US 1803836 A
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May 5, 1931. A. BIHR 1,803,836
DECALCOMAN-IA AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed oct. 21. 1929 MoDERnE n INVENTOR HL PHO/V55 Eff/A ATTORNEYS Patented May 5, 1931 UNITED 'STATES PATENT OFFICE ALPHONSE BIER, or NEW Yonx, N. Y.
Application filed October 21, 1929. Serial No. 401,064.
The invention relates to deealcomania Iwhich shall be capable of transferring designs executed in bold relief as distinguished from the now existing decalcomanias where the design is practically flat. The object of the invention is to provide a means by which, by a decalcomania process, designs of sharply embossed appearance can be applied to objects adapted to carry decalcomania designs, such lo porcelain etc. So far as I am aware, the decaleomania art has not, prior to my invention, been able to furnish any practical means for enabling the transferred design to appear in bold relief. My invention accordingly results in a combination which produces an entirely new and very ornamental type of decalcomania.
The invention is illustrated in the accompanyingdrawings in which Fig. 1 is a plan view of a decalcomania transfer sheet embodying my invention; Fig. 2 is an exaggerated sectional view taken on lines 2-2 of Fig. 1 Fig. 3 shows the design of Fig. 1 transferred to a bottle, while Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken on line 4--4 of Fig. 3 of the front portion of the bottle carrying the applied design. In Fig. 4 as in Fig. 2 the cross-sectional dimensions of the constituents of the transferred decalcomania lhave been exaggerated for Vthe sake of clearness. Figs. .5 and 6 represent exaggerated sectionsof modifications of the decalcomania shown in Figs. 1 and 2.
As shown in Fig. 2, the decalcomania of this invention comprises a sheet of simple decalcomania paper 1, such as is used in the trade generally, having a water-soluble coating 2 of starch and gum. Above the layer 2 is a coating 3 of clear orcolored transparent or opaque White or colored lacquer. The physical components of those parts of the design which possess the edect of bold relief, are indicated at 4. The design as shown 1n Fig. 1 appears on the transfer sheet in positive printing. In other words, the decalcomania belongs to the class of positive decalcomanias, to wit, that type of transfer on which the various colors as visible to the eye when the design is transferred, are printed right side as articles of furniture, Wood, metal, glass,`
up. This is in contrast to the negative type of transfer where the colors are printed in the reverse order and the design becomes visible in its true colors only after the transfer has been applied andthe `backing paper removed.
When it is desired to transfer the design of the decalcomania shown in Fig. l to some article to which it is to be applied, for example the bottle illustrated in Fig. 3, the decalcomania shown in Figs. 1 and 2 is simply dipped 60 in Water which dissolves the water-soluble adhesive 2 and permits the film 3 and the raised portions 4 thereon to be slid off the paper 1 on to the article to whichthe design is to be applied, the moist adhesive still carried by the film 3 serving simultaneously as an adhesive to unite the transfer film 3 with the bottle or other article to which the design is thus transferred.
Decalcomanias embodying my invention may be manufactured in the followingtmanner: A sheet of simple decalcomania paper such as is now generally used for de'calcomanias `and having a Water-soluble coating of starch and gum, is rst covered with a layer 'of lacquer. This lacquer coating may` be opaque, white or colored, but is preferably made of clear or colored transparent lacquer because this makes those portions of the design which stand out in bold relief more prominent and decorative. The layer 3 may, however, be produced by successive printings of oil colors of any`desired shade, but in that case the layer would be confined to the area only which comprises the design, the remainder of the sheet being left blank, all as illustrated in Fig. 5.
If there are any portions of the design, ornamentation, or lettering that are to remain flat, they are printed first after the film 3 of the desired strength and thickness has been associated with the adhesive 2 of the decalcomania paper l. After all those parts of the design except the portions that are subsequently to appear in relief have been printed or lithographed, the sheet is allowed to become dry and hard. Thereupon the portions of the design which are to appear in relief are printed or lithographed in any suitable color, the only special requirement beof the rosin will adhere to the wet ink and the surplus shaken or blown ofi', leaving the rosin only in the places which are subsequently to appear in relief. Various compounds can be used for this purpose, all of which can be obtained in the open market. The rosin com' pounds may be mixed with gold,a silver, or bronze, dry colors, etc.,to produce various effects. y
The sheet is now introduced into a heating chamber where a Vsufficient degree of heat is maintained to bring the rosin compound to the melting point, after `which the sheet is immediately withdrawn and cooled. As the result of this treatment the fine particles of the rosin compound, plus any pigment of the wet ink of the printed design or the colors which may have been admixed with the rosin compound, form consolidated masses (as shown in Figs. 2 and 4) standing in both relief and corresponding with precision. to the outlines of the raised portions of the design, no matter how delicate. The degree of relief may be varied and is a function of fineness or coarseness of the rosin compound. For very fine and narrow lines a fine compound is used, as the coarser particles would not satisfactorily adhere to the fine lines.l
On the other hand, a broad or bold design requires a coarser compound, since the fine compound used on a bold design frequently does not deposit sufficient rosin to rodce a bold relief when the compound is` rought to a melting point.
Heretofore all positive decalcomania has been printed fiat. Embossingis not practical in decalcomania since the raised portions would fiatten out in the transferring operation when water is applied and the backing paper removed. To attempt 'to build up a raised design by successive printings cof white lead or the like with a final printing in colors, is neither practical nor can it be carried out in such a way as to produce the effect of a bold relief. According to my new process, the decalcomania is produced as a positive decalcomania with those portions which are to appear in bold relief not built up by successive layers, but constituted of homogeneous masses of fused rosin compound, the result of the application of a rosin-fusing heat applied to the otherwise completely finished positive decalcomania. including the decalcomania paper, the adhesive, and the carrying layer for the raised parts of the design. By the Vnew process the raised portions of the design are applied on the face of the transfer after all other colors are printed (if such other colors are desired) and the raised portions remain exposed as raised portions even after the transfer is applied, since the backing paper is removed by sliding the entire film (which may or may not constitute the entire design) ofl.l the paper on to the article on which it is to be placed. The invention is particularly vadapted to transparent 'effects where the background of the decalcomania is'composed of a transparent film of cellulose lacquer, spirit or oil varnish, and the design or lettering is superposed thereon in gold, silver, bronze, or other color. Where a transparent film is employed, the designand lettering stands out inv exceeding bold and attractive relief, producing effects which have heretofore' beeny unattained in the decalcor mania `art but required other arts for their production. f
, 'Of course, it is understood that opaque backgrounds can@ also be used, made either of lacquer or oil colors, since the nature of the backgrounad in no way limits the invention. This is illustrated in Fig. 6.
I am aware that decalcomania has been produced in the past in which an effort Was made to simulate oil painting. 4In those cases, however, the decalcomanias were of the reverse or negative type, the colors being printed in the reverse order with successive printing on the back of the color film of white lead or other substances applied to those portions of the design which on the opposite face thereof were to indicate a more thickly applied paint. In this type of decalcomania the slightly elevated portions did not stand out in bold relief and had no sharply defined edges definitive of apredetermined and accurately positioned outline, but the slightly1 raised portions appeared in the middle of afield of color purely to suggest that the design was made by oil paint instead of being, as it really was, merely a printed design. Furthermore, that type of decalcomania required the use of varnish or size in the transferring operation in order to make the transfer adhere to the article, whereas in my invention the decalcomania is simply dipped in' water, the film which carries the raised design slid off, and applied. Then again, in my decalcomanias, the design, when transferred, appears precisely and exactly as it appeared .on the decalcomania sheet, whereas in the decalcomanias of the prior art, to which I have referred, the fact that the thickening material was near the surface of the article to which the design was applied than the colored layers of the design, caused distortion of the colored face because a part of it was pushed forward, while other parts remained further back.
In decalcomania as produced by my invention, no imitation of any kind is desired, but relief effects are produced for their own sake and in such a way that an observer of the decalcomania may know with complete and entire accuracy and precision exactly what design and color` sharpness of outline, degree of relief, etc. will appear on the article to which he intends to transfer the design. The relief effects produced by my invention have never been accomplished before in a decalcomania and the effect produced after the transfer is applied to the article is entirely novel and unique. The drawings accompanying this application are incapable of fully reproducing those effects, but if each line constituting the design of those drawings is imagined as being say in gold or bronze and as standing in bold relief, the attractiveness of the new decalcomania will be better appreciated.
1. A positive Ydecalcomania transfer comprising a transparent design-supporting' lacquer film and supported upon the, face thereof a design or let-tering in flat colors said design including other portions in bold relief with respect to the film and to the said flat colors, the bold relief port-ions being constituted of material fused upon the designsupporting side of saidfilm.
2. The method of producing decalcomanias which comprises coating a sheet of decalcomania paper with a water-soluble coating of adhesive character, applying thereto a lacquer layer of design-supporting capacity, printing a design upon said layer said design including portions constituted of sticky ink, dusting the surface while .said sticky ink is still wet, with a powdered rosin compound,
subjecting the thus produced product t'o heat adapted to bring the rosin compound to the melting point, and thereupon quickly withdrawing and cooling.
3. The method of producing decalcomanias which comprises coating a sheet of decalcomania paper with a water-soluble coating of adhesive character, covering the coating with a layer of lacquer, applying thereto portions of the design -in flat colors, allowing said Hat colors to become dry and hard, then printing other portions of the design in sticky ink,
dusting the surface while said ink is still wet,L
with a powdered rosin compound. subjecting the thusVV produced product to heat adapted to bring the rosin compound to -the melting point and thereupon quickly withdrawing and cooling.
4. The method of producing decalcomanias which comprises coating a sheet of decalcomania. paper with a water-soluble coating of adhesive character. applying` thereto a trans- Aparent lacquer layer of designed-supporting capacity, printing upon said Iayer a design including portions constituted "of sticky ink,
Y dusting the surface while said sticky ink is stillwet, with a powdered rosin compound, subjecting the thus produced product to ,heat adapted to bring the rosin compound to the supporting film carried thereby and separa.
ble therefrom by the application of moisture, and, permanently supported upon the said film, a design or lettering including portions in bold .relief-constituted of material fused in situ.
6. A positive decalcomania transfer comprising al layer of paper, a layer of adhesive substance on said paper, a layer of lacquer on the face of saidadhesive layer, and a design or lettering in bold relief constituted of material fused upon the lacquer.
7. A positive decalcomania transfer coniprising a layer of paper,a layer of adhesive substance on said paper, al transparent layer of lacquer on the face of said adhesive layer, and a design or lettering in bold relief constituted of material fused upon the lacquer.
8. A positive decalcomania transfer comprising a layer of paper, a layer of adhesive substance on said paper, a layer of designsupporting lacquer on the face of said adhesive 'layer, and a design or lettering upon said lacquer layer and including portions in bold relief constituted of rosin containing material and fused and set into the bold relief condition While supported upon the lacquer layer.
In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand.