 in the form of a tubular member of a diameter somewhat less than that of the tube 11 and arranged within the latter. The deflector tube 12 has its lower edge out-turned at 13 to provide a means for securing the deflector tube in spaced concentrio relation to and within the upper end of the tube 11. The out-turned flange 13 is perforated and the deflector tube 12 extends an appreciable distance above the upper open end of the tube 11.

enter each tube 11 and be compelled to flow lengthwise said tube in the form of a thin film of water which adheres to and covers the interior surface of the tube. The deflector tube 12 compels the entering water to form inself into a thin film, as will be apparent from the construction, and as a result of this formation, that portion of the tube 11 inwardly of the film of water on the inner surface of the tube constitutes a free, uninterrupted passage having an inlet at the bottom of the tube and an outlet through the deflector tube 12. V

Arranged within the housing 9 is a conduit 14, the upper wall of which is perforated with comparatively small openings. The inlet 01' lower end of this conduit extends beyond the casing 9 and is in open communication with a blower or fan which is appropriately driven to force air under pressure through the conduit. The upper or outlet end of the conduit 14 terminates'below the chamber 7 of the casing 1, so that at this point the conduit delivers air under pressure to the chamber 7 to permit said air under pressure to travel lengthwise the respective tubes 11 within the film of water flowing downwardly therein and in contact with such water film to thereby, under the well known principle of evaporation, provide for a heat exchange with the effect to materially cool thewater column.

As stated, the conduit 14 is perforated on its upper surface and such conduit is arranged within the housing 9 to @rovide a water receiving chamber 16 below the conduit. The water gravitating through the tubes and chamber 7 passes over and in contact with the conduit 14, an appreciable quantity of such water finding its way through the perforations in the conduit to be picked up by the air stream. This permits the'air to initially act on the water at this point to assist in cooling the same by evaporation.

In order to maintain a constant circulation of the water, that is a constant passage of the same through the condenser during the use of the latter, a pump 17 has its inlet in communication with the chamber 16 and its outlet, by means of a pipe 18, in communication with a water delivery ring 19 which is arranged in the upper chamber 6 of the condenser. In order to avoid the water, when delivered by the pump to the chamber 6, from reaching the interior of the deflector tube 12, the ring 19 is perforated on its outer circumferential area, as at 20, so that the incoming water is directed in a series of streams'against the interior of the upper por tion of the casing 1, so that it reaches the .upper ends of the tubes 11 in a more or less quiescent state, and splashing'or turbulence of the water, which might tend to permit the same to enter the deflector tube 12, is entirely avoided.

The space within the casing 1 exteriorly of the tubes 11 and between the upper and lower headers 4 and 5 is open to the passage of the medium to be condensed. Where the condenser is used for the condensation of ammonia gas, such gas is admitted through an inlet 21 at the upper end of the casing and the condensed ammonia delivered from the condenser through an outlet 22, the latter of course being of less sectional area than the inlet. Immediately adjacent the inlet 21 and within the casing 1 is arranged a deflector plate 23 which causes'the incoming gas to be.

directed in a circuitous path with respect to the tubes 11. Thus, the gas is compelled to travel a comparatively long distance and is thereby brought into intimate contact repeatedly with the various tubes 11.

It will be noted that the heat exchange between the water and gas is through the tubes as an interposed medium and such tubes may be of high heat conductivity and comparatively thin. The heat exchange is thus extremely effective, for the water and gas are separated only by the relatively thin walls of the tube and the extremely thin film of water avoids the difiiculty of a solid column of water which is under the known objections that the liquid at the center of the column is ordinarily insufficiently cooled and usually acts to prevent proper heat exchange.

With the improved condenser, the Water flows down the interior of the tubes as a thin to the passage of a current of air under pressure within and throughout the length of such film, and when so cooled provides an effective heat exchange medium with the surrounding gas. The cooling and moistening of the air delivered under pressure materially increases the evaporative or heat exchange effect of the air and this is a constantly recurring incident of the condenser of the present invention.

Furthermore, the possibility of providing a large number of heat exchange units in a comparatively small space provides a factor which, in the saving of space and relatively low first cost, is of extreme importance. The water, during its heat exchange function, flows entirely by gravity, avoiding the necessity of a pressure system and thereby further reducing the cost and maintenance of the condenser.

WVhat is claimed to be new is:

1. A condenser including a casing, an upper header defining an upper chamber at one end of the casing, a lower header for the casing defining a chamber at the lower end of the casing, tubes extending from and opening through the respective headers, said tubes being projected above the upper header, a deflector tube fitted within the projecting end of each of said tubes, said deflector tube being supported in concentric spaced relation with its tube and extending above the upper end of the tube to thereby cause the entering fluid to form as a film on the 1n terior of the tube, a housing arranged below the lower chamber and in open communication therewith, and an air pressure conduit arranged in said housing, said conduit being formed with a series of minute openings to permit the air to be delivered therefrom in a series of independent streams.

2. A condenser including a casing, an upper header defining an upper chamber at one end of the casing, a lower header for the casing defining a chamber at the lower end of the casing, main tubes extending from and opening through the respective headers, said main tubes being projected above the upper header, a deflector tube fitted within the projecting end of each of said main tubes, said deflector tube being supported in concentric spaced relation with its main tube and extending above the upper end of the main tube to thereby cause the entering fluid to form as a film on the interior of the main tube, a housing arranged below the lower chamber and in open communication therewith, and an air pressure conduit arranged in said housing and in open communication with'the lower chamber, the upper wall of said conduit being perforated.

3. A condenser including a casing, an upper header defining an upper chamber at one end of the casing, a lower header for the casing defining a chamber at the lower end of the casing,'main tubes extending from and opening through the respective headers, said main tubes being projected above the upper header, a deflector tube fitted within the projecting end of each of said main tubes, said deflector tubebeing supported in concentric spaced relatioinwith its main tube and extending above the upper end of the main tube to thereby cause the entering fluid to form as a film on the interior of the main tube, a housing arranged below the lower chamber and in open communication therewith, and an air pressure conduit arranged in said housing and in open communication with the lower chamber, said conduit having its upper wall formed to deliver air under pressure into said housing in. a series of upwardlydirected streams.

i. A condenser including a casing, an upper header defining an upper chamber at one end of the casing, a lower header for the casing defining a chamber at the lower end of the casing, tubes extending from and opening through the respective headers, said tubes being projected above the upper header, a deflector tube fitted within the projecting end of each of said tubes, said deflector tubebeing supported in concentric spaced relation with its tube and extending above the upper end of the tube to thereby cause the entering fluid to form as a film on the interior of the tube, a housing arranged below the lower chamber and in open communication therewith, an air pressure conduit arranged in said housing and in open communication with the lower chamber, said conduit having its upper wall perforated, a water collection chamber in the housing below the conduit, means for circulating the water from the water collection chamber to the upper chamber of the easing, and means in the upper chamber of the casing to deliver the entering water against the wall of the chamber to avoid turbulence and splashing.

5. A condenser including a casing, an upper header defining an upper chamber at one end of the casing, a lower header for the casing defining a chamber at the lower end of the casing, tubes extending from and opening through the respective headers, said tubes belng projected above the upper header, a deflector tube fitted within the projecting end of each of said tubes, said deflector tube being supported in concentric spaced relation with its tube and extending above the'up per end of the tube to thereby cause the entering fluid to form as a film on the interior of the tube, a housing arranged below the lower chamber and in open communication there with, an air pressure conduit arranged in said housing and in open communication with the lower chamber, said conduit having its upper wall perforated, a water collection chamber in the housing below the conduit, means for circulatin the water from the water collection cham er to the upper chamber of the casing, and a ring in the upper chamber of the casing disposed adjacent the wall of such chamber and formed with perforations to direct the incoming water against the wall of the chamber.

In testimony whereof I afiix my signature.

GEORGE HALL WHITE. [L. s.]

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2870786 *Jun 8, 1954Jan 27, 1959Schroeder BrothersOil reservoir for hydraulic equipment
US3132190 *Oct 12, 1961May 5, 1964Baltimore Aircoil Co IncHeat exchange apparatus
US4107940 *Feb 7, 1977Aug 22, 1978Schlom Leslie AEvaporative refrigeration system
US4134939 *Sep 20, 1976Jan 16, 1979Snamprogetti, S.P.A.Liquid distributor for thin-film, tube-bundle apparatus
US4199537 *Oct 13, 1978Apr 22, 1980Snamprogetti S.P.A.Liquid distributor for thin-film, tube-bundle apparatus
US4848447 *Apr 10, 1989Jul 18, 1989Sladky HansTube-type heat exchanger and liquid distributor head therefor
US4922732 *Nov 20, 1989May 8, 1990Dyna-Manufacturing, Ltd.Evaporator system for refrigeration systems
US6050101 *Oct 5, 1998Apr 18, 2000Nutec Electrical Engineering Co., Ltd.High EER air conditioning apparatus with special heat exchanger
Classifications
U.S. Classification62/310, 62/314, 165/174, 62/305
International ClassificationF25B39/04
Cooperative ClassificationF25B39/04, F25B2339/041
European ClassificationF25B39/04