Improvement in locks for doors
US 179887 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
H. L. ARNOLD. LOCKS FOR DOORS, m.
Patented July 18, 1876-.
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MPETERS. PNOTWHER. WASNINGTON. D. .C.
U NIE 'IATES 7 TENT IMPROVEMENT lN LOCKS FOR DOORS, &c.
Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 179,887, dated July 18, 1876 application filed August 19, 18751 To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, HORACE L. ARNOLD, of Grand Rapids, in the county of Kent and State of Michigan, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Locks, and in keys for opera-ting the same, of which the following is a specification My said improvements relate, generally, to that class of locks which may be termed circular-tumbler locks. It is well known that the circular-disk tumbler, having an extensive peripherical surface, and the maximum capacity for receiving false notches, possesses greater value, in point of security against picking, than tumblers of any other form. Owing probably to the attendant mechanical complexities heretofore deemed requisite in connection with circular tumblers, and to the factthat they have been considered asinevitably oneside work, they have, so far as my knowledge extends, never been so embodied in looks prior to myinvention as to render it practicable to employ them in general and common use in house-door locks, although the absence of springs and the theoretical perfection of the tumblers strongly commend them.
By reason of myinvention circular-tumbler locks may be manufactured at a cost less than the cost of the better class of lever-tumbler locks now in use. They may be incased for rim or for mortise locks. They can be provided with a knob, whereby, on insertion of the key, the bolt may be thrown. They are less liable to violation or derangement from use, as I believe, than any others heretofore known and in common use as door-locks.
My lock, although embodying circular tumblers, may be operated by its key inserted from either side of its case, and locks embodying my invention can be more economically fitted in series with master keys than any others heretofore known to me.
My invention consists,partially, in the combination, with a tumblerchamber capableof a complete or a partial rotation, of circular tumblers having radial gatings in their peripheries, a fence or stump, and a slot or groove arranged to engage with the stump, whereby, when the gating is opened and the tumblerchamber oscillated or rotated, the stump will be caused by the slot to enter and leave the gating, and also whereby, when the gating is closed, the chamber will be held against unlocking movement.
My invention further consists in the combination, with the circular tumblers, a stump, and a groove for automatically actuating the stump, of atumblerchamber rotatively mounted in the lock-case, and an arm for actuating a bolt.
My invention further consists in the combination of circular tumblers, a stump, and a bolt provided with a slot or groove for actuating the stump with a tumbler-chamber capable of an axial movement, and a slotted arm, which guides the stump and actuates the bolt.
My invention further consists in a rotatively-mounted tumbler -case, provided with a talon-arm, which is slotted for receiving and guiding the stump; also, in a rotative tum bleroase, having one detachable head, an axial key-space in each head of the case, and keyslots in each head adjacent to the axial keyspace, whereby the tumblers are r. adily accessible, and the power may be applied by the key as from the axis of the tumbler-case, and said case rotated by the key when entered at either of the heads; also, in the combination, with a bolt having-talon-lugs, of a tumbleroase axially mounted and provided with a talon-arm, which engages with the talon-lugs 1 when moving the bolt, and a spring-lever pivoted to the case of the lock, arranged to frictionally engage with the end of the talon-arm, and when the bolt is thrown forward to force and hold the end of the talon-arm against the front bolt-lug, for securing the bolt against backward movement, except on movement of the talon-arm.
My invention further consists in a novel combination, with a rotative tumbler-case, accessible to the key from both of its sides, and provided with heads, both of which are arranged to rotatively engage with a key, of
circular tumblers provided with lugs, which project into a central key-space, and. are arranged with relation to each other and the tumblencase in a peculiar manner, as .hereafter fully described.
The peculiar arrangement of the tumblerlugs consists in so locating the lug of each tumbler with relation to its gating that when all the tumblers are in their proper positions within their chamber and the gating opened, saidlugs in the key-chamber will stand consecutively in a spiral, a curved, or'a broken line, which describes on each side of a plane containing the axial line of the key-chamber, and on each side of a point midway between the outer sides of the two outside tumblers, precisely the same curve or angle, but reversed in position with relation to said midway point and axial line.
My improved lock, by reason of its peculiar construction and mode of operation, involves the employment of a key of peculiar construction. It is to be understood that my circular tumblers revolve with and on the inserted key as on an axis common to all the tumblers; also, that each tumbler has a key-engaging device in the form of a lug, which projects into the key-chamber; also, that the tumblers and their chamber are rocked or rotated in unison by the key, which has the well-known stud for engaging with the tumbler-chamber.
