US 1802868 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 28, 1931. E. R. BLACK BUILDING COVERING Filed May 2, 1929 5 Sheets-Sheet l M .3. de m,
wf m 4% April 28, 1931. E. R. BLACK 1,802,888
BUILDING COVERING '3 Sheets-sheet 2 Filed May 2, 1929 April 28, 1931. E. R. BLACK BUILDING COVERING lFiled May 2, 1929 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Patented Apr.- 28, 1931 UNITED STATES PATENT,.- OFFICE EDWARD aoscon BLACK, or CHICAGO, ILLINOIS,` ASSIGNOB To BLACK SYSTEMS INC.,
or CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, A CORPORATION or ILLINOISv BUDDDING COVEBIN'G y Apyncation mea may 2, 1929. seriai no. 359,759.
My invention relates to building coverings, .and is particularly concerned with flexible roofing and siding such as individual, strip l and roll shingles, ridge strips, gutter strips,
. lushings and so called roll-rooting.
One ofthe objects of the invention is to provide'an improved covering construction which is of universal application to substantially all forms of iiexible roofing or siding units.-
Another object is to provide an improved covering unit in which the exposed portion of each unit is anchored to the building framework vwithout any exposed metal.
15 Anotherfobject is to provide an improved Y building covering wherein the shingles or unitsmay be attache-d to the building framework independently of each other adjacent the exposed edges of the units by means of ordinary roofing nails.
Another'object is to provide an improved roof covering and the like in lwhich the shingles or units may be secured to the rootl at both the exposed and covered edges of the units with ordinary nails, without exposing the nails to the weather.
Another object islto provide an improved mode of attachment of roofing to a building ramework, which is applicable to individual shingles, plural unit shingles,roll shingles,
roll roofing, ridge strips, gutter strips, corner strips or other forms of flexible units.
Another object is to provide an improved roofing construction in which certain parts of the roofing are adapted to provide a shading eect or a contrasting color elect for enhancing the appearance of the finished roof. Another object is to provide an improved covering having an integral portion'permanently -folded back to receive a securing nail or the like, in-Such manner that the nail will be concealed and protected by the roofing.
` Another object is the provision O an improved covering construction having attachingportions which are accessible fornaihng or the like, without the necessity for bend-l ing said attaching portions in the nailing thereby avoiding breaking O the o eration P bending at the folded roofing by frequent portions.
Another Object is the provision of an improved coverilig construction in which the unit may be prefolded to form attaching portions, that is, the flexible rooing'may be folded over while hot so that the folding.
operation does not tend to break the roofing at the point of the fold, as might be the case where the roofing is folded while cold at the time it is attached to the building.
Another object is to provide an improved building covering construction which can be laid with a minimum expenditure of time and labor and secured with ordinary roong nails for positively preventing curling of the -lower strip pattern of Figs. 1 and 2;
Fig. 4 is a plan view of a portion of 4a roof covered with plural unit shingles con'- structed according to the present invention;
with the improved feature of shading or color contrast; l
Fig. 5 is a vlew inXperspective of one of the plural unit shingles shown in Fig. 4;
Fig. 6 is a plan view of one of the same units showing the pattern for the unit;
Fig. 7 is a plan view of a portion of a roof equipped witlrrectangular'flexible shingles laid diagonally; Fig. 8 is a detail view of one of the shingles of Fig. 7; 4
Fig. 9 is a plan view of a portion of a roof etplipped with ordinary rectangular shingles o a modified form, laid in horizontal courses;
Fig. 10 is a plan view of the pattern for the shingles used in Fig. 9;
Fig. 11 is a plan View of a modified form of the same shingles shown in Figs. 9 and 10.
The terms shingles or units in the fol,r
ing, to which the improved features of the' invention may be applied,- such as individual shingles, plural unit or strip shingles, roll shingles, roll rooting or siding, ridge strips, gutter strips, corner stri s or the like, and I do not wish to be limited to any specific form or adaptation except as set forth in the appended claims. However, in the following description. the various embodiments of the invention will be explained as applied to roof coverings. since from such description its otheradaptations will be readily' roof. This folded under portion of the unit understood. c
Referring to Figs. 1 to 3, 2() indicates an ordinary roof which may be covered with roofing 21 of any of the usual forms or of any of the improved types described hereinafter. In the presentembodiment, the roofing 2l comprises ordinary roll rooting, the edges of which have been formed in accordance with the present invention.
The major portion .of the roof having been covered with suitable roong, the ridge of the roof may be covered by means of 'a plurality of ridge strip units 22, 23, 24. The,
ridge stripunits 22 to 24 are adapted to-be secured to the roof by, ordinary roofing nails in such manner that thestrips overlap each other and overlap the roofingpreviously an- 'plied, .protecting andl coverlng the nails which secure the ridge strips' and the other` roofing.
Referring to Fig. 3, it will be observed that the present embodiment of the covering unit or ridge strip comprises a substantially rectangular sheet offlexible prepared roofing and in the case of ridge strips, the unit is preferably of considerably greater length than breadth. The sheet 23 is provided with a plurality of slits indicated in their entirety at 25, for the purpose of formingone or more bendable portions or flaps 26 in the roofing unit 23, topermit access to the underl ing space for theV application of nails or il er fastening means used to secure the The flaps 26 of the roofing 'unit 23 may of course take man v different forms, so that the slits 25 need not be rectangular in shape, but they may be curved, triangular` hexagonal or of any other shape capable of providing a bendable portion or flap 26 in the roofing unit adjacent the edge or edges to be secured. In the present embodiment. the slits 25 are preferably formed with a longitudinally extending slit 27 and a pair of inwardly extending transverse slits 28 and 29 to form one or more iiaps 26 whose function will be hereinafterl more particularly described.
Since a ridge strip, corner strip or gutter strip should preferably be secured adjacent both edges, the unit 23 is provided with similar slits 25 adjacent each of the lateral edges of the unit, but it should be understood that where onl one edge of the roofing unit is to be secure the slits will be formed only ad- Ajacent that edge, and in fact the slits and flaps may be provided Wherever it is desired to provide a securing means for the roofing unit.
Referring to Fig. 2, in the' present embodiment the roofing unit 23 is providedlwith a v portion 30 which is folded back or under the body of the unit 23 along each edgewhere it is desired to secure the roofing unit to the tively obtuse angle to expose a section of the underlying anchoring strip, to and throu h which roofing nails, for example, may e driven into the building frameworkto anchor down the lower exposed edges of the units. When the nails have been driven into place then the flaps may be turned or pushed down over the temporarily exposed portion of the anchoring strip so that, although the unit is securely anchored near the butt or exposed lower edge, the nails are covered and there is no exposed metal.
It should be understood that in this operation itis not necessary to bend any portion of the shingle or unit which is actually relied upon to hold the shingle in place, but itis necessary merely to bend an auxiliary tongue or flap 26, the function of which is principally to cover and protect the securing nails 32 after they have been driven into place. In other words the fold or joining edge portions that interconnect the body and anchoring strip of a unit do not serve as a hinge but solely as a permanent and fixed connection therebetween.
After the nails 32 have been driven through the anchor strip 30, the fiap 26 may be laid down flat against the anchor strip, but if necessary to secure further access to the nails, the tongue may be slightly bent up again as much as desired, without weakening the attachment of the shingle to the roof.
The roofing of the present invention is preferably constructed of high grade felt,
.impregnated with asphaltum or other waterproofing composition, and covered on one side with a protective and decorative coating of granulated or aked rock, suchas slate. The
folded portions or anchor strips of thev producing the foldsA in the roofing While the roong is still hot, the roofing units are not weakened at the point of the fold and it is unnecessary subsequently to use as a hinge this fold or joining edge between the body and underlying anchor strip because the unit is not bent as a whole during any step oi application to the building, and furthermore, when constructed accordlng to the present invention, the roofing units may be laid with a minimum expenditure of time and labor, since it is necessary onlyto bend up the flaps on the' V shingles and drive in nails in the usual manner of attaching wooden shingles.
The present shingles may also be laid by relatively unskilled labor, since all of the parts of the shingle will intact and preformed, and ordinary roofin nails may be employed as distinguished om the many complicated securing and interlocking devices used in the prior art.
It is of course understood that any roofing i strip, such as the ridge strip 24, may be cut ofi' straight with ordinary cutting tools where necessary or desirable, as -at the end of the ridge, and since all of the features of the present invention need not be em loyed in every embodiment, some forms of t e shingle units may be provided with ordinary straight ends, such as the unit shown in Fig. 9.
' It is highly desirable, however, in the case Vof ridge, gutter and corner strips, that provision be made for the longitudinal overlapping of the successive strips, and to provide for longitudinal overlapping without more than a double thickness at any point, the units 23 may have their ends formed as shown in Fig. 3. Thus the left hand end of the unit 23 in Fig. 3 is provided with a pair of longitudinally extending portions` 33 adjacent each edge of the pattern, the bal'- ance of the end 34 being cut straight across.
The longitudinally extending portions 23 are of substantially the same width as'the portions 30 which are folded under the roofing unit 23, and conseguently the roofing unit 23 will have a pair o longitudinally projecting exposed portions 33 adapted to be covered by adjacent tongues or bendable portions 26 upon the next ridge strip. This is best illustrated at the left end of the ridge strip 24 in Fig. 2.
At the opposite end of the roofing un'it 23, the unit is formed with the same flaps or tongues 26 and sullicient of the folded portion 30 is cut away as at 35 so that when the .edge 34 of the next strip is placed adjacent the edge or slit 29 of the end tongue 26, the' longitudinally projecting portions 33 will lill in the space 35. That is, the right hand end of the rooting unit is formed'with a cut out portion 35 which is complementary to the tongue 33 at the left endl v The right hand end of the roofing unit 23 is also providedwith a longitudinal extension 36 which is of less width than the bal-- ance of the roofing unit 23, the longitudinal extension or underlap 36 preferably being diminished in 'width by four times the Width of the folded portion 30. This forms another rectangular cut out portion 37 adjacent the right hand end of the pattern in Fig. 3, but
it will be noted that the only waste in cutting roofing units of the form shown in this figure, comprises the two small rectangular portions 35 and 37 which are cut out.
When the folded portion 30 of the roofing unit 23 is bent under the rooting along the line 25, the tongue 38 formed adjacent the end corners of the roofing unit, is folded underneath the flap 26. The adjacent tongue or longitudinally.' projecting portion 33 of the next strip is also received beneath one of the tongues 26 at the right end of the strip, but due to the-fact that the portion 35 is cut out, there will be no triple layer at this point, and the successive units may be joined together smoothly. The extension or underlap 36 will then be received below the straight end 34 of the next strip. as shown in Fig. 2, butsince the extension 36 is narrower than the balance of the unit as shown in Fig. 3,
there will'be no triple layer at the point 39 l formed with folded portions which are substantially complementary to each other, with the exception of an overlapping portion adjacent the middle of the strip, and the successive strips are adapted to be attached to the roof by ordinary roofing nails, which l'are protected from the weather Aby flaps of the same strip or an adjacent strip.
Where the units 23 are used for gutters, they will, of course, be laid first, and the edges of the gutter strips will be overlapped and covered by adjacent shingles or other forms of roofingunits employed to such an extent that the slits 25 are preferably coinpletely covered by the courses of shingles plied, which is generally black. The presentvided with an upper or outer surface av-I ig a. protective covering for the purpose of resisting the weather and giving the roofing an attractive appearance, while the lower or inner surface 41 is ordinary given no especial finish, so that the lower surface shows the color of the waterproofing composition apinvention is'adapted to utilize this feature of ordinary roong, for the purpose of producing a shading effect as well asa color contrast` adjacent the edges fof certain portions of the'rooing units, but it should'be understood that the invention is also applicable to special forms of roofing in which the color combinations or surfaces may be made of any desirable color or finish. Y
Thus, in the modified form shownin Fig. 5, the parts which correspond to the slits28 and 29 of-Fig. 3 have been widenedto form slots 42 and 43 upon each side of a Hap 44, corresponding to the flaps 26 of Fig. 3.
The rear surface 41 of the folded portion or anchor strip 45 of the roofing unitis exposed at the slots 42 and 43 so that the flap 44 44V stands out in relief against the underlying contrasting' colored portion 41.
