|Publication number||US1800470 A|
|Publication date||Apr 14, 1931|
|Filing date||Jun 13, 1927|
|Priority date||Jun 18, 1926|
|Publication number||US 1800470 A, US 1800470A, US-A-1800470, US1800470 A, US1800470A|
|Original Assignee||Etienne Oehmichen|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (44), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
April 14, 1931. E. OEHMICHEN I SUSTAINING DEVICE WITH REGULATORS Filed June 13, 192'? 4 Shoots-Sheet lmvew T E April 14, 1931. E. OEHMICHEN SUSTAINING DEVICE WITH REGULATORS Filed June 15,- 1927 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Oe/am/cben April 14, 1931. E. OEHMICHEN SUSTAINING DEVICE WITH REGULATORS Filed June 13, 1927 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 April 4, 1931. E. OEHMICHEN SUSTAINING DEVICE WITH REGULATORS Filed June 15, 1927 4 SheetSrSheet 4 Patented Api'. 14,1931 I i 1,800,470
' UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE nrmmvr. onnmronnlv, or :VALENTIGNEY, rnelvcn v I sus'rAmIno nnvrcE wrrrr REGULATORS I Application filed June 13, 1927,. Serial No. 198,674, an-ddn France June 18, 1926.
The present invention relates to a sustainhe element 8 passes through a maximum, the ing device provided with'an automatic regumlmmum reactlonv W111 take place at a point lator which serves to regulate the reactions N' which is practically situated on the line of the air upon the-elements ofthe sustaining OX w i h i he extension of OX.. device, or to provide for its self-rotation The vertical reactions of the air on the sald 55 under the effect of a relativ wi d, element of the blade will thus admit a plane The appended drawing hi h are h of symmetry which is theaxial plane repreby Way of example relate particularly to the Sented y and th y y be epresented case of a sustaining propeller, but the inveny a p riodic function which is symmet i l M tion is applicable in general to all sustain- Wlth reference to XXQ ing devices, and more generally to all proy 031186 Of a k f eq ilibri m Such s pellers subjected to the action of a relative the action of the Wind l thus be fin lly wind which is not parallel to their axis of i es e y a couple i ated in the axial rotation. plane represented by XX which will herein us Fig 1 d 2 r x l t di e designated as the plane of the maximum Fig. 3 is a perspective View of an embodil k f q il b m r eingment of the invention. If itds desired to restore the balance, this Fig- 4 is a perspective View showing a y be (10118 y g i g to theincidence 9 the modification of th ha i connecting a said elementof the blade a periodic varlation bl d f th regulator ith bl d f th by which this incidence will pass through a 70 sustaining propeller. point'at which the reaction of the air tends Fig. 5 is a perspective view of another 1 be & maxlmllm, &t N, nd through modification. minimum at the point at which the said re Fig. 6 is a diagram relating to a, lfaction tends to be a minimum, i. e. at N rotatln apparatus. Otherwise stated, the correction for the incip Fig. is a perspective view of a construcdeuce should pass through a maximumwhen tional form of improved sustaining devices h id m n elf pass s in he plane of in accordance with the invention. 7 themaximum i g- Under the action of a relative'wind which This being admitted, if the apparatus cona a0 i t nd t th i fth t i i tains but a'single propeller, the anti-rotation S0 device, or simply due to a lack f homoof the frame being counteracted'by special geneity', either temporary or permanent, in means, the gyroscopic action of the sustaining the aerodynamic field, the reactions of the air device which is freely exercised will cause on one of the blades of the sustaining device the reversal of the axis'of rotation of the said at'the different points of its revolution will sustaining-device in the axial plane reprepass alternately through a maximum and a "sented by OY, perpendicular to OX, irreminimum, which are practically situated on sp iv y of the spe d of rotation. the same diameter of a circle described by The axis of the sustaining device, which is the said blade. out of balance and is supposed to be free, will 40 Ifthe plane of Fig. 1 represents the plane ,rotate about the center of gravity which is of rotation of the sustaining device (said supposed tobe situated uponthe same axis, plane being first supposed invariably pernot in the plane of maximum unbalanoing but pendicular to they axis 0 of the control in another axial plane which is perpendicular shaft)',.O the circumference described by any thereto; this axial plane which is represented part or element sof a blade whose incidence by OY will be herein designated as the rewill be first considered as constant, V the versing plane. component (in the plane of rotation) of a The maximum correction which should alrelative wind which is not parallel to the Ways be made in the plane of maximum unaxis, and N the point of the circumference balancing will thus occur in a plane perpenat which the vertical reaction of the air on dicular to the said reversing plane.
If the apparatus comprises several propellers rotating in the same direction, the action will be exactly the same.
Should the apparatus comprise propellers disposed in pairs, whereof the two equal elements or parts rotate in opposite directions, the gyroscopic effects will beflmutually annulled.
Let C and C (Fig. 2) represent the projections of circumferences described by two propeller elements which have different radii and pertain respectively to two inversely-disposed propellers of a given group, the plane of the maximum unbalancing of the propeller which contains the element 3 will be represented by OX and the plane of unbalancing" of the propeller containing the element 8 will be represented by OX The centers of pressure (which are off the center line) of the two propellers will be situated respectively on OX and OX at the points P and P such that OP will be substantially equal to P The resulting center will thus be situated at P" which is the middle point of PP, and the reversing plane will be represented by OP".
The correction for the incidence should be made in such manner that its maximum shall not be situated in the plane perpendicular to the plane of reversal of the aggregate, but respectively in the planes OX for the p ropeller C and OX for the propeller 0 i. e. for each propeller in a plane perpendicular to the plane of reversal of the sustaining device which is supposed to be isolated.
The invention is applied in practice for the following purposes:
1. In is applicable in the case of an apparatus which comprises propellers all of which rotate in the same direction, and this class will comprise as a particular case, the use of a single propeller which will be chosen as typical.
It is applicable in the case. of an apparatus comprising groups of propellers rotating in pairs in contrary directions.
3. Thiscase relates to propellers rotating in the same direction, or more simply, to a single propeller.
In Fig. 3, 1 is a sustaining propeller which will be supposed for the sake of simplicity to comprise only two blades 2 and3. For convenience in the description, the said blades are supposed to consist of two flat rectangular elements which are rigidly secured to a bar' 4 whose axis is MM, and are spaced apart by the proper angle.
The bar 4 is rotatable on its axis in a guide tube 5 which is mounted on one of the journals 6 whose axis is HH of a forked bracket 7 pertaining to the power shafts 8 whose axis is ZZ. The tube 5 is rotatable on the axis HH', so that the bar 4 is free to oscillate in the two directions p" p and p-p'.
Upon the extended part of the power shaft 8 is mounted a second rotating element or regulator 9 which is usually smaller than the sustaining device. The said regulator herein comprises a bar 10 which is rotatable on a transverse axis 11 which is mounted on the 'power shaft and is perpendicular to the axis ZZ' of the latter. The bar 10 carries two small blades 11, which may be regulated for any suitable incidence whether ositive, negative or nil, and whose centers 0 thrust P and P are situated in the plane ZZ HH or near this plane.
The regulator is connected with the sustaining device by mechanical connecting parts which are so disposed that any angular displacement of the regulator 9 on the axis 11 which causes the ascent of the point P through a given distance, will rotate the bar 4: in the direction of correspondin to a diminuation of the incidence of the blade 2 which also has a given value, irrespectively of the inclination of the said bar about the axis H'H.
In Fig. 3, the connection comprises a rigid strap 12, which is rigidly connected with the bar 4 and is so disposed that when the incidences of the blades 2 and 3 are equal, the plane of the said strap will pass through HH' ;'to an arm 13 secured to the shaft 8 is pivotedon an axis J J parallel to 11- a lever 14 whose ends are connected, by the links 15 and 16, at one end with the bar 10 and at the other end with the strap 12.
In this particular case, the principle of the invention consists in the use of a regulator which is directly actuated by the power shaft and is maintained in an axial plane P ZZ' P which is different from the axial plane M ZZ M of the main propeller, which is mounted on the same shaft and may act upon the absolute incidence of said propeller.
The invention is independent of the method of mechanical connection employed to transmit the motion of the regulator to the blades of the propeller in the desired manner. It is an easy matter to attain thesame mechanical result by the use of flexible connections, rack and pinion devices, eccentrics, cams, servo-motor control, relays, or the like.
The operation of the apparatus is at once reduced from the preceding considerations.
Since the rotation of the bar 4 in the direction (Fig. 3) causes a diminution of the incidence of the blade 2 and an increase of the incidence of the blade 3, due to the action of the regulator, this will effect the desired regulation, and will automatically balance the reactions at the time and in the direction desired.
In this manner the system will automatically equilibrate the reactions of the air on the blades and will tend to cause their resultant to pass through the axis ZZ, and this avoids imparting any reversing couples to the apparatus. However, the sustaining device which has not sufficiently corrected the rotation of'the bar 1. This inclination has a double advantage, since it imparts to the entire system only the reactions passing through HI-Ifland it also completes the regulating by changing the absolute angle of incidence with reference to the air.' Theblade which is the most loaded will rise while also rotating, and its absolute angle of incidence will decrease due to this ascent, and itstrajectory tends to become parallel to the plane of the blade. The blade which is the least loaded will descend, and itsabsolute incidence increases in like manner.
The regulatoninstead of being mounted on the shaft 8 at exactly degrees from the sustaining device, may be set at a different angle, so as to take account of the interactions of the regulator and the sustaining device. It Will not be entirely without useful effect, unless it were set in the same plane as the sustaining device, and it may be noted that a certain adjustment in the setting on either side of the right angle plane is always required.
The system is irreversible when the centers of pressure of the blades 2 and 3 are situated .on the axis MM of the bar a as also their center of gravity, thus obviating all couples axis with facility, in the same manner as the bar 4 of the sustainingdevice, and herein the oscillations of the regulator are increased, and the power of the control is augmented, this allows to increase or to reduce at will the incidence' of the blades by known means if one deems it necessary to correct the automatic action of the regulator.
A regulator may also be constructed in which the bar 10 is not pivoted on 11, and in which the blades are simply pivoted on the bar '10, or the respective bars 10, and are disposed singly or in pairs, but such a device has but little power. I
A single blade of the regulatormayserve for the control of one or more blades of the sustaining device, andI may -modify the means of connection of the blades of the sustaining device or the regulator, or of both, for instance as shown in Fig. 4:; herein the blades ll'of the regulator are not mounted in pairs but are separately pivoted, in a manner known per se, about horizontal axes such whose center is O. .26-27-.28-29 transmit to a second roller as 17 and are maintained in equilibrium by centrifugal force and by the reaction of the air. The blades 2 and 3 of the sustaining device may be disposed as shown in Fig. 3 or may be separately pivoted like the blades of the regulator; this latter case is shown in Fig. 4. Theirpivot axle 18 is mounted in a forked bracket 19 movable on an axle 20 secured to the power shaft 8; said bracket will pivot on the axle 20 in conjunction with the pivotation of the blade 11 about the axis 17, for instance by transmission means comprisingv a pinion 21 secured to the blade 11, a pinion 22 secured to the bracket 19 and a rack 23 which is. guided parallel with the shaft 8rand coa-cting with these two pinions;
When the blade 11 rises or descends, the
incidence of the blade 2 will respectively decrease or increase.
In the different cases herein specified the reactions of the air on the blades of the regulator, combined with the gyroscopic effects,,cause them to rise about an axis corresponding to the position in which the said blades are subjected to the maximum and minimum reactions of the air. A combination of lovers or like controls such as are shown in Fig. 3 or .Fig. 4, will pivot the blades of the sustaining device about their I axis 20, so as to reduce their incidence to the minimum at the points at which the react-ion of the air tends to pass through a maximum, and vice-versa.
The pivot axes 17 of the regulator blades may also be movable about auxiliary axles which are parallel to the lengthwise direction of saidblades or are perpendicular to the axes l7 and to the axis ZZ. In spite of this added freedom, the blades will tend to assume a position of equilibrium if their centers of gravity are situated, relatively to the movement, in the rear of the planes passing through these auxiliary axes and through the axis ZZ.
I may further construct a regulator which rotates at a different speed from that of the main sustaining device, and which is even quite independent of the latter as concerns its on the regulator roll upon a circular disk or race 24 which is mounted in a Cardan ring 25 The cable connections race 30-also mounted in a Cardan ring 31- movements which reproduce in space the movements of 24, or symmetrical movements.
obliged to roll at their end provided with a roller 34 upon the race 30, in order to produce at the proper moment the desired incidence of these blades 2 and 3. I 1
In the construction shown in Fig. 6, the
I lever 33 is pivoted on an axle 35 mounted on the shaft 8, and it controls an arm 36 secured to the bar 4 carrying the blades 2 and 3. The socket 5 in which the said bar is rotatable is recessed so as to allow the arm 36 to pivot I about the axis MM of the bar 4.
By changing the position of the supporting pulleys of the cable gear, or by regulating them in any other suitable manner, or by changing the direction of the supports of the Cardan'rings and 31, it is an easy matter to provide any desired angularsPacing of the use of a separate and distinct regulator whose elements-modified as to position of I incidence by the relative wind itself- -react upon the main sustaining device so as to correct the incidence and the trajectory at the proper points.
The regulator may serve in an eificient manner to assure the. self-rotation ofthe sustaining devicaunder the action of a transverse relative wind,-without making it necessary, as in the known apparatus of-this class, to incline the axis of rotation ZZ'- with reference to the relative wind.
With the sustaining device in the position shown in Fig. 3, if the operator invertsby' a suitable action the incidence of the planes 2 and 3 while also reversing the incidence of a the regulator blades 11, this will afford the of the plane of arrangement shown in Fig. 6. 7
2 indicates the direction of motion of the blade 2 which is situated at this time in front the figure on the axis ZZ', and 2 the direction of motion of the blade 3 which is movingto the rear.
The relative wind which has the direction of S will incline the plane of rotation of the regulator according to 1r. The blades 2 which move against the wind, assume an angle of incidence which is-small and positive; the blades 3 which move backward befor the wind assume an incidence which is large and positive, the bar 4 rotating inthe direct-ion (Fig. Both blades have'a lifting action; one is actuating and theother actuated, and if the controlsare properly regulated, the self-rotation will be maintained upon the balanced sustaining device.
In this case, the correction of'the incidence is effected by a system which operates automatically, but the same effect can be obtained by hand, by the use of a steering device; but
' as the reflex reactions of the pilot will necmust be set back by 90 degreesv dicular to the one in which the said movements are effected.
For this reason it is necessary to act by means of a balancing device, not as in certain known apparatus by bringing the maximum of the correction into the plane of the reversal, but by bringing it into a plane perpendicular thereto, by suitable means for transmitting the motion. The device which serves for this control, with the desired angle of spacing, may have a widely Varying construction. It may be constructed in a very simple manner as follows, by the use o'f a system analogous to the one described with reference to Fig. 5.
The controlling wires 2627 -2829 which are connected with the disk 30, are
herein connected with the pilots control stick, so that the operating of the wires 26 and 28 (for example) will pass through a maximum amplitude for an operation of the control stick which takes place in a plane perpendicular to the plane 26-28; the direction in which the wires 26' and 28 are to be moved will obviously depend upon the direction of rotation of the sustaining device,
..which is determined once for all. This supposes that the length of the lever 33 is negligibllce as compared with'the diameter of the I may however increase the size of the lever 33, and in this case it is so disposed that the point of contact of the roller 34 with the drum 30 is situated in a plane perpendicular to the axial plane containing MM. In these conditions, the disk 30 is moved by the controls in. such manner that the line of the greatest slope will be constantly in an axial plane parallel to the plane of the maximum displacement of the equilibrating device.
In this case as in the other, it will be observed that the principle of the invention is carried into effect in the following manner: The control of the variation of the incidence produces the maximum and the minimum incidence in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the manipulation of the balancing device or control stick, and consequently to itself which may be too strong or too weak.
This adjustment, of theregulator by changing the incidence of its own blades may be performed in the known manner.
