US 1804137 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
T. J. YATES AUTOMATIC VALVE May 5, 1931.
Filed May 4. 1928 3 Sheets-Sheet l fizz/67%?! 17mm; v g mm T. J YATES AUTOMATTC VALVE May 5, 19:31,
3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed May 4, 1928 T. J. YATES AUTOMATIC VALVE May 5, 1931'.
Filed May 4, 1928 3 Sheets-Sheet 3.
lmml/irx 7102mm WW Patented May 5, 1931 OFFICE THOMAS J. YATES F SALEM, IiEASSAGHUSET-TS, ASSIGNOR TO YATES MACHINE COM- 7 PANY, 0F SALEM, ItiASSACI-EUSETTS, A CORPORATION 6F MASSACHUSETTS AUTOMATIC VALVE Application filed May 4,
This application is a continuation-in-part of my applications Serial No. 66,522, filed November 3, 1925, and Serial No. 211,246, filed August 6, 1927. The invention relates to trip valves which may be opened to any desired degree, and closed automatically by a trip mechanism responding to predetermined conditions, the closing of the valve being retarded by action of the fluid itself by the structure of the valve to prevent hammering in the system from a sudden stoppage of flow. Such valves are useful for various purposes, as for example, in admitting hot and cold water to washing machines and may be arranged to shut off when a predetermined amount of water has been admitted into the machine. The valve shown and described in this application is similar in purpose to those described in Patents No. 964,833 of July 19, 1910, and No. 1,185,567 of May 30, 1916.
The valve shown herein which embodies the present invention is designed to operate more satisfactorily with fewer parts than those heretofore commonly used, and to avoid the use of springs which are always liable to be a source of trouble and irregularity of operation. The parts of my improved valve are relatively few, and are simpleand easy'to assemble, these features effecting agreat saving in the cost of manufacture as well as increasing the reliability of operation.
Other advantageous features and combinations of parts will be seen from the drawing in which,
Figure 1 is a plan view of a double valve embodying my invention.
Figure 2 is a side elevation of the same.
Figure 3 is a section taken on the line 3-3 of Figure 1.
Figure 4 is a section taken on the line 41-4 of Figure 1.
Figure 5 is a portion of the section shown in Figure 3, but withthe valve'piston in a different position.
Figure 6 is an end elevation of a washing machine receptacle showing the means for controllin the valve.
Figure 1s a section of the main casing Serial No. 275,230.
through their respective valves will com mingle in the chamber 120 and the mixture will pass through the outlet 121. As the individual valves or units of the double valve shown are the counterparts of each other, I will describe the structure of but one of them. At the orifice of its outlet port is a beveled seat 13 against which a piston, generally indicated as 14,'is adapted to seat. This piston, the construction of which will be described below, slides vertically in a hollow cylinder 15, forming therewith a dashpot to check itsseating motion as'will be described. The cylinder 15 is screw-threaded into an opening 16 in the top of the casing 10. A cap 17 closes the top of this hollow cylinder, bearing against a gasket 18 to make a fluid-tight fit. Re-
ferring in detail to the structure of the piston, 19 represents a casting which is ground to fit loosely within the cylinder 15. This casting is provided with a piston ring 20 which makes a substantially fluidtight engagement with the walls of the cylinder 15. A ring 21 of resilient material, such as rubber, is secured on a reduced portion 22 of the casting 19 by a nut 23, which has a serrated rim 24 projecting downwardly and adapted to enter the outlet 12 as the ring 21 seats against the beveled seat 13.
The outer diameter of the ring 21 is preferably substantially smaller than the inner diameter of the cylinder. The serrations in the rim 24 provide openings to permit a more gradual reduction of flow into the outlet 12 as the rim enters the outlet when the piston moves downward to close the in o valve. A valve stem 25 extends through the center of the piston 14, and to it is secured an auxiliary valve 26, which seats against a gasket 27 held in a circular recess in the top of the piston l t by a threaded member 28. The valve stem 25 is reduced in diameter at its upper end 29. This reduced portion is spaced from the gasket 27.
and from the threaded member 28 so as to allow fluid to flow tl'ierebetween. Channels 30 are cut longitiulinally in the surface of the valve stem 25 providing duct-s con necting the space 32 above the piston with the space below, except when the valve26 is seated. in shoulder 31 on the threaded member2S limits the upward movement of the valve stem relative to the piston. Liquid may be introduced into the space 32 or allowed to esca; e therefr in for the purpose of controlling to some extent the motion of the piston, that is, to permit the valve to be opened easily and quickly, but to prevent the piston from seating in the outlet 12 suddenly, so to cause a harm- -ful hammer 11g of fluid in the supply pipe by an abrupt stoppage of flow. llow of liquid into and out of the space 32 takes place through the ducts 30, controlled by the valve 26, and also through a "y-pass lyort which ma 1 be a small longitudinal groove cut in the inner surface of the cylinder 15, as shown in the draw ng. This bypass groove may be of uniform depth as shown at 33 in Figure 3, but is preferably tapered as at 330 (Figure from maximum depth at its upper end to noth' O its lower end where the bottom of the groove joins the cylindrical inner surface of the cylinder 15, as at lVhen the valve 14 is seated, the rin 20 is arranged to be just below the lower end 331 of the groove. The ring 21 is preferably made of rubber or the like so as to tightly on the valve seat 13'when the valve closed. Under the action of hot water and pressure on its ends, the ring 21 frequently swells. Clearance between the outer face of the 21 and the inner face of the cylinder is therefore left in order to m nimize the possibility of thering 21 sweL up suthci-ently to enter-and clog t e groove 33 or 330. Since this clearance is practically limited by the necessity for considerable diameter of the valve seat 13 and hence of the ring 21, and the undesirability of an unduly large cylinder 15, it sometimes happens that the ring 21 swells sufiieiently to clog the: groove 33 or 330. Furthermore, the lower part of the ring is liable to wear off by contact with the 13 so that the piston has to descend lower than before to close the valve. normally descends just below the lower end of the groove 33 when the valve closes, it
L seat is liable to be arrested or near its normal Since the piston ring closed position, so that if the ring 21 is badly worn, the valve is liable to be prevented from closing fully unless further provision is made for relieving the vacuum above the piston. To this end, I provide a pin-hole 332 through the wall of the cylinder at a point above the normal closed position of the piston ring 20. This hole preferably extends into the groove 330 and may conveniently be about -.025 inch in diameter. The .hole is too small to interfere with the gentle seating action of the valve, but it prevents failure of the valve to close entirely when the ring 21 either swells to clog the groove 330 or wears to necessitate furtherdescent of the piston 19. The tapering depth ofthe groovei'nsuresa relatively large by-pass for the initial portion of the closing stroke, and-a retarding effect as the valve reachesits seat. This retardation due to the decreasing size of the by-pass, in conjunctionwith the serrations which prevent the sudden cutting off of the water flow, enables the valve to shut promptly but gently even when operating on a hot water line with comparatively high pressure. The tapering groove 330 also insures an actuation of the valve at the proper moment since clogging of the by-pass and" consequent failure to operate are avoided, and it furthermore makes possible the operation of the valve under adverse conditions due to careless installation or adjustment. A piston ring and-a small by-pass of easily determined cross section are far more satisfactory in operationthan a loosely fitting piston, and'do not necessitate careful machining of the piston. A deiinite by-pass is less liable to become clogged than is the clearance space around a loose piston. This is especially true'of the open groove 330 or '33 in the cylinder wall which offers no place of lodgmentfor sediment or scale which may come-through the supply pipe with the water. The motion of the piston tends also to clear sediment or other foreign material from the groove.
The valve stem 25 extends downwardly through a stuffing: box 34 and is connected by a yoke 35 to a lever 36, which is fulcrumed through the link 39 to'a pair of ears 38 formed on the casing 10. At the outer end of the lever 36 is a weight 37.
To open the valve the weight is manually raised. This pushes up the valve stem 25, opening the auxiliary valve 26 whi'ch allows the fluid in the space .32 to escape through the ducts 30. A part of the fluid can also escape through the bypass 330 or 33, but this by-pass is relatively small compared with the ducts 30. The valve 26, after leaving its seat, engages the shoulder 31 of the threaded member 28, and further upward motion of the valve stem 25 carrics with it the p1ston 14, thus openmg'the outlet 12 and allowing fluid to pass therethrough. When the weight 37 is released, it operates to close the valve. as follows: During the first part of its descent it closes the auxil-- iary valve 26, after which it pulls the piston downwardly until it seats against the outlet 12. This downward motion is retarded by reduced pressure in the space 32 caused by the downward motion of the piston, the suction thus caused being slowly relieved by the'flow of liquid through the by-pass 330 into the space 32. The tapering depth of the groove 330 which diminishes to nothing before the valve reaches its seat 13 checks the motion of the piston 22, the last of its travel being permitted by the slight leakage past the ring and the expansion of any air that may be caught in the chamber 32 or dissolved in the water. The cut-off of flow of liquid through the valve outlet 12 is also made more gradual by the recesses cut in the serrated rim 24. As the rim 24 enters the outlet 12, the recesses in the rim provide for momentary openings of decreasing size through which theliquid can pass into the outlet 12 until further movement of the piston carries the recesses all the way into the outlet.
Having described the construction and operation of the interior parts of one of the valves, I will now describe my improved mechanism for automatically releasing the weight 37 to close it. A vertical ratchet 40 is pivotally connected, as at 41, with the lever 36. A suitable pawl 42 engages in any one of the teeth of the ratchet 40 to support the link 37 in an elevated position. It will readily be seen that it is possible thus to hold the valve open to any desired degree by the distance through which the weight 37 is raised. The pawl 42 is loosely mounted on a shaft or pin 43 which is supported in ears 44 formed on the casing 10. The pawl 42 is provided with a trigger 45 preferably made integral therewith, the raising of which, either manually or by other means, will disengage the pawl 42 and permit the weight 37 to drop, closing the valve. In addition to carrying the pawls 42 and triggers 45, the shaft 43 also carries a tripping mechanism, hereinafter described, and serves as a guide to maintain the racks 40 in an upright posi- 3 tion, each rack having a long slot in which the shaft 43 rides. This construction greatly facilitates removal of the tripping mecha- I nism for repairs as the pawls, triggers and tripping mechanism all come off with the removal of the shaft 43, at the same time permitting the racks 40 to swing clear of the valve casings.
Automatic valves of this type are particularly suited for use with the hot and cold water supply pipes for filling a laundry machine, the separate valves being used for the hot and cold water. These valves may be independently adjusted by raising their individual weights to desired'heights to control the fiow of hot and cold water in any preferred proportion. A single tripping device is provided for disengaging both pawls simultaneously and thus shutting off both valves together when the water within the container has reached a desired level, or when any other condition is reached at which it is desired to have the flow of water cease.
This tripping device may be of any pre ferred construction. The form shown in the drawing comprises a lever 46 mounted to swing on the shaft 43 and balanced by a counter weight 47. A cross arm 48 extends from both sides of the lever 46 far enough to en age the triggers 45. The lever is actuated by a rod 49, which extends upwardly from and is actuated by any preferred mechanism. In Figure 6 a convenient means for actuating the tripping device is shown applied to a washing machine, indicated at 50. A balance arm 51 is pivotally supported on a pin 52 or by any other convenient means. At one end of the balance arm is secured a cylindrical receptacle 53 which is connected with the interior of the washing machine through a flexible hose 54. The cylinder 53 is adjustably balanced by the weight 55. The arm'5l also engages a projection 56 on the rod 49. It will readily be seen that as the washing machine fills up, liquid therefrom will enter the receptacle 53 through the flexible connection 54, the level in both containers remaining the same at all times. When a sufficient amount of liquid has entered the container 53, its weight will over-balance the weight 55, raise the rod 49 and disen age the pawls 42, allowing the weights 3? to drop and close the valves. As previously explained, the internal structure of the valve is such as to cushion the downward motion of the piston and thus prevent any hammer or knock in the supply line by suddenly stopping the column of liquid in the supply pipe or on the outlet seat by the piston itself, which would tend to shorten the life of the valve mechanism.
It is obvious that many modifications and changes may be made within the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.
I claim 1. An automatic valve comprising a fluid inlet and outlet, a valve chamber intermediate thereof, a piston fitted to enter said chamber and to seat in said outlet, a valve stem connected to'said piston, a weight connected to the valve stem to close the valve, means for retaining the weight in elevated position, means for releasing the weight to close the valve, means for preventing abrupt stoppage of flow through the valve comprising a rim on said piston having a serrated edge and adapted to enter said outlet, means for retarding the closing motion of the valve, said retarding means comprising a hollow cylinder closed at one end and open at its opposite end into said valve chamber, said cylinder having a longitudinal. groove in thewall thereof and being adapted to re ceive the piston for sliding motion therein, and a ring on said piston adapted to provide a substantially fluid-tight fit in the cylinder, said groove being terminated short of the closed-valve position of said ring in said cylinder.
2. An automatic valve comprising a fluid inlet and outlet, a valve chamber mtermodr ilLG thereof, a hollow cylinder closed at one before the piston seats in the outlet, and
means for actuating said piston.
3. An automatic valve comprising a fluid inlet and outlet, a valve chamber intermediate thereof, a hollow cylinder closed at one 7 end and opening at the opposite end into the chamber, said cylinder having its lower portion projecting into said'chamber, a piston fitted for axial movement in said cylinder and adapted to seat in said outlet, a piston ring on said piston making a substantially fluid-tight fit with said cylinder, a by-pass port connecting the closed end space of the cylinder with said chamber and comprising a longitudinal groove in theinner face of the wall of said cylinder and a pin-hole through said lower portion of said cylinder and opening into said chamber and into said groove at a point intermediate the ends thereof, said groove being so positioned that "its lower end will be passed by the piston ring shortly before the piston seats in the outlet, and means for actuating said piston.
4. An automatic valve comprising a valve member, a seat to receive said valve member,
a cylindrical casing closed at one end and having a longitudinal groove taperingiin depth from maximum depth at one end thereof to zero depth at the other end and indented in the inner surface thereof, means for moving said valve to its seat, and means for checking the seating motion of the valve as it approaches its seat, said checking means comprising a piston ring carried by said piston and slidably fitted in said cylinder,
said ringcbeing arranged to bridge said groove during a portion of thevalve-seating der, said piston and ring having a normal.
limiting position for movement toward the open end of said cylinder, and a bypass around said ring when away from said limi ing position comprising a longitudinally extending groove indented in the wall of said cylinder, said groove having a depth taperingfrom a maximum depth adjacent to the closed end of the cylinder to Zero depth adj acentto the opposite end of the cylinder, the groove being arranged so that its deep end lies outside the stroke of the ring and its shallow end lies within the stroke of the ring.
6. In an automatic valve, mechanism comprisin a cylinder closed at one end, a piston slidable therein, a piston ring carried by said piston and slidably fitted in said cylinder, said piston and ring having a normal limiting position for movement toward the open end of said cylinder, a by-pass around said ring when away from said limiting position comprising a longitudinally extending groove indented in the wall of said cylinder, said groove having a depth tapering from a maximum depth adjacent to the closed end of the cylinder to zero depth adjacent to the opposite end of the cylinder, the groove being arranged so that its deep end lies outside the stroke of the ring and its shallow end lies within the stroke of the ring, and a pin-hole relief port opening into said cylinder at a point above the lower end of said groove.
7. In an automatic valve, mechanism comprising a cylinder closed at one end, a piston slidable therein having a piston ing of resilient material slidably i tted within the cylinder, said piston and ring having a normal limiting position for movement toward the open end of the cylinder, and a by-pass around said ring when'away from said limiting position comprising a groove indented, in the inner surface of the cylinder and extending longitudinally thereof, said groove having a depth varying from a maximum toward the closed end of the cylinder to Zero depth toward the open end of the cylinder, the groove being arranged in the cylinder so that the limit of the stroke of the piston ring toward the closed end of the cylinder falls short of the deep end of the groove and the opposite limit of the stroke of the ring is beyond the shallow end of the groove.
8. An automatic valve comprising a casing having an inlet, an outlet and a chamber intermediatethereof, a valveseat about said outlet, a cylinder closed at one end and opening into said chamber, said chamber having a longitudinal groove in the wall thereof, a piston slidable in said chamber and a valve member of resilient material carried by said piston and movable therewith to engage said seat, the outer diameter of said valve member being substantially less than the inner diameter of said cylinder.
9. In a self-closing valve having a seat and a valve member of resilient material movable toward said seat, a cylinder, a piston fitted within said cylinder and movable with said valve in the direction of the axis of said cylinder, said cylinder having a groove in its inner wall extending in the direction of motion of said piston and taperin in cross section toward said valve seat, said cylinder also having a pin-hole through the wall thereof opening into said groove to by pass said piston when the valve is near its seat.
In testimony whereof I have aifixed my signature.
THOMAS J YATES.