The roofing unit 46 of this modified form 1s also provided with longitudinally extending slits 47 at the base of the slots 42 extending to the right in Fig. 6' from slot 43 to slot 42, but the corresponding s ace extending to the right from slots 42 to s ots 43 is not cut but is utilized for producing a fold or joining.
edge at 48 for uniting and supporting the folded portion 45 to the body of the u nit.
The fold 48 is especially located 1n this modified form to provide an additional contrasting or shaded portion below the bendable portions 44, and the slits on the outs1de edges of slots 42 and 43 relative to the tongues 44, are elongated at 49 and 50 to form an addltional tongue 51 which is not folded back, but
which projects below the flap 44, forming a contracting or shading surface along the bottom edge of the flaps 44. The line of fold in this single unit'is slightly below the sl1ts 47, that is, on a line determined by the end of the slits 49 and 50 so as to leave the tongue bel th 1 51 Proiectmg a greater dlstan OW e. such a point that the length of the slde 64 In the resent embodiment, 1t 1s of course evident tliat some forms of the invention may have the ends of the unit cut in a stralght line, but this modified form is also preferably provided with ends which are complementary in form to the next adjacent units, so that theends of one unit will overlap the folded portion, of the next unit. Thus the left end of the `unitin Fig.. 6 has a straight edge 52 on the body of the shingle, while the end 53 of the folded portion 45 is offset longitudinally by a distance 54 equal to half the width of one of the flaps 44.
At the opposite end, the lo 'tudinally projecting portion 55 of. the fldded portion or end 56 of t e body of the roofing unit by a distance which is equal .to the offset 54 at the other end, so that'successive units have complementary ends.v The projecting poring an effect such as that shown in Fig. 4.v
-The specific embodiment which has been chosen to illustrate this invention has slots or openingsexposing contrasting portionsof the lower surfaceof the roofing, to simulate shingles of'rectangular form, but it should be understood that'the slots may be made of any geometrical shape or ornamental appearance to produce the effect desired.-
-'anchor stri 45 projects beyond the straight Referring to Figs. 7 and 8, the modified v lfor'in here illustrated consists of individual shingles which are laid with their sides extending diagonally to the/principal lines of the roof, and. the'invention is here applied to the corner of a roofing unit. In this embodiment the Shingles are laid in Acourses: in the manner of ordinary shingles of this shape, overlapping as shown injFig. 7, the shingles being preferably provided with a prefolded portion'or anchor strip 57 at the lower corner,
and with a slot 58 extending along the line of4 fold to a pair of transverse slots 59 and 60. This forms a flap 61 similar in construction to those previously described, so that the flap 61 may be bent upward and nails 'or other fastened means driven through the anchor strip 57 to secure the individual shingles in place. The overlapping of the shingles is preferably such that the nails driven through the anchor strip also pass through portions of the shingles immediately below the shingle 62. The fold 63 is preferably formed at of the triangular folded portion or anchor strip 57 isl equal. to the amount lof overlap desired, so that the adjacent edges' 'of the lll ' at the point of overlap of the four shingles,
so that the four shin les t together smoothly at the corners o the shingles.
Referring to Figs. 9 and 10, the modified form here illustrated is provided with an opening 67 adjacent the lower edge for eX- posing a contrasting lower surface 68 of the folded back portion anchor strip 69. This single unit 70 isv also provided with a pair of transversely extendingA slits 71 and 72 forming a ap 7 3 capable of being bent up to give access to the anchor strip so that the fastening nails may be driven throughout.
' The anchor strip is folded along the line of theA lower side 7 4 of slot 67, so as to expose the contrasting surface 68 of the bottom of the roofing. Y
The shingles ofthe present embodiment may be laid in the manner of ordinary wooden shingles, with the joints broken as shown in Fig. 9, and it will be evident that the iap 73 may be bent up to secure the lower edge of the shingles by a plurality of nails or other fastening means 75 driven through the anchor strip 69, after which the Hap 73 maybe bent down to cover and protect the nails 75.
It should be noted that yany of the novel features described herein may be applied to any of the forms of units mentioned here in, and the modified forms of Figs. 7, 8 and 9 may be vapplied to strip shingles, ridge strips, or even rolls of roofing.
Referring to Fig. 11, the modified form here illustrated is one of the simplest types of shingles having one or more iiaps 26 and a folded back portion or anchor strip 30.
V Referring to Fig. 1., theA roll roofing illustrated in. this figure comprises ordinary roll roofing, one or more edges of which are provided with folded back portions or anchor strips 30 and with slits forming'aps 26.
It will be evident therefore, t at the modified forms shown with respect to the ridge strip in Fig-'1 or the strip shingle in Fig.
-5 may be embodied in individual shingles or in rolls of roofing, all of which are preferably, but not necessarily, prefolded, while the material of which the roofing is constructed is still hot, to save work in the application of the roofing, and to prevent any possibility of breakin of the roofin at the fold.
Some em odiments of t e invention, however, may have the fold to form thel anchor strip produced when the shingle is applied, provided the roofing is capable of permitting a fold without breaking, and some fo'rms of the invention may include roofing peculiarly adapted to permit folding while cold.
Of course the back-turned underlying portions of the units, i. e., the anchor strip through which the nails are driven to secure the units in place, may have holes preformed beneath the flaps for the reception of the nails, although usually the nails can be driven through the material without the necessity for preformed nail holes.
It will thus be observed that I have invent-y ed an improved roofing construction which is universally applicable to all of the forms of roofing units necessary in ordinary construction. My roofing units may be applied with a minimum expenditure oftime and labor by the use of ordinary roofing nails, without employment of skilled labor, and without eX- posing any metal parts to the weather.
The present invention is capable of roducing novel effects in the appearance o the roofing, which enhance its value and increase its salability, and the roofing is positively prevented from curling upward at the lower edge by afastening means which is not weakened by the operation of attaching the roofing, since the bendable portion of the roofing is not depended upon for the securing function.
v1While I have illustrated a preferred embodlment of my invention, many modiicatlons may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention, and I do not wish i to be limited to the precise details of construct1on set forth, but desire to avail myself of all changes within the scope of the appended claims. l
Having thus described my invention, what I claim 1s new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States, is:
1, A roofing unit comprising a flexible sheet havlng an edge prefolded under said sheet for attachment to a roof by roofing nails or the like, said sheet having a bendable por? t1on above said prefolded portion for access to said nails.
2. A roofin unit having a plurality of sheet of flexible prepared rooling material with a portion folded under along one edge of the body vof the sheet, the folded under portion being severed from the body of the sheet along a part of the joining edge and the body of the sheet being cut inwardly from the edge at the severance to form a flap in the body of the sheet above the folded under portion whereby the folded under portion may be exposed for the applicationY of means to attach the same to the building.
5. A building covering unit comprising a sheet of flexible prepared rooting material having a portion folded under along one edge to form an underlying anchor strip for attachment to the building, the body of the sheet and the anchor strip being severed from each other adjacent a part of the joining edge therebetween and the body of the sheet having a cut extending inwardly from the region where the body of the sheet is severed from the anchor strip, said severance and 1nwardly extending cut forming a flap in the whereby the anchor strip may be temporarily exposed for the application thereto of means to attach the same to the building.
6. A building coverin u comprising a unit of iexible prepared roo g material having a body portion and a folded under anchoring portion, the fold between the body and anchoring portions constituting one edge of the unit, and a flap whereby the anchoring portion may be temporarily exposedfor the application thereto of attaching means, said flap being integral with the bodyportion and formed therefrom by a separation between -sheet of lexib the body and anchoring portions along the foldbetween them and a cut extending inwardly of the body portion from the separation. i
7. A building coverin comprising a unit of flexible prepared vroo ng material having a body portion and a turned under anchoring portion, the body portion having an aperture through which fastening means may be applied to and through the anchoring strip into the building framework, and a flexible flap formed integrally with the body to cover the aperture and thereby conceal the fastening means.
8. A buildin covering unit comprising a l. prepared reeling material having a retroverted portion to form an anchor strip for receiving attaching means to secure the unit in place, and means whereby the retroverted portion may be temporarily exposed for the application of the attaching means thereto while the unit is occupying its final position on the building.
9. A building covering unit comprising a sheet of flexible prepared rooting material folded to form a body portion and an underlying anchor strip, the anchor strip serving to receive attaching means to secure the unit in place, and a flap formed integrally with the body portion and serving temporarily to expose the anchor strip so that the attaching means may be applied thereto.