I may further dispose upon the regulator a disk whichmay'be'inclined 'as desired, for instance the said, disk 24' whoseinclinationmay be controlled by suitable powertransmis'sion gear which is connected with the control stick so as to cause variations in the inclination of the said disk 24 andhence in the plane of rotation of thefregulatordue to the pilots reflex action, and herein the device will appear as shown in Fig.7 which is a combination of Figs. 3 and. 5. H a
In this Figure 7 41 indicates the blades of thesustainingdevice which are'secured to a bar 42 which is revoluble in a socket "43 mounted on the shaft of the engine 42, guided through the stationary tube 45; upon the latter a Cardan ring 46is pivoted on the axles 47 and supportsa by the axles 48the' ring or disk 49which is under the control of the regulator. I a V The said regulator comprises the blades 50 which are secured to a bar 51 pivoted on a transverse axle :52Iwhich i'ssu'pported by two straps 53 secured to the socket 43, the axle 52being parallel to the bar 42of the sustaining device.v v j v The regulator controls the incidence oflthe blades 41 by'a fork 5 4 which is secured to the bar 51 and acts upon a strap 55 mounted on the bar 42; to oblige the Cardan disk 49 to pivotabout while "remaining parallel to the bar 5l'of" the regulat0r,fI mayprovide two links 56' which arepivoted theaxles 57-to the bars 51 andby the'ball-and-socket oints 58 tov a collar 59 which is guided upon the peripheryof the disk 49so asto rotate by easy friction upon' the'latter.
The pivotation which the regulator thus imparts to the disk'49during its rotation is transmitted by thewires 6061-6263 to the pilots steering-gear, which comprises a shaft 64 mounted in a stationary support 65 and provided withatransv'erse axle 66' to which ispivoted a: leveror control stick 67; upon theshaft 64 is'also mounted an arm 50 68. The points (Z d at which the wires 60-61 are attached to the disk 49 are disposed'in the diametrical planepassing'through the axis cidence of the blades at the proper point by of the bar 51; the other ends of said wires are attached to the lcontrol stick respectively above and; below its pivot'axlel 66, and said wires are disposed upon the suitably placed supporting rollers 70; Thepo'ints at which the wires 62and camattached to the disk 49 are situated ona diameter 6 e which is perpendicular to the diameter dd passing through the attaching points 'of the wires 60 61, and the wires 62 -63 are guided by the rollers 71, and are attached to a common point on the arm 68."
The arrows represented 'inFig.' 7 show that if the handle of the control stick is moved for instance perpendicularly to the plane of the figure, towards the spectator, which corresponds to the direction of rotation f f about the axes 6664,' the disk 49 will be obliged'to pivot at the same time about the diameters d d and e e in thedirection of the arrows f so that its lowest point, which is now on the side next the spectatoiywill be brought to the right hand.- In other words, the shaft44 being supposed tobe vertical, the diameter of the greatest slope'of the disk49 will always be maintained in'a verticalplane situated at 90 degrees from the direction given to the control stick.
Due to this cooperation of the disk'49 and consequently of the regulator 50 with the control stick, this latter may be left free by the pilot, and the regulator then acts alone. upon the incidence'of the blades of thevsustaining device through the medium of the fork 54 and the strap 55. v v i If the pilot operates the control stick, he may modify the action of the regulator at will and-may correct the efi'ects of the regulating of the incidence on the main blades 41 of thesustaining deviceeither to increase the said effects, or to diminish these effects, or to change their direction.- I r In thisforin of construction as in the pre ceding, the connection between the control stick and the regulator is such that the ma nipulations of the control stick in the reversing plane are still manifested by a maximum correction for incidence when the blades of the sustaining device are situated inthe maximum plane of unbalancing. P a I Numerous modifications-of the aforesaid devices may be made without changing the general principle, i. e. the perpendicular rethe use of any suitable regulating device, whether of the pendulum or the gyroscope type, which operates by the inclination of the apparatus and which controlsby means of electric contacts (or the like) the element which regulates the incidence ofthe propeller. In this case as before, the operation of the blades will take place in'a plane perpendicular to the reversing plane.
As observed,'the incidence of a propeller may be regulated in difierent manners, either byrotating the blade about an axis perpendic- I the blade.
The last two methods for varying the incidence may be considered as variations in the incidence by the trajectory of the blade; in fact, if the blade is raised while rotating, its absolute incidence with reference to the air is reduced, but if it descends while rotating, this incidence is increased, and the final result is the same as in the preceding case.
The aforesaid correct-ion will therefore be applicable not only to the simple rotation of a blade upon its axis, but to the effective correction of the incidence corresponding to the maximum reactions of the air upon the blade, and it is necessary to produce this reaction in a plane perpendicular to the reversing plane.
If the question relates, as a particular case,
. to a blade which is adapted for displacement,
the minimum incidence will occur at the point at which the angular speed of ascent of the blade is the greatest, and the maximum incidence will occur at the point at which the speed of the descent is the greatest.
(1) Case in which groups of propellers rotate in pairs in opposite directions.
If the apparatus comprises propellers which rotate in pairs in opposite directions, the same principles are applicable, and herein each propeller is separately controlled by the stabilizing device so that the maximum correction takes place in the plane perpend1cular to the reversing plane of the said propeller which is supposed to be isolated. These planes are not put in evidence when the apparatus is unbalanced.
However the angles POP=P" 0P (Fig. 2) are practically constant for a given apparatus, and may be determined a priori. As a rule, these angles are near degrees. dispose the transmission gear of the controls in such manner that the maxima of the correction for the incidence will take place, for each propeller of a given group, in axial planes which form angles of about +65 and 65 degrees with the reversing plane which may also be termed the steering plane.
(2) Modified arrangement of the regulator.
I may employ for correcting purposes a system in which the regulator concurs in the general sustaining of the apparatus.
Fig. 7 shows such an arrangement, in which the regulator comprises four blades 85 which are mounted on the driving shaft 86 by means of Ga-rdan devices, each of which comprises a shaft 87 mounted in a socket 88 secured to the shaft 86, and a shaft 89 perpendicular to the shaft 87 and carrying the blade; the
four shafts 87 are disposed at right angles about the shaft 86, and in this manner each blade can be given a double movement, firstly a movement of ascent or of pivotation on the shaft 89, and secondly a movement of pivotation of the blade on its longitudinal axis.
Suitable transmission gear which connects two consecutive blades permits of obtaining, by the pivotation of each blade on the sha t 89, the rotation of the next blade on its longitudinal axis, so that if one of the blades should tend to rise, it will tend to rotate the next blade in such manner as to reduce its incidence.
All of the blades are thus connected together in pairs, and it will be noted when considering any two consecutive blades that the first blade acts in the same manner as the regulator blade and that the second blade acts as a sustaining blade, so that all of the blades will serve in turn as regulating blades and as main blades, without differing in their construction.
In the present case, the two consecutive blades are connected together by a link 90 whose respective ends are pivoted to the arms 91, 92 which are mounted respectively on the shafts 89 of one blade and the shaft 87 of the succeeding blade. The connection may be made in any other suitable manner. The blades may be connected together in oppositely disposed pairs, or may be made in dependent, without affecting the principle.
Instead of a rotation of a blade which is under the control of the preceding blade, I may produce simply a. warping of the said blade, which has the same effect as concerns the incidence. This arrangement is in fact only a modification of the above described construct-ions, but with the difference that each blade serves for regulating and sustaining purposes in turn.
It is thus observed that a relative wind whose direction is S will tend to cause the maximum ascent of the blades which are piv- 1 otcd in the plane XOZ perpendicular to the plane of maximum unbalancing YOZ, and that this ascent affords precisely the maximum correction of incidence on a blade situated at 90 degrees from the preceding and thus passing through the point of maximum unbalancing, which is in conformity to the general principle of the invention.
It is further evident that all devices operating by the direct action of the relative wind which is not parallel to the axis and producing the maximum correction of the incidence in the plane of the maximum unbalancing, willbe covered by the principle of the invention.
In this manner it may be supposed that a rotatable plane, analogous to a weather vane, is disposed on the apparatus in such manner that it will be affected by the relative wind, and that the movements of the said vane, by
means of suitable gear, will cause the desired variations of incidence in the plane of maximum unbalancing. As stated, this plane may be considered as forming a practically constant angle with the direction of the relative wind. This angle, which is the complement of the angle a of Fig. 1, is degrees on the average. It may be found with great accuracy for each sustaining device, if the speed of rotation of the device is known, and herein the controls of the system affected by the Wind will act in such a manner as to offer a maximum correction in the plane forming the angle a with the axial plane parallel to the relative wind.
Having thus described my apparatus, what I claim as new therein, and my own invention, is
1. In a sustaining device, the combination of sustaining blades which rotate in a continuous manner upon a main axis and whose incidence is variable, a so-called regulating rotary propeller adapted to cause the incidence of the sustaining blades to vary and to pivot about its center of rotation, whereby its plane of rotation will make with the plane of rotation of the sustaining blades, a vanable angle under the effects of wind, means for the transmission of motion-between the regulating propeller and thesustaining blades for transforming the movement of inclination of the plane of rotation of the regulator so as to correct the incidence of the sustaining blades, the said transmission means being adjusted in such manner that the correction ofincidence of every sustaining blade will be at any moment proportional to the angle of inclination made by a radial linear element of the regulating propeller, situated in the plane-of rotation of the latter and turned of 90 in'advance of the longitudinal axis of the corresponding sustaining blade, with the plane of rotation of the sustaining blades.
2. In a sustaining device, the combination of sustaining blades which rotate in a continuous manner upon a main axis and whose incidence is variable, a regulating propeller adapted to cause the incidence of the sustaining blades to vary and turning at the same speed as the sustaining blades, the said regulating propeller being adapted to pivot freely about an axis which is perpendicular to its axis of rotation and connecting means connected, on the one hand, to an element of the regulating propeller, situated both in the plane of rotation of the latter and on a radius perpendicular to the said axis of oscillation of the said regulating propeller and, on the other hand, to an element of the sustaining blades.
3. In a sustaining device, the combination of sustaining blades which rotate in a con tinuous manner on a main axis and whose incidence is variable, a regulating propelleradapted to cause the incidence of the sustaining blades to vary and turning at the-same speed as the sustaining blades, the said regulating propeller being adapted to pivot freely about an axis which is perpendicular to its axis of rotation and parallel to the longitudinal axis of the sustaining blades, a rod articulated to an element of the regulating propeller situated in the plane of rotation thereof and on a radius perpendicular to the axis of oscillation of the said propeller, a two-arm lever pivoting on a support rotating with the main shaft of the sustaining device and one arm of which is articulated to the said rod, an are connected to the sustaining blades, :1 second rod articulated to the said are, on the one hand, and to the other arm of the said lever, on the other hand.
4. A sustaining device including the combination of sustaining blades which rotate in a continuous manner about a main axis, and the incidence of which is variable, regulating blades which rotate about an axis parallel to the main one, the said regulating blades being besides able of oscillating about an axis perpendicular to their rotation axis, and means connecting the said sustaining blades with the said regulating ones, the said means being adjusted in such manner that the incidence of each sustaining blade be at any moment proportional to the angle of inclination of the plane of rotation of the regulating blades upon their rotation axis, in a plane perpendicular to the axial plane containing the considered sustaining blade.
5. A. sustaining device including the combination of sustaining blades which rotate in a continuous manner about a main axis, and the incidence of which is variable, regulating blades which rotate about another axis. parallel to the main one. at the same speed as the said sustaining blades, the said regulating blades being besides able of rotating about an axis, which is perpendicular to their rotation axis, and connecting means connected, on the one hand, to the plane of rotation of the sustaining blades, and, on the other hand. to the incidence of the sustaining blades, and characterized by the fact that the longitudinal axis of each regulating blade is situated in a plane which is perpendicular to the plane of the corresponding sustaining blade.
6. A sustaining device including the combination of sustaining blades which rotate in a continuous manner about a main axis.
each regulating blade and the corresponding sustaining one, including rods and articulations which are connected, on the one hand, to the said regulating blade, and, on the other hand, to the corresponding sustaining one, the said connecting means being so adjusted that the maximum inclination of the regulating blade brings on the maximum incidence of the corresponding sustaining blade.
7. A sustaining device including the combination of sustaining blades which rotate in a continuous manner about a main axis, and the incidence of which is variable, the said sustaining blades being beside able of oscillating freely about an axis perpendicular to their rotation axis, and regulating blades, in equal number to that of the sustaining ones, rotating about an axis which is parallel to the main one, at the same speed as the sustaining blades, the longitudinal axis of each regulating blade being situated in a plane which is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the corresponding blade.
8. A sustaining device including the combination of sustaining blades which rotate ina continuous manner about a main axis, the said blades being besides able of rotating about their longitudinal axis, so that their incidence is variable, and regulating blades.
which also rotate about the same main axis, the longitudinal axis of each regulating blade being situated in a plate perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the corresponding sustaining blade.
9. A. sustaining device including the combination of sustaining blades which rotate in a continuous manner about a main'rotation axis, the said. blades being able of rotating about their longitudinal axis, so that their incidence is variable, the said sustaining blades being besides able of oscillating about an axis perpendicular to their rotation axis, and regulating blades which also rotate about the said main axis, and are articulated round an axis perpendicular to the said main one, the longitudinal axis of each regulating blade being situated in a plane perpendicular to the one of the corresponding sustaining blade. f
10. In a sustaining device, the combination of sustaining blades rotating in a continuous manner about a main axis of rotation and the incidence of which is variable, regulating blades rotating in a continuous manner about anaxis parallel to the said main axis, the said regulating blades moreover free to oscillate about their center of rotation, so that their plane of rotation can incline according to a variable angle under the action of the Wind, and connecting means between the regulating blades and the sustaining blades,
so adapted that the inclination ofthe plane of rotation of the regulating blades controls the variation of the incidence of the sustaining blades, characterized in that the angle of incidence of each sustaining blade is at every instant proportional to the angle formed by the axis of rotation of the regulating blades and the straight line intersecting the plane of rotation of the said blades and the plane perpendicular to the axial plane containing the sustaining blade under consideration.
11. In a sustaining device, the combination of sustaining blades rotating in a continuous manner about a main axis of rotation and the incidence of which is variable, the said blades being moreover free to oscillate about an axis perpendicular to their longitudinal axis, regulating blades rotating in a continuous manner about an axis parallel to the said main-axis at the same speed as the said sustaining blads, the said regulating blades being moreover free to oscil late about an axis perpendicular to their longitudinal axis, so that their plane of rotation can incline according to a variable angle under the action of the wind, and
mechanical connecting means connected, on
the one hand, to an element rigid with theregulating propeller and located on a radius taining blades, the longitudinal axis of each regulatlng blade being situated in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the corresponding sustaining blade, the said reg-V ulating blades being moreover free to oscillate about an axis perpendicular to their longitudinal axis, so that their plane of rotation can incline according to a variable angle under the action of the wind, and connecting means connected, on the one hand, to an element rigid with the regulating propeller and situated on a radius perpendicular to the axis of oscillation of the said propeller and, on the otherhand, to an element rigid with the corresponding sustaining blade.
13. In a sustaining device, the combination of sustaining blades rotating in a continuous manner about a main axis of rotation and the incidence of which is variable, regulating blades equal in number to the sustaining blades, and rotating themselves about the said main axis at the same speed as the said sustaining blades, the longitudinal axis of each regulating blade being situated in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis peller and, on the other hand, to an element 'device; and one of tliv of the corresponding sustaining blade, the said regulating blades being moreover free to oscillate about an axis perpendicular to their longitudinal axis, so that their plane of rotation can incline according to a variable angle under the action of the wind, and connecting means connected, on the one hand, to an element rigid with the regulatin propeller and situated on a radius perpen icular' to the axis of oscillation of the said prorigid with the corresponding sustaining blade.
14. In a sustaining device, the combination of sustainin blades rotating in a continuous manner a out a main axis of rotation and the incidence of which is variable, the said blades being moreover free to'oscillate about an axis perpendicular to their longitudinal axis, regulating blades equal in number to the sustaining blades and rotating themselves about the said main axis at the same speed as the said sustaining blades, the longitudinal axis of each regulating blade being situated in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the corresponding sustaining blade the said-regulating blades being moreover ""e to oscillate about an axis perpendicular tO-"their longitudinal axis, so that their plan rotation can incline according to a" tan le' angle under the action of the wind, a. rodjointedto an element situated in the plane of rotation of the re 'ulating propeller and on a radius perpendicular ,to the-axis of ,oscillatiohofpthe said proj;-- pel1er, a two-arm leverrocking on a. support ro tating ith the mainshaft -of the sustainpivoted 'to the said rod,""a n' V rigid with-the sustainin blades, a second rod pivoted',-bnf the one'han ,fbllQthe said arcu'ate member 121, 11 the-other hafnizl, on the other arm ofthe' said lever."
In testimonyqwhereof f have hereunto af fixed my signature.
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|U.S. Classification||416/40, 244/17.11, 244/17.17, 244/17.25|
|International Classification||B64C27/02, B64C27/00|