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Publication numberUS1799116 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 31, 1931
Filing dateDec 20, 1927
Priority dateDec 21, 1926
Publication numberUS 1799116 A, US 1799116A, US-A-1799116, US1799116 A, US1799116A
InventorsEmil Noeggerath Jacob
Original AssigneeEmil Noeggerath Jacob
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electrolytic apparatus
US 1799116 A
Images(4)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March 31, 1931.

J. E. NOEGGERATH ELECTROLYTIC APPARATUS Filed Dec. 20, 1927 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 30 Inventor: licdzm lfiqyyeral March 31, 1931. .1. E. NOE GGERATH 1,

' ELECTROLYTIC APPARATUS Filed Dec. 20, 1927 1 4 Sheets-Sheet '2 Mairch 31, 1931.-

J.' E. NOEGGERATH ELECTROLYTIC APPARATUS 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Dec. 2O, 1927 llllll vM 31: 931- :1. E.YNOEGGERATH ,7 i ELECTROLYTIC APPARATUS Filed Dec. 20, 1927 I 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Patented Mar. 31, 19 31 FICE , JACOB EMIL. NQEGGERATH, OF BERLIN, GERMANY ELECTROLYTIC arrana'rus Application filed-December 20, 1927, Serial No. 241,334, and in Germany December 21, 1926,

My invention refers to electrolytic apparatus and more especially to means'whereby water or other liquids or solutions can be acted upon by the electric current with or 5 without the resulting development of gases,

such as for instance hydrogen and oxygen. It is a particular object of my invention to provide means whereby these gases are developed and obtained-under high pressure of about one hundred atmospheres and above without the expenditureof any extra cost forproducing such pressure. I wish it however to be understood that the means devised for this apparatus and Which will hereinafter be more fully described, may also-tpartlybe utilized in the electrolytic decomposition of liquids under atmospheric conditions, that is in open vessels or at least without the re- 7 sulting gases or other products of decompositionbeing placed directly under pressure.

Before defining more specifically the nature of my invention I wish to state that I am aware that apparatus for the electrolytic decomposition of'water and other liquids accompanied by the generation of gases such as hydrogen and oxygen under pressure, have already been suggested. However,of these known apparatus some are provided with.

electrodes extending in parallel to each other, parallel partitions or diaphragms being in serted between each pair of electrodes, and the electrodes or the diaphragms or both are mounted in rectangular or other frames. It,

has been suggested to locate groups of such frames in closed pressure-resistive vessels, wherein the electrodes and diaphragms are partly surrounded by gas. These apparatus have been shown toinvolve difiiculties of operation, more especially as far as the packing of the joints is concerned. I

It has further been suggested tojemploy electrolyzers operated under pressure in which the electrodes are connected in series, the positive electrodes extending at an angle to the negative ones and partitions or diaphragms being dispenseel with altogether.

lyzer, more particularlyfor operation under pressure, which is adapted for instance for the separate collection of hydrogen and oxythe electrodes. The present invention refers to an electro-' gen, this electrolyzer substantially comprising a'pressure resistive vessel, preferably of. cylinder-form, with one or a plurality of groups of electrodes, in which the positive electrodes extend substantially in parallel to the negative onesto form a composite electrode structure. Preferably this structure is not directly surrounded by gas under pressure, but is either immersed in the electrolyte, such as water, or has a wall which at the same time forms part or the whole of the wall of the pressure-resistivefvessel. Preferably partitions are combined With the electrodes, such partitions being rigid or yielding and extending substantially in parallel to the electrodes. I may however also replace the partitions by insulating coatings or layers. I further prefer arranging the axis or axes of the groups of electrodes (if there is more than one group) substantially coaxially or at least in parallel to the axis of the pressure-resistive vessel.

I have further found'it advantageous to keepjthe pressure-resistive vessel completely filled with the electrolyte, notwithstanding the electrolytic decomposition of the Water or other liquid. I also prefer providin for the conduction of the gases or other pro ucts of electrolytic decomposition in separate conduits provided within the pressure resistive vessel, which of course may be partially filled with electrolyte, such conduits prefer-- ably extending at an angle to the horizontal. In order to provide for a satisfactory "ab duction of heat from the electrolyte, I prefer causing a circulation of the electrolyte in a more or less closed cycle bymeans of return conduits. If the cells or electrolyzers are connected in series, I have found it advantageousto provide' for a partial or'total insulation of the inner wall of the vessel relative to the electrolyte, but I preferably arrange an additional insulating wall or other hollow body in spaced relation to the wall of the vessel, such hollowjbody surrounding If surfaces of the electrodes and partitions extend at an angle to the wall of the vessel, more especially if the axis of the vessel extends substantially vertically,

while these surfaces extend at an angle loo thereto, or vice versa, a particularly favorable discharge of the products of electrolytical decomposition, such as gases, is obtained.

I have found that electrodes having the form of conical frusta, which are arranged in concentric relation with the positive and negative electrodes alternating with each other, can be used with particular advantage. The electrodes or the partitions or both may be formed with ribs or indentures or may be corrugated, these ribs, indentures or corrugations extending in the direction of the gas current. If plain partitions or no partitions at all are used, the path of electrical resistance in the electrolyte will only be short, the gases will easily be exhausted in following the corrugations, while at the same time the partitions and the electrodes are reinforced and braced. Intermediate the partitions and the adjoining electrodes I may arrange spacing grids, strips and the like.

If conical or cylindrical partitions are employed, many advantages are obtained, and

the same is true of the use of corrugated partitions. I g

I have further found it useful to provide for the conduction of the developed gases as a whole either in or nearthe axis or as a whole near the periphery of the groups'of electrodes, the latter arrangement being preferable in the case where the narrow ends of the conical partitions and electrodes point downwards. The material separating the electrodes,.such as cylindrical or elliptical rings, is preferably formed with angularly extending borings or apertures, but the electrodes can also be separated from each other by blocks which form passages for the electrolyte and for the gases. The main gas passages are preferably cylindrical, the gases rising separately either in concentric spaces, or the cylindrical passages are subdivided into segments which are alternately connected with the several electrode cells.

Besides the use of partitions serving also for equalizing the pressure within the cells, or instead of such partitions, I may provide a diaphragm or diaphragms, pistons or the like, but preferably diaphragms, which may b partly or entirely movable and elastic, and may have plane, or cylindrical or conical shape.

I have further ascertained that the efficiency of the apparatus will be increased and less space consumed, if the substantially parallel electrodes are less spaced at the bottom than at the top, so that if conical electrodes are used, the angle of the lowermost cones is larger than the angle of the upper cones.

Preferably the electrodes and partitions are assembled into groups by means of cover plates and intermediate pieces, the end electrodes preferably having a greater electrical section and greater mechanical strength than the others, so that these electrodes are adapted to serve as cover plates. The groups of electrodes are fixed to the cover of the vessel, for instance by the aid of such end electrode, and the groups of electrodes are then electrically connected with the cover and can also be lifted from the vessel together with the cover, the cover or the vessel as a whole forming one of the conductors.

In view of the fact that the electrolyzer vessels will in many cases be of great length in vertical or horizontal direction, and will moreover expand under the action of heat and pressure, I. prefer providing in these vessels an electrode which is arranged to expand so as to increase in length. I obtain this for instance by using a coil spring as a conductor, a slotted cylindrical surface contact being provided which is adapted to slide relative to the spring.

I have found that the vessel surrounding the electrodes has the greatest efficiency and compactness if the total cross section of the spaces, tubes and pipes in which the gas and electrolyte stand is made small as com pared with former practice. Preferably, since the device is used under pressure, the cross section, at the top of the tubes or conduits in which any particular gas and the electrolyte rise, for example, should be between one-tenth and one one-thousandths of the cross section corresponding to the quantity of that particular gas which is developed in the normal operation of the apparatus at atmospheric pressure. In this way, the size of the apparatus is reduced, the resistance of the electrolyte is lessened, and the flow through the return conduits is improved.

In the drawings affixed to this'specification and forming part thereof several forms of electrolytic apparatus embodying my invention are illustrated diagrammatically by way of example.

In the drawings Fig. 1 is an axial section,

Fig. 2 a cross-section on the line II-II in Fig. 1, and

Fig. 3 a cross-section on the line III-III in Fig. 1, of one form of my electrolyzer, in which conical electrodes and partitions are provided, which taper in upward direction.

Fig. 4 illustrates in cross-section a detail of the electrodes and partitions drawn to a larger scale.

Figs. 5 and 6 are axial sections illustrating two modifications of electrolyzers provided with conical electrodes tapering in downward direction.

Figs: 7 and 8 are diagrams illustrating two different series connections to be employed in connecting the pressure electrolyzers according to the present invention.

Fig. 9 is an axial cross-section of another modification, in which contrary to the arception of inner tie rods 7, while outer tie rods shape, a shoulder formed in the top portion 1 rangement shown in Fig. 1 and similar to those shown in Figs. 5 and 6, the conical electrodes are arranged to taper in downward direction. 1

Referring first to Figs. 1-4, 1 is ,the pressure-resistive vessel which preferably has the form of a long steel tube closed at one end, the diameter of which is rather small as compared with its length or height. In an apparatus of this kind the'ratio of axial length to diameter may for instance be 10: 1. 2 is a conical cover fixed on the cylindrical vessel 1 by means of screw bolts 80. The vessel is entirely filled with the electrolyte; such as water; in an axial boring of the cover 2 is se cured a sleeve 4 provided with an outer flange 3 and a check valve 5. To the lower end of this sleeve is fixed, as by screwing, the topmost or end electrode 6, having the form of a flanged hollow cone, the top end of which is formed into a kind of corrugated and apertured bell 6a, and has shoulders for the re- 8 extend through holes in the outer flange of electrode 6. The lower ends of the outer tie rods 8 extend across the outer'flange of the bottom end electrode 9 which has the form of a hollow body of substantially frusto conical of this body serving as an abutment for the bottom ends of the inner tie'rods 7. The top and bottom electrodes 6 and 9 hold between ,thezna great number of electrodes 81, 82,-and

partitions 83, which alternate with each other, the electrodes alternating also with respect to their polarity, between every two positive electrodes 81 extending a ne ative electrode 82. Thus each electrode orms with each partition adjoining same a half cell or cell section, the other half of the cell being formed by the same partition and the electrode of difierent polarity extending on the other side of said partition All these electrodes and partitions are here shown as having the form of conical frusta with outer flanges held by the outer'ti'e rods 8, insulating pieces 10 being inserted between them. Both the electrodes and the partitions are formed with slightly conical top portions 11, through which extend the innertlerods 7, slightly conical insulating blocks 12 being interposed between these top portions. The insulating blocks 12 as well as the .parts of the electrodes and partitions which are in contact with the blocks, are formed with perforations 13,14. Fig. 1. shows how the perforations irb the superposed electrodes, partitions and insulatingblocks form vertically extending conduits which taper in downward direction, the perforations provided in the bottom. electrodes, partitions and insulating blocks being smaller v in diameter than those provided in the upper electrodes, partitions and insulating blocks.

The spaces or half cells formed between the 7 electrodes and partitions, being filled with the half-cells enclosed between a partition and a negative electrode and in which hydrogen, is developed, are connected with Vertical conduits 13 of greater cross-sectional area than the half cells enclosed between a partition and a positive electrode, in which oxygen is being developed, these latter half cells be ing connected by means of the passages 16 with vertical conduits 14 of smaller diameter, as will appear more clearly from Fig. 3. The superposed outer flanges of the electrodes and partitions ar perforated also, as shown more particularly 'n Fig. 3, vertical perforations 17 extending between the outer tie rods 8 and forming outer vertical conduits, which alternately communicate with alternating half cells by means of passages 19. 20 is a strong middle electrode, and the electrode structure enclosed between the top electrode 6 and the bottom electrode 9 is held together by the-outer and inner tie rods 7 and 8, re-

spectively, and is suspended from the cover 6, forming a self-contained unit which can be lifted from the vessel 1 together with the cover. The outer and inner tie rods are in electrical connection with the top and bottom electrodes 6 and 9, respectively, while being insulated from the intermediate electrodes.

Current is supplied to the electrodes by -means of a central rod 21 extending up to and connected with the middle electrode 20. The central conductor 21 is formed at its bottom end as a coil-spring 22 provided with a slot- .ted conical extension 23 which is forced by a conical nut 24 against a cylinder 25 whic extends into the interior of the coil 22. 26

is an insulating sleeve surrounding the condoctor 21, the cylindrical ortion of the insulating sleeve eing slida ly inserted in .a

double-cylindrical insulating body 27 mounted on the bottom of the vessel 1.

wider apart at the top than at the bottom.

The current enters at the flange 3 of sleeve 31 inthe cover of the vessel and flows through the top electrode 6 and the intermediate electrodes and cells down to the middle electrode 20, leavingv the vessel through the conductor 21. Another branch of the current flows from the top electrode 6 through the insulated outtive one, there will form between it and the Some of the intermediate electrodes and partitions are shown in Fig. 1 to be spaced adjoiningpartition 83 hydrogen gas, while between this partition and the adjoining positive electrode 81 oxygen gas will be formed. The oxygen gas enters the narrower conduits 14 extending intermediate between the wider conduits 13, both being formed by corresponding perforations of the insulating blocks 12. The cells are in communication with these conduits by passages 15 and 16, respectively, as hereinbefore described, and the oxygen developed in the positive cells will rise in the three narrower conduits 14 appearing in Fig. 3, while the hydrogen will rise in the wider conduits 13. While the oxygen conduits 14 are covered by the bell 6a, the hydrogen conduits 13 are open on top, the bell being apertured, as shown in Fig. 2.

' The oxygen on leaving the conduits 14 will enter the central passage 30 extending in the sleeve 4 and will escape across check valve 5. The hydrogen will enter the annular space 31 surrounding the bell 6a and will escape through passages 32 in the cover in which check valves 33 are provided. The gases may be collected separately in -pressure-resistive containers (not shown) or may be conducted to the same or to different places of consumption by suitable pipings.

As mentioned above, the electrolyte, such as water, is kept in constant circulation through the apparatus, and separate streams of electrolyte circulate in the positive and in the negative cells, respectively. The electrolyte filling the positive cells enters at 34 in the bottom of the vessel 1 and passes through the superposed perforations in the outer flanges of the electrodes and partitions and the passages 19 into the positive cells and through substantially horizontal passages 16 in the insulating blocks 12 into the oxygen conduits 14 escaping through passages 30a into slots 35 in the sleeve 4 and flowing back through the pressure-resistive pipe 35a, which extends outside of the vessel and can be cooled. The electrolyte for the negative cells enters at 36 in the bottom of vessel 1, rises between the bottom electrode 9 and the insulating sleeve surrounding the conductor 21 to enter the conduits 13 through passages 37. It further rises through openings 38a between the outer wall of the vessel 1 and the insulating cover 38 surrounding the entire elect-rode structure, through passages 18 unto the respective cell sections, then through the conduits 13 into the space around the bell 6a, passing through perforations 6?) and escaping through the borings into the pressure-resistive return pipe 36.