10. A building covering unit comprising a sheet of flexible prepared roofing material folded to form a body portion and an underturned anchor strip, the body portion and anchor strip being separated from each otherl strip. -body of the sheet above the anchor strip Y 12. A building covering unit comprising a sheet o f flexible prepared roofing material, said sheet being folded to provide aturned under anchor strip at one edge, and cut to form easily movable flaps above the anchor strip whereby the anchor stri may be temporarily exposed for the application of nails thereto to secure the unit to a building. j
13. A building covering unit comprising a sheet of flexible prepared roofing material folded to provide a turned under anchor strip at one edge of the unit and cut to form a movable flap in the sheet above/the anchor strip whereby the anchor strip below the flap may be exposed for the application of fastening means to secure the anchor strip to a building, the cut servin permanently to expose the underlying anc orstrip about a part'of the flap.
14. A building covering unit consisting of a sheet of flexible prepared roofing material having contrasting front and rear faces, one edge of the sheet being folded back to form an anchor strip -for receiving attaching means whereby the unit is secured in position on a building and so that the rear face of the sheet throughout the folded back portion lies facing the front of the unit, and the body of t-he sheet having an opening therethrough permanently to expose the contrasting rear face of the anchor strip and to form a loose flap which may be temporarily lifted toexpose a part of the anchor strip lying 'thereunder to permit application of the fasfolded back portion lies facing the front of the unit and to form an anchor strip for receiving attaching means whereby the unit is secured in position on a building, the body of the sheet havin an opening therethrough. to form a loose ap which may be temporarily lifted to expose the anchor strip immediately therebeneath forthe application of attaching means to the anchor strip and permanently to expose the contrasting rear face of the anchor strip adjacent an edge of the flap.
16. A building covering unit formed froml an elongated sheet of flexible prepared roofing material having contrasting front and rear faces, one edge of the sheet being folded back to form an anchor strip for receiving attaching means whereby the unit may be secured in position on a building and so that the rear face of the sheet throughout the folded back portion lies facing the front of the unit, the body of the sheet being pro-v vided with a lurality of openings forming the underlying anchor strip to permit the application of fastening means thereto and permanently to expose the rear surface of the anchor strip with its contrasting color beyond an edge of the iap.
In witness whereof, I hereunto subscribe my name this 18 day of A ril, 1929.
EDWARD ROS OE BLACK.
spaced apart aps which may be temporarily raised for the application of fastening means to the anchor strip therebelow and permanently exposing the contrasting rear face of the anchor strip about margins of the iaps.
17. A building coverin unit comprising an elon ated sheet of flexi le prepared roofing ma erial having contrasting front and rear faces, an edge of the sheet being folded back beneath the body of the unit to form an anchor strip by which the unit is anchored with attaching means applied through the anchor strip and into the building framework and the rear face of the portion of the sheet forming the anchor strip facing the front of the unit, the body of the unit adjacent the margin which is folded being provided with a series of spaced longitudinal openings and transverse openings merging into the longitudinal openings, the longitudinal and transverse openings forming a series of spaced iaps overlying the anchor strip and exposing the contrasting rear face of theanchor strip about each flap, said flaps being movable temporarily to expose the anchor strip immediately therebeneath so that attaching means may be applied to the anchor strip and subsequently to conceal the attaching means. y
18. A building covering unit comprising a sheet of flexible roofing material having contrasting front and rear faces, the sheet adjacentone edge being folded back to form an anchor strip for receiving attaching means whereby the unit may be anchored in position on a building and so that the rear surface of the portion of the sheet forming the anchor strip faces the front of the unit, the body of the unit having a slit parallel to the fold and a transverse slot adjacent each end of and merging with the slit to form a flap whichV may be temporarily lifted to afford access to CERTIFICATE oF CORRECTION.
` Patent No. 1,802,868. v Granted April 28, 1931, to
EDWARD ROSCOE BLACK.
It is hereby' certified that error appears in the printed specification'of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 5, line' 114,A claim l, after the word "for" insert the word affording; 'and that the 4said Letters Pat `ent should be read withthis correction thereinA that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent 0ffice.
Signed and sealed this 2nd day of June, A. D. 1931.
M. J. Moore, (Seal) v Acting Commissioner of Patents.