It is obvious that the lugs ot' the tumblers must severallyoccupya certain predetermined position with relationto each other before the perfect coincidence of all the tumbler-gatin gs can be attained, so as to allow the free entrance of the stump, and permit the rotation or other movement of the tumbler case or chamber requisite for actuating the bolt. It will be seen, also, that, as a means of affording security against violation, it is of importance that the tumblers, after having been so located as to fully open the gating, should be disarranged with relation to each other, and have the several individual gatings thrown out of coincidence when the key is withdrawn. It will also be remembered that mylock can be operated from either side of its case by the same key, and that such a capacity in the lock adds to its practical value and general utility.
In this latter connection it will be understood that my key, by reason of one of its novel features, may be made to operate from either side of a lock, in which there is but a single gating in each tumbler; or, without that special feature, but possessing others, it may be arranged to perform like service with a lock with circular tumblers having two gatin gs each.
I will now describe the peculiar characteristics of my key, and enumerate the several additional features of my invention which are embodied therein.
My novel key is provided with two longi tudinal diverging surfaces, which extend from the same initial point at the front end of the key in opposite directions toward the butt of the key, until they have nearly encircled it, and have approached each other at a certain point, so that they are separated by a space only a little greater than the width of a tumbler-lug. These two surfaces, in fact, consti tute the inclined or diverging sides of a widemouthed groove, and I term this portion of my key an, assembling-groove, because by means of it the several tumbler-lugs are assembled in regular order, preparatory to plac ing the tumblers in position for opening the gating to the stump.
My novel key is also provided with two surfaces, constituting the sides of a groove communicating with the narrow end of the assembling-groove, and its function is to derange the tumblers during the withdrawal of the key, and thereforeI term it a deranging groove.
My novel key is also provided with a gate opening 'groove, having a uniform width, which communicates with the deranginggroove. I term this groovea gating-groove, because its function is to so arrange the lugs on the tumblers that the gating will be fully opened. This gating-groove, when intended to admit of the use of the key on both sides of a lock having tumblers with but one gating, involves the exact duplication of curves or angles, as the case may bethat is to say, if, in order that the gating be fully opened to receive the stump, it be necessary that the gating-groove be in a straight line, then this line should be crossed or bisected by a line on the outer surface of the key which is parallel with the axial line of the key, or, in other words, bisected by a plane which contains the axis of the key at a point exactly midway between the ends of the operative portion of the groove, or, in other words, that portion of the groove which actually engages with the lugs on the tumblers during the movement of the bolt, and, therefore, the groove would have precisely the same angleon both sides of said point, and on both sides of said surfaceline which is parallel with the said axial line; but they would be reversed in their positions with relation to said point and line.
It is by reason of this peculiar construction of the gating-groove in the key that locks having tumblers with butone gating each may be operated from both sides of the lock by the same key.
Should curves instead of angles be employed, it would involve a more difficult construction, because, in that case, (while the curves would be duplicated, reversed in position, and located. respectively, on each side of the central point referred to and the said surface-line, which is parallel with the axial line of the key, or, in other words, the plane containing the axis of the key,) it is obvious that the key must be stopped on both sides precisely at a point which would place the curved groove in precisely the same position with relation to the tumblers; whereas, on the other hand, when the straight line is employed which is bisected by the plane containing the axis of the key, as stated, it may be stopped at any point, provided a sufficient length of the gating-groove be within the tumbler-chamber to engage with all the lugs.
All of these several features have value,
even when the tumbler-chamber be not moved by the key, and when a stump,.instead of an arm of the tumbler-chamber, is relied upon for actuating a bolt.
In the drawings shown I have illustrated the embodiment of my invention in a lock having a tumbler-chanil'ier, which, being oscillated by the key, actuates a bolt, and therefore I employ, in combination with the novel features described, an ordinary stud on the key, which engages with the tumbler-chamber by means of a longitudinal stud-seat in the heads of the chamber.
It will be seen that all keys fitted to my lock may have precisely the same assembling and deranging grooves, while, to give individuality to looks, the gating-groove may be slightly varied in pitch, or the location of the stud with relation to the gating-groove may be varied. Any of these variations, however slight they may be, will be sufficient to render the lock secure against all but its proper key.