The passages 39 are formed in two substantially conical rings 41, 42 surrounding the bottom and top portions, respectively, of the top electrode 6. On the outer edges of these rings is mounted in stretched condition an elastic diaphragm 43, which may for instance --be made of rubber, having substantially the form of a conical frustu m. While the electrolyte for the negative cells, in which hydrogen is developed, has been shown to pass through perforations 39 in the rings 41,42, being confined within the conical frustum formed by the diaphragm 43, the electrolyte for the positive cells, in which oxygen is developed, fills the space surrounding this diaphragm and enclosed in a cap-shaped member 46, which is loosely inserted in the vessel and forms with the conical rings 41, 42 and diaphragms 43 a self-contained unit which can be withdrawn as a whole.

A branch conduit 47 leading from the main conduit into the space enclosed between the cap-shaped member 46 and the diaphragm 43, causes this space to be constantly filled with part of the electrolyte for the positive cells, so that the outer side of the diaphragm is constantly acted upon by the pressure of oxygen gas developed in this elec trolyte. On the other hand the inner side of the diaphragm is acted upon by the hydrogen pressure, the electrolyte for the negative cells passing through between the inner side of the diaphragm and the top electrode 6. This diaphragm, which forms an important part of my invention, being highly elastic, affords the means for compensating all differences of pressure which may arise in the two gases, being capable of giving way under an excess pressure, acting thereon on the outer or the inner side. This device is highly efficient for the purpose in viewand will also render excellent services inthe compensation or equalization of pressure in electrolyzers in which the electrodes are separated by a rigid, nonyielding partition or one which is less elastic than said diaphragm, or where no partitions at all are inserted between the electrodes.

Instead of arranging. this diaphragm inside the eleetrolyzer vessel, as shown in Fig. 1, I may also arrange a similar diaphragm, or. a piston or the like outside of the vessel at some suitable point in the electrolyte or gas conduits, as will be described more fully with reference to Fig. 9.

Fig. 4 is an illustration, drawn to a lar er scale, of corrugated electrodes separated y non-corrugated partitions. Obviously the arrangement may also be such that the partitions are corrugated while the electrodes-are plain, and I may also use corrugated electrodes and corrugated partitions.

The pipe 34 extends upward into the vessel at 51 and slidably engages a downward extension 52 of the lower electrode 9, to permit the electrode body to move upward when it becomes heated.

Fig-5 illustrates a vertically disposed vessel composed of rings 85 superposed with an insertion of packing rings 86, the rings being assembled into a cylinder by means of flanged rings 87 and covers 88 united by means oftie rods 89. In the vessel are arranged conical or funnel-shaped electrodes cylinder, so that the Wall of the vessel is Y electrically connected with the electrodes and may evenbe integral therewith.

Figs. 7 and 8 are diagrams of series connections which can be employed with-particular advantage in connection with the electrolyzers forming the object of the present invention. V

The modification illustrated in Fig. 9 is substantially the reverse of the one shown in Fig. 1, the frusto-conical electrodes and partitions 100, 101 being-arranged with their narrow ends pointing in downward direction. In almost all other points the arrangement of electrodes is substantially the same as shown in Fig. 1, the electrode structure being reinforced by two outer electrodes 102', 103 and a middle electrode 104, all having 7 greater mechanical strength. Diaphragm 105 and the parts combined therewith close- 1 resemble the diaphragm 43 in Fig. 1, but

may replace or supplement same by a diaphragm inserted into the electrotlye conduits outside of the vessel. Hereacontainer'106 is shown surrounding a diaphragm 107 which subdivides this container into two spaces of difl'erent volume, the smaller space communicating with the. oxygen gas or oxy-. gen electrolyte conduits 108, whilethe larger 40 space communicates with the hydrogen gas or hydrogen electrolyte conduits 109. In the drawings the size of this vessel is shown considerably smaller than its real size and I wish it to be understood that in this respect the drawing should not be construed as imposmg any limitation on the outer diaphragm I and the parts connected therewith.

The current here enters the vessel from above through the cover, and y the gases escapethrough separate passages 110, 111 --hav1ng check-valves inserted therein. The

gases do not rise in the axial line ofthe vessel, but escape from the half cellsbetween theelectrodes' and the partitionsv on the cir- '55 cumference thereof, as can easily be guessed from the drawing. e The apparatus above described, while being particularly suitable for the electrolytical decomposition of waterand other ,60.' 11quids and'solutions under high pressure,

may also be usedfwith advantage for the electrolysis under 7 atmospheric conditions.

. Theparticular forms and kinds of the. electrodes will prove useful also in connection- 05 with other vessels, partitions and the like,-

and I wish it to be understood that I claim as my invention not only the combination of parts shown in the drawings and described in the specification, but desire to 'obtain protection also for each individual part by itself and whether in combination with the other parts shown and described or with diflerent parts or diflerent electrolytical. apparatus. i

I In the following claims the word gas is intended to designate the gas or gases which result in the electrolytical process and the termelectrodes is intended to cover also electrode surfaces.

I wish it to be understood that I do not desire to be'limited to the exact details of construction shown and described for obvious modifications will occur to-a. person skilled in the art.

1. Apparatus for the electrolytic decomposition of water or other liquids and solutions under high pressure, comprising a vessel and a plurality of electrodes of difl'erent polarity arranged insaid vessel substantially in parallel to eachother and being connected in series, positive and negative electrodes alternating with each other and connected together to form a self-contained body altogether surrounded by the electrolyte, andconduits connecting the electrolyte outside of said electrode body with the electrolyte in the respective cell sections of said body. 7 2. Apparatus for the electrolytic decomposition of water or other liquids and solutions under high pressure, comprising a vessel and a plurality of electrodes of equal circumference ofdifi'er'ent polarity arranged in said vessel substantially in parallel to each other and being connected in series, positive and negative electrodes alternating with each other and connected together to form a self-contained body altogether surrounded by the electrolyte, and conduits connecting the electrolyte outside of said electrode body with the electrolyte in the respective cell sections of said body.

3. Apparatus forhe 'electrolyt ic decomposition of water or other liquids and solutions under high pressure, comprising a vessel and a plurality'of electrodes of different polarity arranged in said vessel substantially in parallel t'oeach other and being conncted in series, positive and negative electrodes alternating with each other and connected together to 'form' la self-contained body altogether surrounded by the electro- 'lyte, conduits connecting the electrolyte outside of said electrode body with the electrolyte in the respectivefcell sectionsof said body, and gas conduits provided in the electrode body, one of conduits bein arranged at the periphery, the other at th center of said electrode body. a a

4.. Apparatus for the electrolytic decompolarity arranged in said vessel substantially position of water or other liquids and solutions under high pressure, comprising a vessel and a plurality of electrodes of different polarity arranged in said vessel substantially in parallel to each other and being connected in series, positive and negative electrodes alternating with each other and connected together to form a self-contained body altogether surrounded by the electrolyte, conduits connecting the electrolyte outside of said electrode body with the electrolyte in the respective cell sections of said body, and pressure-proof return conduits for the anolyte and catholyte extending outside of said vessel.

5.- Apparatus for the electrolytic decomposition of water or other liquids and solutions under high pressure, comprising a vessel and a plurality of electrodes of different polarity arranged in said vessel substantially in parallel to each other and being connected in series, positive and negative electrodes alternating with each other and connected together to form a self-contained body altogether surrounded by the electrolyte, conduits connecting the electrolyte outside of said electrode body with the electrolyte in the respective cell sections of said body, that part of the inner wall of said vessel which lies opposite the outer edges of said electrodes being insulated relative to the electrolyte surrounding said electrode body.

6. Apparatus for the electrolytic decomposition of water or other liquids and solutions under high pressure, comprising a vessel and a plurality of electrodes of different polarity arranged in said vessel substantially in parallel to each other and being connected in series, positive and negative electrodes alternating with each other and connected together to form a self-contained body altogether surrounded by the electrolyte, conduits connecting the electrolyte outside of said electrode body with the electrolyte in the respective cell sections of said body, and a cover closing said vessel and combined with said body to form a self-contained unit.

7. Apparatus for the electrolytic decomposition of water or other liquids and solutions underv high pressure, comprising a vessel and aplurality of electrodes of different in parallel to each other and being connected in series, positive and negative electrodes alternating with each other and connected together to form a self-contained body altogether surrounded by the electrolyte, and conduits connecting the electrolyte outside of said electrode body with the electrolyte in the respective cell sections of said body, the end electrodes of a group being mechanically stronger than the others.

8. Apparatus for the electrolytic decomposition of water or'other liquids and solutions under high pressure, comprising a vessel and a plurality of electrodes of different polarity arranged in said vessel substantially in parallel to each other and being connected in series, positive and negative electrodes alternating with each other and connected together to form a self-contained body altogether surrounded by the electrolyte, conduits connecting the electrolyte outside of said electrode body with the electrolyte in the respective cell sections of said body, and an expansible current conductor.

9. Apparatus for the electrolytic decomposition of water or other liquids and solutions under high pressure, comprising a vessel and a plurality ofelectrodes of different polarity arranged in said vessel substantially in parallel to each other and being connected in series, positive and negative electrodes alternating with each other and connected together to form a self-contained body altogether surrounded by the electrolyte, conduits connecting the electrolyte ouside of said electrode body with the electrolyte, in the respective cell sections of said body, and an expansible electrolyte conduit connecting the electrolyte outside of said vessel with the electrolyte within said vessel.

' 10. Apparatus for the electrolytic decomposition of water or other liquids and solutions under high pressure, comprising a vessel and a plurality of electrodes of difl'erent polarity arranged in said vessel substantially in parallel to each other and being connected in series, positive and negative electrodes alternating with each other and connected to gether to form a self-contained body altogether surrounded by the electrolyte, conduits connecting the electrolyte outside of said electrode body with the electrolyte in the respective cell sections of said body, and a yielding wall being arranged outside of said electrodes separating the electrolytes being in connection with the anolyte and with the catholyte, respectively.

11. Apparatus for the electrolytic decomposition of water or other liquids'and solutions under high pressure, comprising a vessel and a plurality of electrodes of different polarity arranged in said vessel substantially in parallel to each other and being connected in series, positive and negative electrodes alternating with each other and connected together to form a self-contained body altogether surrounded by the electrolyte, and conduits connecting the electrolyte outside of said electrode body with the electrolyte in the respective cell sections of said body, the voltage of said vessel being practically the same as the voltage of the outermost electrodes.

12. Apparatus for the electrolytic decomposition of water or other liquids and solutions under high pressure, comprising a vessel and a plurality of electrodes of different polarity arranged in said vessel substantially in parallel to each other and being connected in series, positive and negative electrodes alternating with each other and connected together to form a-self-contained body altogether surrounded by the electrolyte, and conduits connecting the electrolyte outside of said electrode body with the electrolyte in the respective cell sections of said body, the cells formed between said electrodes being connected to gas-collecting conduits, the sections of which increase from one to the other end thereof. 7 v

13. Apparatus for the electrolytic decomposition of water and other liquids and solutions under high pressure, comprising a plurality of superposed ring sections forming a vessel, and a plurality of electrodes of different polarity arranged in said vessel substantially in parallel to each other, positive and negative electrodes alternating with each other.

14. Apparatus for the electrolytic decomposition of water and other liquids and solutions under high pressure, comprising a plurality of superposed ring sections forming a vessel, and a plurality of electrodes of diff-erent polarity arranged'in said vessel substantially. in parallel to each other, positive and negative electrodes alternating with each other, the electrodes extending between said rings and thus with insulating means between electrodes of ,difierent polarity .forming part of the vessel. v

15. Apparatus for the electrolytic decomposition of water and other liquids'and solutions under high pressure, comprising a plurality of superposed ring sections-forming a vessel, and a plurality'of electrodes of different polarityarranged in said vessel substantially in parallel to each othe r, positive and negative electrodes alternating with each other, the electrodes forming part of said rings.

16. Apparatus for the electrolytic decomposition of water and other liquids and solutions under high pressure, comprising a plurality of superposedring sections forming a vessel, spaces separating said sections, and a plurality of electrodes of different polarity arranged in said vessel substantially in parallel to each other, positive and negative electrodes alternating with each other.'

17. Apparatus for the electrol tic decomposition of water or other liqui s and solutions under. high pressure, compr sing a vessel and a plurality of electrodes of difierent polarity arranged in said vessel substantially I in parallel toeach other-andbeing connected 5 in series, positive and negative electrodes alternating with each other and connected togetherto form a self-contained body alto gether surrounded by '-the electrolyte, con-v duits connecting the. electrolyte outside of insulated conductor leading to an intermediate electrode. I

18. Apparatus for the electrolytic decomposition of water or other liquids and solutions under high pressure, comprising a vessel and a plurality of electrodes of difierent polarity arranged in said vessel substantially in parallel to each other and being connected in series, v positive and negative electrodes alternating'with each other and connected together to form a self-contained body altogether surrounded by the electrolyte, conduits connectingthe electrolyte outside of said electrode body withvthe electrolyte in the respective cell sections of said body, and a solid conductor connecting the end electrodes of a group of electrodes to form a mechanically self-contained unit. I

19. Apparatus for the electrolytic decomposition of water or other liquids and solutions under high pressure, comprising a vessel and a plurality of electrodes of different polarity arranged in said vessel substantially in parallel to each other and being connected in series, positive and negative electrodes alternating with each other and connected together to form a self-contained'body altogether surrounded by the electrolyte, and conduits connecting the electrolyte outside of said electrode body with the electrolyte in the respective cell sections of said body, one-of the outmost electrodes forming gas collecting chambers. 20. Apparatus for the electrolytic decomposition of liquids under pressure, comprising electrodes of 'difierent polarity, and having conduits for gas and electrolyte, the cross sectional area of the conduits which contain gas and electrolyte being between one tenth .and one one-thousandth of the cross section of a conduit corresponding to the quantity ofgas developed in the apparatus at atmospheric pressure. I

21. Apparatus for the electrolytic decompositiqn of liquids under pressure, comprising electrodes of difi'erent polarity, and having I conduits for as and electrolyte,th'e cross sectional area ot the conduits which contain gas and electrolyte being between one tenth and ;one one-thousandth of the cross section of a conduit corresponding to the quantity of gas developed in the apparatus at atmospheric pressure and return conduits connecting said first conduits with the res ective cell sections. In testimony whereof aflix my signature.

JACOB EMIL NOEGGERATH.

' said electrode body with the electrolyteinthe respective cell sections of saidbody, and an

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2717872 *Aug 9, 1951Sep 13, 1955Zdansky Ewald APressure electrolyzers
US3399131 *Jan 24, 1966Aug 27, 1968Edouard KrebsAqueous electrolysis cell for saline solutions, especially of alkali chlorides
US4279731 *Mar 10, 1980Jul 21, 1981Oronzio Denora Impianti Elettrichimici S.P.A.Bipolar diaphragm
US4358357 *Feb 6, 1980Nov 9, 1982Creusot-LoireApparatus for the electrolysis of water
US5716503 *Jul 31, 1996Feb 10, 1998United Technologies CorporationCenter post electrochemical cell stack
US5837110 *Dec 17, 1996Nov 17, 1998United Technologies CorporationSpherical section electrochemical cell stack
Classifications
U.S. Classification204/256, 204/237
International ClassificationC25B9/06
Cooperative ClassificationC25B9/06
European ClassificationC25B9/06