Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.


  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS1798998 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 31, 1931
Filing dateJun 21, 1926
Priority dateJun 21, 1926
Publication numberUS 1798998 A, US 1798998A, US-A-1798998, US1798998 A, US1798998A
InventorsBatcheller Clements
Original AssigneeBemis Ind Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Hingle and coloration thereof
US 1798998 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


My invention relates to shingles and coloration thereof, and particularly to composition shingles of the fiber cement type. The object of my invention is to provide a shin le having certain improved characteristics 81) in structure, (2) chemical composition, and (8) appearance. As to the two last mentioned features of novelty, it is to a certain extent related to the subject matter of my copending application Ser. No. 90,157, filed February 23, 1926, over which it presents certain features of novelty and improvement. In its physical characteristics it is a departure.

A practicalembodiment of my invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawing, in which i Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a shingle disclosing the structural characteristics which embody the invention in one form; and

Fig. 2 is a cross section.

In my application above mentioned I have described an asbestos shingle which is manufactured, in accordance with present methods, to form a laminated product of uniform thiclmess, is subjected to very heavy pressure, and in the finished product presents smooth, hard faces, the shingle being subsequently treated in accordance with the process there disclosed to impart the desired color efiects thereto. A shingle of that type, in spite of its desirable coloration, is objectionably flat and inartistic. A greatly improved product from theartistic standpoint results from'a practiceof my present invention.

Instead of forming the fluid suspension necessary to the manufacture of the laminat= ed product above referred to, I prepare a mud mixture of hydraulic cement and fiber (asbestos, for example, althou h other suitable fiber may be used), and su ject the same to a molding operation, preferably effected in a heavy press, the press dies being of such form that a heavy butt or wedge-shaped shingle is produced The mixture is not only less fluid, but the composition of the solids.

varies from that of the standard product disclosed in my prior application, in that the proportion of fiber to the hydraulic cement is 1926. Serial No. 117,510.

increased and is referably within the range of 15% to 35% er to 65% to 85% cement. Preferably the fiber constitutes approximately 25 o by volume of the solids of the mixture. oreover, instead of using the very finely shredded fibers which are mentioned in my prior application, and are common in standard asbestos shingles, I now utilize a coarse fiber. Various grades of coarse fiber may be utilized, but I have found by experience that for my purposes a fiber, sa 1/64 to 1/8 in diameter and 1/2 to 3/4 long is best suited to produce the desired results.

After the plastic fiber-cement mass has been molded to shape, the face of the shingle which is to be exposed in use is subjected to the action of a suitable roughing tool, such as a metal brush or the like, which is applied before the initial set of the mass. This has the effect ofraking up on the surface the coarse fibers, so that they, with a certain portion of adherent cement, stand out from the body of the shingles. Preferably this roughing action is confined to the portion of the surface extending from the butt end 10 of theshingle to, or only slightl be 0nd, the area 11 which is overlapped y tl l adjacent shingle in use. In this manner the flat back of the super-adjacent shingle lies snugly against the smooth face of the area 11 and thus aflords a snug joint between the shingles and reduces the danger of the entry of moisture, and more particularly the effort of wind, which otherwise would tend to pry up the shingles. Approximately at the lower margin of the smooth area 11 of the shingle face, nail holes 12 are formed through the shingle, while the material is still inplastic condition.

A shingle of this construction, even if un colored, .presents a markedly improved appearanee since the roughening-up of the surface and the projecting fibers changes the color eifect by reason of-sthe resulting lights and shadows. a

In order to further increase the attractive ness of the shingle, I color it by the deposit of metallic hydroxides which are bound into the surface. For example, shingle or its eventually exposed face, to the,

e super- I b' tth may su ]60 e we the latter is action of certain metallic salts which react with the free lime which is either present in the hydraulic cement or added thereto, when deficient,.before the plastic mixture is formed. Thus, when the shingles have set sufficiently so that they canbehandled they may be subjected to the action of a suitable metallic salt solution.

The salt solution which may be used may vary widely, and the choice largely depends upon uct. In any event, the salt must be such that it will react with the lime present to form either an insoluble metallic hydroxide or an insoluble basic salt. The asbestos fibers which are raised from the surface-roughening operation may contain some lime, but the effect of the salt treatment upon the fibers is to produce a coloration of the latter different from the coloration of the shingle body. A variegated tone efiect is thus produced which is very artistic and cannot be obtained by following the processes heretofore suggested by me or others.

Of the salts mentioned, most of the socalled heavy metals are applicable, and these have been disclosed in my prior application above mentioned. I have found in application to this new type of shingle that a solution of a copper salt gives particularly satisfactory results. The shingle which has not finally set, but has sufficiently hardened to allow handling, may be immersed in a 20% solution of copper chloride or other copper salt, or copper potassium chloride. I prefer to use the copper chloride, or other salt, which upon reaction will give a soluble lime salt, in order that the color deadening effect of an insoluble calcium salt, such as calcium sulphate, will not lessen the full color otherwise obtained. The shingle is immersed for a period, depending upon the depth or shade of color desired. I have found that immersion for one half hour will give a particularly satisfactory multi-color effect. lVhere the salt has reacted with the lime, copper hydroxide has been formed, which in turn changes in the air to form the dark colored-black or brownish blackcopper oxide.

Where the salt has been absorbed by the fiber, but has not undergone any noticeable reaction, the characteristic greenish blue color of the copper salts is to be found. The exact reaction on the asbestosis not fully understood, but it is a fact that after drying, the copper salt cannot beremoved from the asbestos by washing. This may be due to the fixation of the copper salt by means of carbon dioxide of the air, but as pointed out above, the exact chemical phenomenon has not been ascertained.

. liminary The treatment which I have just described is appropriate for a shingle in which the preset. has taken place, and from which the moisture has evaporated. at the the color desired in the finished prod-' copper salt which has been absorbed by the asbestos has been .made insoluble by the absorption of carbon dioxide from the air, thus forming copper carbonate. This same fixing can be obtained by a subsequent immersion of the shingle treated with the copper salt solution into a warm solution of a soluble carbon ate, such as sodium carbonate, whereupon the copper carbonate is bound in and upon the surface of the shingle. If the shingle is immediately immersed in the sodium carbonate solution after treatment with the copper salt solution, and before the copper hydroxide has been changed to copper oxide, practically the entire surface of the shingle will be converted into the copper carbonate, which is a fairly brilliant greenish blue, known to the trade as mineral green, and substantially permanent. A very beautiful aged copper effect is obtained.

Obviously the same chemical reactions, and I the same color effects may be obtained u on the surface of other objects containing ree lime, nor is this novel treatment to be limited to the treatment of a shingle whose surface has been roughened, as hereinbefore described; it is equally applicable to a smooth shingle.

I have described shingles which have a multi-colored effect of brownish black and green, and of shingles which are substantially greenish blue in effective color. I have found that if the shingle which has been treated with the copper salt solution is subsequently immersed in a solution of ferro-sulphate, that a mottled green and brown shingle is obtained. The exact relation of one color to the other depends upon the length of time A the ferro-sulphate, and upon a shingle is desired in which the green coloration predominates, an immersion in a 10% solution of ferro-sulphate for a few seconds will be sufficient to give a brown orgreemsh brown tinge at places on the surface.

The chemically untreated shingle may to advantage be immersed containing three parts by welght of copper chloride, and one part by weight of ferrosulphate. In this case the two metallic salt solutions simultaneously react with the lime, giving a very desirable greenish brown to brown effect.

The depth ofthe color, as in in a 20% solution the previous examples, will depend upon the length of time of immersion.

While in these specific examples I have stressed the copper and iron salts, it will be obvious that that other color effects may be obtained by choosing the salts whose hydroxides are of the desired shade. For example, in place of copper and iron salts, nickel, cobalt or chromium might be used. These variations will be within the skill of one familiar with the color of the metallic hydroxides.

I claim- 1. As a new article of manufacture, a shingle comprising a mixture of cement and fibers,

and having a surface roughened by projecting fibers, said roughened surface being colored by an insoluble deposit resulting from the reaction of a metallic salt and the alkaline material of the shingle bound therein.

2. As a new article of manufacture, a shingle comprising a mixture of cement and fibers and having a surface roughened by projecting fibers, said roughened surface being col- 5 ored by an insoluble deposit resulting from the reaction of a metallic salt and the alkaline material of the shingle bound therein and differing in coloration from the fibers projectin from said surface.

3. is a new article of manufacture, a shingle comprising an alkaline base and fibres and having a surface roughened by projecting fibres, said roughened surface being, surface colored by an insoluble metallic carbonate deposit. a

4. The method of coloring a body havin a surface roughened by projecting fibres an an alkaline reaction whlch comprises a plying thereto a metallic salt solution whic reacts with the alkali to form an insoluble metallic hydroxide deposit and converting the hydroxide into a substantially permanent carbonate.

5. The method of coloring a body having a surface roughened by projecting fibres and an alkaline reaction which comprises applying thereto a copper salt solution which reacts with the alkali to form an insoluble hydroxide of copper, and converting said hydroxide into a substantially permanent carbonate.

6. The method of coloring a body having a surface roughened by projecting fibres and an alkaline reaction whlch comprises applying thereto a metallic salt which reacts with the alkaline material to form an insoluble colored deposit whereby the roughened surface is colored by the deposit bound therein and is of a different coloration from that of the fibres projecting from said surface.

lln testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specificaton.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US8061102 *Jul 20, 2005Nov 22, 2011Tamko Building Products, Inc.Roofing product
US8567601Jul 27, 2011Oct 29, 2013Tamko Building Products, Inc.Roofing product
US20050262790 *Jul 20, 2005Dec 1, 2005Epoch Composite Products, Inc.Roofing product
US20140193610 *Jan 8, 2014Jul 10, 2014Barry HuberArtificial Roofing Shingle
U.S. Classification428/141, 427/274, 264/DIG.430, 8/645, 52/560, 428/131, 8/523
International ClassificationE04D1/28
Cooperative ClassificationE04D1/28, Y10S264/43
European ClassificationE04D1/28