To more particularly describe my invention I will refer to the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 represents, with a portion of the case detached, a door-lock embodying my invention. Fig. 2 represents the tumbler-case detached, with tumblers and stump in position. Fig. 3 represents the lock-bolt detached. Fi 4 represents the empty tumbler-chamber and its head detached- Fig. 5 represents the stump or fence detached. Fig. 6 represents, in perspective, the several tumblers detached, placed side by side. Fig. 7 represents one of my keys in perspective. longitudinal and peripherical surface of the operative portion of the key in plane projection, with the side of the key in which the stud is inserted placed upward. Fig. 9 represents the same with the stud downward. Fig. 10 represents the interior surface of the keychamber, which is formed by the tumblers in plane projection, as in the lock, Fig. 1. Fig. 11 illustrates the same in a similar view, showing the relative position of the lugs of the tumblers when, with an open gating, the lugs stand ina curved line. Fig. 12 represents the lock with the bolt thrown forward.
The lock shown in the drawings is incased as for a rim-lock; but my improvements are also applicable to mortise-locks, or to the class of locks in which the bolt is actuated by means of a knob.
1n the drawings, A denotes in each instance a bolt. It is provided with lugs (t and I), respectively, for throwing it out or in. lt is also provided with a straight groove, as at c, which controls the stump or fence. The sides of the groove or slot 0, although straight in this instance, perform the function of camsurfaees, in that by contact therewith of the stump, when the latter is moving with the rotating tumbler-chamber, said stump is moved toward and away from the tumbler-gating in Fig. 8 represents the the same manner (although not in the same time) as said stump would be moved it the slot 0 were a curved one instead of a straight one.
This slot, whether curved or straight, when employed with a rotativelyoperated stumpcarrier, and arranged to control the stump in its movements to and from the gating, will perform the function of a cam-slot, in that it will actuate the stump while the latter is being carried by the oscillating tumbler-chamber, and guided by the radial slot therein. A lug on the case serves as a guide for the rear end of the bolt.
It will be seen that only the sides of the slot 0 perform cam service with relation to the stump, and that, therefore, either an ope-n slot, as shown, or what would be technically termed a groove, will perform the same service; hence I use the terms slot and groove as practically synonymous in this connection.
B denotes the tumbler case or chamber, which is, in this instance, provided with axial bearings. It is a cylindrical structure with a detachable head, d, which is provided with a lug at e, for entering a slot in the chamber, thereby securing the head against rotation independently of the chamber. Each head is provided with an annular boss or neck, coustituting axial bearings, which are fitted to circular openings in opposite sides of the case. The chamber is also provided with a talonarm, as at j, which actuates the bolt by eir gaging with the front and rear bolt-lugs a and b, and is slotted, as at g, to afford a seat for a stump or fence.
Instead of having axial bearings, the chamber or case may be mounted in circular coincidentrecesses in the lock-ease, and thereby be made capable of axial movement. A tu-mbler-case of this character, provided with the talon-arm and a stump'slot, may be employed in connection with other forms of tumbler.
0 denotes a spring-lever, pivoted at h to a stud. .This lever has a frictional contact with the end of arm f during the movement of the chamber, and also assists the arm in its abutment against thebolt-lug a, when the bolt is fully thrown forward, as shown in Fig. 12. The spring-lever also gives to the look what may be termed as spring-feeling, which is generally deemed indispensable in good looks. D denotes the stump. (Shown in full at Fig. 5.) It is fitted to a radial slot, g, in the arm fot the tumbler-chamber B. The stump has astud at 'i, which, when the stump is in position, stands in the 'groove 0 in. the bolt A. The groove in the bolt automatically actuates the stump when the tumbler-case is rotated, and the tumblers are so set that their gating is fully opened.
E, Fig. 6, denotes one of seven circular-disk otherwise alike, in no two tumblers dothe keymass:
ing must be closed to prevent the entrance of the stump, and that before the bolt can be withdrawn the key-lugs, wherever they may be in the key-chamliier, must be assembled and placed in proper position with relation to each other, in order that the gating may be opened. In my key, as before indicated, I have two longitudinal assembling-surfaces, which (although commencing at the same point and continuing in opposite directions, so as to nearly encircle the key in spiral lines) are, in effect, the sides of a wide-mouthed tapering groove, as illustrated at l in Fig. 9, in which the longitudinal and peripherical surface of the key is laid outin a plane. It will be seen, on the insertion of the key, that it will, asitis advanced, gather the key-lugs of the tumblers by contact therewith of either side of the groove, and thereby place them in position to admit of the continued advance of the key, until they occupy the gating-groove n, which is connected with the assembling-groove l by the deranging-groove m. It will be readily understood that when the key is fully inserted the gating is fully opened, and that by the rotation of the tumbler-chamber the bolt may be thrown outward or withdrawn. This movement of the chamber is effected, in this instance, by means of the key-stud 0, which enters the stud-seat p in either head of the chamber. Should the tumbler-chamber be provided with a knob on the outer end of a neck projecting from either of its heads, it is obvious that the key would only need to be inserted into the center of the knob for placing the tumblers in proper position, after which the bolt might be actuated by rotation or semtrotation of the knob.
In making the tumblers, ordinary washerdies may be employed for cutting and piercing the blank tumblers at one operation. They may be made extremely thin, and so enable many tumblers to be employed in an ordinary thin mortise-lock. In fitting, the tumblers may more readily be fitted to the key than the key to the tumblers. For instance, let it be considered that the keys have been made by suitable machinery, regardless of any particular line for the gateopening groove or location of the stud, but embodying the assembling and deranging groove, as described. The several tumblers being placed in the chamber, and the heads of the chamber being provided with seats to receive the key-stud, the adjustment of lock to the key can be effected in a few seconds by fully inserting the key from either side of the chamber. Its arrangement of the tumblerlugs will'indicate the precise point at which each tumbler is to be gated, by bringing that point opposite the point at which the stumpslot is to be located in the arm of the chamber,
and a single passage on the slide of a millingmachine will expeditiously cut the gating in the tumblers, and also the slot in the talonarm for receiving the stump. Now, it it be desired to also enter the same key from the other side of the lock, this operation will be repeated, andeach tumbler will then have two gatings, which will beemployed, respectively, as the lock is operated from the right side or the'left.
The additional gating in each tumbler does not detract from the security of the look any more than if the two gatings were in any other form of tumbler. When a single gating is, however, desired in a lock accessible to the same key from both sides of the lock, it involves a peculiarly-constructed and speciallyproportioned gatinggroove. In the key shown in Figs. 7, 8, and 9, the gate-opening groove is in a straight line, which is bisected by a plane which contains the axial line of the key. This point at which the two lines cross is exactly midway between the ends of that portion of the gate-opening groove which -engages with the tumbler-lugs in the key-chamber during the movement of the bolt. On each side of this point there is precisely the same extentof working-surface and precisely the same angle; but with relation to that point the angles are reversed.
In both heads of the tumbler-chamber the stud-seats occupy like positions with relation to the lugs on the outer tumblers next adjacent to the heads, respectively, so that, whether the key be inserted from one side or the other, the tumbler-lugs will all be properly located and the gating fully, opened.
In Fig. 10 I show the interior of a seventumbler key chamber in plane projection. Line a: y indicates a plane containing the axial line of the chamber, and line 3 2 indicates a point midway between. the exterior surfaces of the outer tumblers. The tumbler-lugs are equally dividedone-half on each, side of the longitudinal and midway lines. This general arrangement is preferable to any other, in that but one gating is requisite. It is practicable, however, to. have the lugs occupy a slightly-curved line and attain the same end, as illustrated in Fig. 11. In this case the curves are duplicated, but are reversed in position with relation to both of these bisecting lines, before referred to. With this curvedline arrangement it is difficult to prevent sev;
eral of the lugs from occupying a line coincident with the line of the open gating, and, therefore, I prefer the angular arrangement previously described.
It will be seen that any variation in the positions of the tumbler-lugs with relation to each other results in an extensive variation in the position of their individual gatings. It will be seen that in order to enable the same key to operate from opposite sides of the lock, it is necessary that the lugs of the tumblers for opening the gating to the stump be so disposed that they will stand either in a spiral, a curved, or a broken line composed of two parts, similar and equal but reversed in position.
It will be obvious that my improvements are well adapted to master-key locks. For instance, let it be supposed that fifty locks have each been fitted for its special key, and it is required that one key open all. Each lock is taken apart; a key embodying the assembling and gate-opening grooves is selected at random and fully inserted into the tumblerchamber; a new gating may then be cut as indicated by the stump-slot in the. arm of the chamber, and soon through the whole number of locks. Keys, masters each of twentyfive locks, may then be made in like manner. The extensive peripheries of the circular tumblers admit of numerous gatings being cut therein. Inasmuch as the smooth sides of the assembling,'deranging, and opening grooves of the key engage with the tumbler-lugs, it is obvious that the sides of the lugs may be beveled or sharpened without rendering them less operative with the key, but, at the same time, making them less susceptible of manipulation with lock-picking devices.
, Referring to the lock shown in the drawings, it will be seen, as the tumbler-chamber is rocked from right to left while the gating is opened, that the groove or slot 0, by ongaging with the stud iof the stump D, causes the latter toenter and then to leave the gating, and that, although the bolt moves, the slot therein, so far as it relates to the stump, is stationarythat is to say, the movement of the bolt results simply in a prolongation of the slot. Therefore it is obvious that if a groove were formed in the lock-case of the same length as the bolt-slot, with the distance traversed by the bolt added thereto, the action of the stump, as controlled by the groove, would be precisely the same, and, therefore, as set forth in my specified claims, my invention is not limited to a groove in a boltin combination with the other devices shown. It is also well known that stumps may be arranged to actuate a bolt by means of well-known communicating devices, and, therefore, as will be seen from my specified claims, my invention is not limited to a rotative chamber having an arm for actuating the bolt, in combination with the other devices shown.
It is also well known to me that, by completely rotating the tumbler-chamber, and having a continuous stump-controlling camgroove, the chamber or stump may be made to operate several bolts, or made to throw one bolt and return it twice, or may be made to wholly release the bolt fromits influence and afterward resume control thereof, as for a catclrbolt and locking-bolt combined, and so on with great variation and I, therefore, do not limit my invent-ion to a semi-rotating or oscillating tumbler-chamber, in combination with the other elements described, but designate said chamber as one capable of an axial movement, whereby it may be oscillated or fully rotated, as may be desired.
Having thus'described my invention, I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent- 1. In a circular-tumbler lock, the combination of a tumbler-chamber capable of axial movement, and circular tumblers, severally gated at their peripheries, with a stump, and
a groove engaging with the stump, substantially as described, whereby, when the tumbler-chamber is rocked or rotated, the stump will'be caused to enter and leave the gating, and also whereby, when the gating is closed, the chamber will be held against undue movement.
2. The combination, with circular-disk tumblers, a stump, and a groove or slot for automatically actuating the stump, of a rocking or rotating tumbler-chamber, provided with an arm for actuating a bolt, substantially as described.
3. The combination of circular tumblers, a stump, and a bolt provided with a slot or groove for actuating the stump with a rocking tumbler-chamber, provided with a slotted arm, which guides the stump and actuates the bolt, substantially as described.
4. A rotatively-mounted tumbler-case, provided with a talon-arm, which is slotted for receiving and guiding a stump, substantially as described.
5. A rotative tumbler-case, having one detachable head, an axial key-space in each head, and key-slots in each head adjacent to the axial key-space, substantially as described, whereby the tumblers are readily accessible, the power from the key applied axially to the tumbler-case for rotating it, and the case rotated by the engagement of the key with either head, as set forth.
6. The-combination, with a bolt having talon-lugs, of a tumbler-case axially mounted, and provided with a talon-arm, which engages with the talon-lugs when moving the bolt, and a spring-lever pivoted to the case of the lock, arranged to frictionally engage with the talonarm, and, when the bolt is thrown forward, is arranged to force and hold the end of the talon-arm against the front bolt-lug, substantially as described.
7. The combination, with a rotative tumblercase, accessible to the key from both of its sides, and provided with beads, both of which are arranged to 'rotativeiy engage with the key, of circular tumblers having lugs, which project into a central opening forming the keychamber, and which, when the gating is opened, have their said lugs arranged consecutively in a continuous line, bisected by a plane containing the axial line of the key-chamber at a point midway between the ends of the chamber formed by the tumblers, and divided into two parts, similar and equal, but reversed in direction from said point, substantially as described, whereby, although said tumblers 6 7 mass? have but one gating each, the several gatings may be placed in coincidence and admit a stump, when controlled by the same key, en tered from either'end of the chamber, as set forth.
8. In a key for a circular-tumbler lock, the assembling-groove, with sides which diverge from each other, substantially as described.
9. In a key for a circular-tumbler lock, the gating-groove, having a uniform width, substantially as described.
10. In a key for a circular-tumbler lock, the combination of the assembling-groove with diverging sides and gating-grom-e of a uniform width, substantially as described.
11. In a key for a circular-tumbler lock, the combination of the assembling-groove with diverging sides, gating-groove of a uniform Width, and deranging-groove, substantially as described.
12. In a key for a circular-tumbler look, a gati ng-grooveofa uniform width, which bisects a plane containing the axial line of the key at a point midway between the ends of the 0perative portion of said groove, substantially as described.
13. In a key for looks embodying circular tumblers and an axially m unted tumblerchamber, the combination, with the gatinggroove of a uniform width, of a stud, substantially as described.
HORACE. L. ARNOLD.
J. E. ALMY, H. P. KITTELL.