US 1804651 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 12, 1931. F. SHIPMAN 1,804,651
REFLECTOR Filed March 27, 1929 3 Sheets-Sheet l FIE l INVENTOR Frz C/Z/VC ih/pmafl A TTORNE YS May 12, 1931.- F. SHIPMAN 1,804,651
REFLECTOR Filed March 2'7. 1929 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR f/ zaer/c fifi/ aman A TTO NE YS May 12, 1931. sHlPMAN 1,804,651
REFLECTOR Filed March 27-, 3.12.9 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 44 4/ INVENTOR fFzdzr/c fi/r/pman A TTORNE YS Patented May 12,1931
FREDERIO SHIPMAN, OF SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA I REFLECTOR Application filed man 27, 1929. Serial no. 350,222.
My invention relates to reflectors and isparticularly adapted to reflectors forilluminating indicia. It is an object of my invention to provide a novel reflector construction of simple design for producing a uniform, intense illumination. An object of my'invention is to provide'a novel reflector construction which may be 1 used to illuminate signs of different dimensions.
Another object of my invention is to illuminate an indicia with a plurality of images of a true line source of light. p
A further object of my invention is to reduce to a minimum the number of light sources required to secure a concentrated illumination.
The invention possesses other advantageous features, some of which with theforegoing will be set forth at length in the following description where Ishall outline in full that form of the reflector of my invention, which I have selected for illustration in the drawings accompanying and forming part of the present specification. In said drawings I have shown one form of the reflector embodying my, invention, but it is to be understood that I do not limit myself to such form since the invention, as set forth in the claims, may
be embodied in a plurality of forms. In the drawings to which'I have-made reference, Fig. l is a perspective view of a re flector of my invention. Fig. 2 isa side elevation of a reflector of my invention. v
Fig. 3- is a fragmentary plan view of a form of the reflector of my invention."
Fig. 4: is a front elevation of the reflector of my invention shown in Figure 2.
Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic illustration'of. the manner of reflection attained in a form of reflector of my invention.
Fig. 6 is a side elevation of a signembodyinga reflector of my invention.
form of the Fig. 7 is a front elevation partly in section of a sign embodying a form of the reflector of my invention.
Fig. 8 is a cross section on the line 8-8 of the device shown in Fig. 7.
Fig. 9 is a cross section on a vertical transverse plane through a sign employingfa reflector of my invention. I
Fig. 10 is a plan view of the sign shown in Fig. 9, partly cut away to show details thereof. 1 n
Fig. 11 is a front elevation f of the sign shown in Figures 9 and 10, partly cut away. to show details thereof. 1. I
In its preferred form the device ofmy invention comprises a reflector adapted toil luminate an indicium by means of repeated and closely related images of a source of light. It is particularly useful in illuminating window and other signs and it is in .that connectionthat I shalldescribe it.
As I have shown in the drawings, the device of my invention'preferably comprises a reflector, indicated generally as 6, construct-,- ed of a light reflecting material. such as nickeled zinc or other suitable material having a bright reflecting surface. The reflector is usually formed of a reflecting sheet 7 and a second reflecting sheet8 angularly positioned with respect to sheet 7. The sheets converge in the same direction toward av common line of convergence. To facilitate the manufac-.
ture ofthe device, Ipreferably provide a third reflectingsheet 9 adjacent to the commonv line of convergence of the-reflecting sheets. The reflecting surfaces, asis shown particularly in Fig. 2,.are'relatively close together where they are joined to the third refleeting sheet 9. The several sheets are preferably joined togetherbyhinge sections 10 for reasons which will hereinafter appear.
I prefer to use a. line source of illumination, in combination with the reflector of my'in-. vention, where a bright, uniform and intense lighting effect is desired and, to secure such illumination, neon tubes of a suitable size or ordinary tungsten filament-lamps are used. Thus in Figures 7, 8 and 9 I have'shown, cooperatively positioned with respect to .reflector 6, lamp 16 secured in socket l7 and at: tached to a. source of currentby wires 18: v
e To securethe most uniform, intenseillus 1 mination and to reduce the area in which flood illumination occurs I preferably position only that portionof the light source between images therein.
the reflector which is active in emanating light. Thus, as is shown particularly in Fig. 9, lamps 16 are positioned adjacent to the line of convergence of the reflecting surfaces 7 and 8. A filament structure 22 provided within the lamp serves to produce an illumination. The lamp is preferably positioned through apertures, indicated by 23, in the reflecting surfaces so that substantially only that portion of the lamp containing the luminous filament is within the confines of the reflecting surfaces. Images 'of only the light source in this instance the luminous filament, arev reflected between the surfaces, as illustrated in Figure 5. Thisproducesan intense, uniform illumination and reduces the numberof lightsrequired to a minimum. 7
Asource of light is preferably positioned adjacent to the intersection of the. plane r'efleeting sheets and relatively close to the ryeflect ing sheets. By-thus placing the light source, a greater number of light. sourceimages are visible when the reflector is viewed and't-he area in which only flood illumination ofthe reflectors occurs is decreased to .a minimum. "If-the source of light is placed at a considerable distance from the reflectors the images of "the light source, which are formed, .are1spaced at relatively greater dis tancesfrom each other. The hiatus between the images is also greatly increased and is of such a nature that dark bands appear between them. "The increase in the hiatus thus interrupts the desired continuity of light source images-with the result that the uniformity of light from the reflector is undesirably destroyed. The positioning .of the light source adjacent to ,the intersection of the sheets obviates these objections. v
To illuminate an indicium with the same relative degree of illumination, irrespective ofthe position of the observer, I preferably construct'the device of my invention so that images of the light source are always available" to illuminate the indicia no matter whether the observer be directly in front of the indiciumor standing over it and viewing the indicium in almost the same plane. To accomplish this I preferably provideplane refleeting surfaces 27 'and28 which respectively form Continuations substantially ofs-urfaces 7 and'-8. These surfaces are preferably angularly positioned with respect to surfaces 7 and 8 so as to secure thedesired repetition of a person is viewing from a distance an indicium, illuminated by the reflector of my invention, the'indicium is illuminated by imagesof the light source reflected from surfaces 7 andLS. However, if the person takes a position almost directly over the indicium, the light source images are reflected from the surfaces 27 and 28, which continue surfaces 7 and 8; "Vithout the provision of the continuing surfaces the illumination of the in- I directlight rays.
dicium when viewed from above, would be only by the flood illumination from the light source and not by the intense, uniform light from the light source images.
The reflecting sheets are preferably manufactured with end reflecting sheets 31 which serve to reflect images of the light source and to intensify the illumination secured from the reflector. The end sheets are expediently joined to the reflecting sheets by any convenient method such as b soldering.
In some instances have found it desirableto have a single reflector for illuminating indicia of various sizes. The device of my invention is preferably constructed to facilitate the altering of the reflector to secure a concentrated illumination upon the particular indicia used. Thus,as is shown particu larly in Fig. 2,.end sheets 31 are joined preferably to -onlyone of the reflecting sheets and the angularity of the reflecting sheets is varied by any convenient means as turnbuckles 32 attached to the reflecting sheets by ears 33, the reflecting surfaces 7 and '8 turning upon the hinges provided at their uncture with sheet9. As is shown particularly in Fig. 2 the surfaces 27 and 28 are also preferably adjustable with respect to eachother and to surfaces 7 and 8. Turnbuckles 89 positioned between ears 40, which are attached to surfaces 27 and 28, serve to adjust the angularity of these surfaces and, in combination with turnbuckles 32, to accommodate the reflecting surfaces to indicia of different sizes. The adjustment of the reflector is readily accomplished, and, when it is desired to position an indicium before the reflector of a size different from that previously positioned,- the reflector is readilyaccommodated to illuminate intenselythe indicium with images of the light source and with a minimum quan-- tity of flood illumination.
One manner in which the device of my invention is utilized is in awindow sign such as is shown in Figures 6 to 11 inclusive. A sheet metal casingfll of a convenient size and shape is constructed'with an opening, indicated by 42, in one side of the casing. An indicium 43, such as one of the usual stencilled indicia, is preferably positioned .over "the opening 42 by a frame it which 'isconveni'ently retained upon the casingby tongue l6 overlapping upturned edge 47 of the casing.
Positioned adjacent to the indicia 43 is a diffusing plate 48 such as prismatic, ruflled or rippled glass .or any glass-for deflecting The surface of the plate is preferably. of such a nature that concentrated or distorted image points appear when it. is viewed through the indicium. Other d-iflius-. ing plates may be used or other means ,employed as I have disclosed in my several copending applications, particularly application, Serial No. 311,271, filed October ,9, 1928. The diffusing plate48 is 'preferably'positioned adjacent to the indicia by means of a groove 4-9 formed in the surface of the reflector 6. This groove retains the plate and, together with opposite edge 52 of the reflector, positions the plate between the reflector and the indicia 43. Preferably disposed between the source of light, and the plate 48 is a color filter 53 composedof any desired combination of colors. The color filter is expediently positioned as by means of grooves 56 formed in the surfaces of the reflector 6.
In operation it is characteristic of my invention that the indicia are clearly and vividly outlined, even against bright day light. The various letters of the indicia, depending upon the combination of colors composing the filter interposed between the light source and the indicia, appear as various colors and combinations of colors. Furthermore, and What is even more characteristic, an indicium when viewed with only the diffusing plate interposed between it and the light source, is
. a brilliant silver, standing out clearly and distinctly.
To an observer moving relative to an indicium, illuminated by a reflector of my invention, the indicium assumes many different color outlines and combinations of colors. The vividness and brilliancy of the letters and the distinctness with which they are set off, even against bright day light, is of the highest degree.
1. A light reflecting device for illuminating a sign plate comprising a plurality of reflecting surfaces extending from a common line, a plurality of reflecting surfaces connected to said first reflecting surfaces, a line source of light disposed substantially adjacent to the convergence ofv said first surfaces, means for adjusting the angularity of i the first reflecting surfaces and means for adjusting the second plurality of reflecting surfaces in relation to the first reflecting surfaces independently of the adjustment of the.
2. A light reflecting device for illuminatinga sign plate comprising a plurality of plane reflecting surfaces angularly positioned with respect to each other, a line source of light adjacent to the point of convergence of said reflecting surfaces, a plurality of reflecting surfaces extending from said first reflecting surfaces, hinges connecting the first and second plurality of reflecting surfaces and means for adjusting the angularity of the first and second reflecting surfaces independently of each other.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand.