US 1804819 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 12, l931 E. A. SPENCER, JR., ET AL 1,804,819
I SIDE WALL DRILLING ORGANIZATION FledMay 2. 1928 2 Sheets-Sheet l May 12, l931- E. A. SPENCER, JR.,r ET Al. 1,804,819
SIDE WALL DRILLING ORGANIZATION Filed May 2, 1928 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented May 12, 1931 UNITED STATES `lm'rEN'r OFFICE EDWARD A. arrancan; Jn. or Los ANGELES, AND I'AY oLIvEB, or warmem cALmoninA l SIDE WALL DBILL'ING ORGANIZATION Application led Hay 2, 1828. Serial No. 274,408.
This invention comprises a device which is particularly adapted for use in oil wells or the like for the purpose of increasing the Y drainage area of a well by channeling laterally into the side wall, and includes additional or auxiliary means for the purpose of removing samples of the formation from the side wall in the event of an attempted removal of an ordinary core being unsuccessfulland for the'purpose of sampling the. side wa ls.
It is well known to those familiar with the art to which this invention relates that the circulating 'luid used with rotary drilling equipment, which is ordinarily a mud of high specific gravity, not only carries the cuttings from the point of cutting surface to the surface, but during its egress from the bottom of the bore hole 1t ermeates the walls of the borehole, muddmg od' or forming a plastered impervious coating thereon.
When the boring tool is dulled, the drill stem is withdrawn from the bore hole, a
sharp tool is put on, and the drill stem low-'- ered to the bottom and the drilling ahead continues. Thus it is apparent that this mudding or sealing on' operation continues until the side walls of the bore hole have been penetrated by the mud Huid to a point of ao saturation according to the absorptive textures of the particular formations comprising the bore hole.
lit is obvious that such a coating will tend to seal od the oil bearing sands and formas tions and, to a great extent, prevent the entrance of oil into the bore hole from an oil bearing zone. lit is generally accepted that the ingress of oil into the well takes place .onlythrough such cracks or breaks in the e0 side wall coating as may result from the varying pressure conditions of the well which take place when the com leted well is brought in (put on production To bring in the well, the mud fluid is lowered to such e5 a point in the bore hole that the gas pressure imprisoned behind the mud coated walls is great enough to overcome the pressure of the weight of the Huid still remaining in the hole and to break through the side walls opening cracks or fissures, admitting the oil and gas to the well draining from a very limited area, which undoubtedly accounts for the amazingly large percentage of the oil that is not drained by the well but remains imprisoned behind' the sealed oit' walls of the well.
It will be apparent that if a plurality of passages or channels were extended laterally from the bore hole through the mentioned Wall and into the oil zone or sand, the actual drainage area of the well could be increased in proportion` to the number of such channels drilled and the amount of formation which they penetrated.
A primary object of this invention is, therefore, the development of a channeling organization which comprises a body member adapted to be suspended from an ordinary rotary drill string and in which a laterally extending drilling bit is associated for the purpose of channeling into the wall of a bore hole.
The body member is provided with means .operable to hold the same stationary during a channel drilling operation and such body member may be raised to various points in a bore hole, permitting a series of channels being drilled in a single suspension Vof the apparatus in the well.
In a modified form of the invention, the lower end of the body member is provided with a downwardly extending drilling member for the purpose of removing bridges, cave-ins or other obstructions from the path of the descending tool.
It is also well known to those familiar with this art that in wild catting operations the cores are frequently lost and the driller has no record of the well in the region of the lost core. `We have therefore developed an auxiliary core bit to be used in connection with the above described organization, by means of which a sample or small core may be taken from the wall of the hole at points along the wall from which the core was removed and lost.
The construction of the mechanism and device embodying our invention, and other objects attending its development andV use, will be better understood from the following detail description of the accompanying drawings, in which v 1g. 1 is a sectional view which may be considered as illustratin the bottom of a bore hole, having an embo iment of our invention sus ended therein.
ig. 2 is an enlarged sectional elevation corres onding to the lower end of Fig. 1.
i 3 1s an enlarged sectional elevation, showing a. form of core drill which may be used in this invention.
Fig. 4 is a sectional elevation similar to Fig. 1, but showing a modified form of our invention.
Fig. 5 is a perspective view, showing parts comprised in the upper section of Fig. 4 1n a disassembled relation.
Fig. 6 is a plan section taken substantially along the line 6-6 of Fig. -4.
Fig. 7 is an enlarged elevational section taken substantially along the line 7-7 of 4, and
g. 8 is a plan section taken along the line 8-8 of Fig. 7.
More particularly describing the invention as herein illustrated, reference numeral 11 indicates a main body member which is suspended from a drill string 12 in the lower portion of a bore hole 13, This main body member 11 may be constructed in asubstantially single unit, as shown .in Fig. 4, or may, as illustrated in Fig. 1, comprise an upper tubular section 14, which encloses what may be termed an upper chamber 15, and has an apertured collar 16 upwardly mounted thereon, the collar 16 being provided with an inwardly extending flange which forms a shoulder 17 in the upper inner end of the chamber 15. l
This tubular member 14 is adapted to be mounted upon a substantially solid lower body section 18 by means of the coupling collar 19. The lower body section 18 is provided with a longitudinally extending passage 20, which is concentric with the upper chamber 15 and downwardly terminates in a laterally extending passa-ge 21.
The laterally extending passage 21 is adapted to receive and support what may be termed a channel drilling organization generally indicated by reference numeral 22, and in Figs. 1 and 2 is illustrated as comprising a small fish tail bit 23, which is mounted in a suitable collar 24 upon the lower end of a flexible tube 25, the flexible tube being adapted to extend through the lateral passage 21 into the longitudinal passage 20, where it is illustrated as being suspended from a tubular inter-connecting member 26, the member 26 being mounted in engagement with a suitable bushing member 27 which, in turn, is supported upon the lower end of a tubular drill string extension 12', the extension 12 being connected through a suitable per connecting collar or joint 28 with the lower end of the drill strin 12.
It will be noted in ig. 1 that the bushing member 27 is provided with an annulail extending flange or shoulder 29, which is a apted to enga e the inwardly extending shoulder 17 upon t e collar 16, such engagement being effective for sus ending the main body member from the drill string 12.
For the purpose of eliminating undue frictional wear between tire mentioned bushing 27 and the inner surface of the tubular section 14, the periphery of the bushing member may beprovide 'with a plurality of bearing members, such as the rollers '30.
In order that the main body member 11 may be held stationary during the rotation of the drilling organization 22, the lower end of the substantially solid body section 18 is provided with a plurality of downwardly extending ingers or lugs 31, which are adapted to be received within recesses 32 and are supported therein by means such as the bearing pins 33.
In order that the bearing pins 33 may be relieved of undue strain from the support of the main body member by the downwardly extending fingers 31, the pin receiving apertures 34 in the upper end of the fingers 31 are elongated, as is best illustrated in Fig. 2, and it Will be seen from this illustration that the upper rounded ends 35 of the fingers 31 provide bearing surfaces which are received by cooperatively formed surfaces 36 in the upend of the recesses 32.
In order that the lingers 31 may be held in non-engaging osition during the suspension or lowering o this organization into a bore hole, and will be automatically extended into a side wall engaging position at thevtermina-r' tion of a downward movement of the organization through engagement with the bottom of the bore hole, I provide resilient members, such as the coil springs 37, which are adapted to be received in suitably formed recesses 38, the outer ends of which are adapted to engage. an inner surface on each of the mentioned fingers 31.
The springs are held in a compressed position and the fingers are retained inwardly by means of a sleeve 39 which surrounds the lower end of the body member 18 and is adapted to be upwardly engaged by suitably formed lugs or shoulders 40, mounted upon the pe-V riphery of the body member above Hic men- "m, I
'Ifhe lower end of the body member 18 in the region of the sleeve v 39 is provided with a suitable recess or slot 41 through which a, cross pin 42, mounted diametrlcally across the sleeve 39, slidably extends for the purpose olf transmitting a lateral movement to the s eeve.
A central and longitudinally extending4 aperture 43, communicating with the lower end of slot 41, is provided in the lower end of the body member 18, and a slidable pin 44 is adapted to be mounted in this aperture and extends upwardly in rigid engagement with the pin 42.
The slidable pin 44 may be provided with any suitable form of shoe, such as the head indicated at 45, such shoe being adapted to engage the bottom of a bore hole, and through this engagement to impart an upward movement to the sleeve 39, such movement being effective'to release the lingers 31.
The fingers 31 are preferably provided with outwardly extending points 46, which tend to penetrate the formation and raise the iingers toward a horizontal position.
lt will be understood from the above description that in the operation of this form of the invention, the main body member being suspended from the lower end of the drill string is lowered into a bore hole until the shoe 45 is brought into engagement with the bottom of the hole, yat which time the fingers 31 are released and engage the formation holding the body of the drilling organization in a substantially rigid position.
lt will be apparent from the above described construction of the drilling organization comprising the fish tail bit 22 and the iexible tubing 25 that the rotation of the drill string is effective to rotate the bit, and the downward movement of the drill string, as is ordinarily practiced in the drilling of wells, will be effective to force 4the drill bit laterally into the formation. The distance to which the drill bit is permitted to penetrate the formation is more or lessoptional with the operator, but may be governed to a, certain extent by the structure in which the penetration is being carried out.
After the fingers 31 have once been released, they willw remain in a wall engaging position, and the drilling organization may be raised to various positions at which channels or side wall drill holes may be formed,
thus making it possible to provide a plurality of such holes in asingle suspension of the apparatus.
It 'will be understood that various forms of flexible membersand various types of connections between the drill bit and the operating organization may be used, and a preferred form of such connection is illustrated in Fig. 1, as comprising a flexible metal tubing 25 having a collar 24 on the lower end thereof.
In order that undue stretching of the flexible tube 25, which might occur during the removal of the bit from a channel formed thereby, may be obviated, a plurality of wir e s or cables or similar strain receiving members 51 are mounted between the collar 24 and the lower end of the rigid tubular member 26, such strain receiving members being retained upon the metal tubing 21 in any preferred manner, as by means of eyes 52.
Another form of flexible driving mechanism is illustrated in Fig. 2 as comprising a link chain 53 illustrated), which is connected inany suitable manner with the lower end of the metal tubing 26a and the upper end of a bit receivmg collar 24a, and is surrounded by a ilexible tubing 54, which might be composed of rubber or any other suitable substance, such tubing being secured to the lower end of the metaltubing 26a and the upper end of the collar 24a by any suitable clamping means, such as the wires indicated at 54', or beingy full free tioating by means of bearings (roller), which may be placed between the outer tubing and the shank at 54.
It will, of course, be understood that in both of these described forms of my invention, circulating fluid is delivered to the bit through the drill string and the flexible tubing, egressing from the bit through suitably (or a cable, such form not being formed apertures, such as are indicated at Y ln order that this organization may be adapted to recover samples of the formation from the side wall of a bore hole, as was heretofore mentioned, the lower end of a Hexible tubing 25h, as illustrated in Fig. 3, is provided with an auxiliary core cutting bit 56. Such bit may be of any preferred form and is illustrated as comprising an outer cutting body 57 and an inner core barrel 58, which is downwardly provided with core engaging fingers 59, and is upwardly provided with a suitable valve indicated at 60. rl.`his core cutting bit may be provided with .suitable fluid clrculating passages 61, such passages terminating at the lower edge of the bit near cutting blades 62.
Due to the fact that certain sections of bore holes of the class hereinabove referred to frequently tend to crumble or cave, forming obstructions or bridges therein, we have deemed it necessary to develop a special or modified form of channeling organization for use underl such circumstances. This form of the invention is illustrated in detail in lFigs. 4 to 8, inclusive, and in the general form shown in Fig. 4, the body member 11a, which is illustrated as being suspended from a drill string 12a into a bore hole 13a, is shown as being provided with a bit of the ordinary fish tail type indicated at 70, the bit being shown as engaging a bridge or caved section of the formation indicated at 71.
In order that the laterally extending drill chamber a in the drill body is provided with a stop organization generally indicated CFI lil)
at 72, such organization being best illustrated in Figs. 5 and 6.
This mentioned stop organization comprises a pair of laterally extending ,projections or stop members 73, which are mounted in any suitable manner upon the lower end of the section of drill string 12a above the bushing 29a, which is adapted to carry the roller bearings 30a.
A pair of annular segments 74 are mounted upon the inner surface of the upper chamber 15a in any suitable manner, such as by means of the rivets 75. These segments are mounted at an appreciable distancebelow the collar 16a, such as is best illustrated in Fig. 4, and are provided with oppositely disposed recesses indicated at 77, which form shoulders 78, such shoulders beino' adapted to be engaged by the projection 73 during a forward rotation of a drill string.
It will be understood that the segments are so constructed as to comprise a support for the projection 78, and that vertical notches 79 are formed in diametrically opposite portions thereof, these notches being adapted to permit the downward movement of the section 12a upon reverse rotation of the drill string, such downward movement being in turn effective to permit the downward movement of the tubular member 26a, resulting in the projection of the drill member 23a from the drill body 11a.
In this form of the invention, the laterally extendingformation engaging fingers 31a are adapted to be outwardly pressed by means of springs 37a, which springs extend into recesses 8O in the drill body and cooperating recesses 8l in the fingers.
As is perhaps best shown in Fig. 4, these fingers are mounted upon the drill body above the point of projection of the drill member 23a in the region ofthe tubular member 26a,
and are held in inwardly extending position by means of the sleeve or collar 82, which extends over the upper ends of the fingers and to which upward movement is imparted by means of a pair of oppositely extending levers 83, which are mounted in notches 84 and supported upon lpivot pins 85, and to which a swinging movement is imparted by means of the downward movement of an annular shoulder 86, which is formed upon the tubular member 26a.
It will be understood that, upon a reverse rotation of the drill string 12a, the projections 73, dropping through the notches 79, permit the tubular member 26a to be forced downwardly, and the collar 86 engages the inner ends 87 of the lever members 83, thus forcing the sleeve 82 into a finger releasing position similar to the movement described in connection with fingers 31, shown in the form of my invention illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2.
While we have hereinl described and illustrated preferred embodiments of our invention, it will be understood that it is not limited to the recise construction set forth, but includes wlthin its sco e any changes or modifications which mig t fairly come within the spirit of the appended claims.
We claim as our invention:
1. A side wall channeling organization, for use in underground bore holes, comprising: a main body member; means for suspendin said body member from a drill string; a dril member adapted to be projected laterally from said body member; and means rotatable relative to said body member for imparting rotation to said drill member from sa1d drill string.
2. A side wall channeling organization, for use in underground bore holes, comprislng: a main body member; means for suspending said body member from a drill string; a drill member adapted to be projected laterally from said body member; means rotatable* relative to said body member for imparting rotation to said drill member from said drill string; and means for holding said body member stationary relative to the rotation of said drill string.
3. A side wall channeling organization, for use in underground bore holes, comprislng: a main body member; means for suspending said bodyV member from a drill string; a drill'member adapted to be projected laterally from said body member; means rotatable relative to said body member for imparting rotation to said drill member from said drill string; and means operable subsequent to the lowering of said drill string into a bore hole for holding said body member stationary relative to the rotation of said drill string.
4. A side wall channeling organization, for use in underground bore holes, comprising: a main body member; means for suspending said body member from a drill string; a drill member adapted to be projected laterally from said body member; means rotatable relative to said body member for imparting rotation to said drill member from said drill string; and means for holding said body member stationary relative to the rotation of said drill string, comprising downwardly extending fingers adapted to engage the side wall of said bore hole. i
5. A side wall channelin organization, for use in underground bore oles, comprising: a main body member; means for suspending said body member from a drill string; a drill member adapted to be projected laterally from said body member; means rotatable relative to said body member for imparting rotation to said drill member from said drill string; and means for holding said body member stationary relative to the rotation lv`ofvisaid drill string, comprising downwardly I extendingngers and resilient means adapt-I' ed to force said fingers outwardly into 'engagement with theside wall of Aa bore hole. 6.. A side wall .channeling organization, i foruse in under round bore holes, comprising: a main bo y member; means for'sus- Y o pending said body member-Q from a' drill eve member` for holding said fingers in `anstring.
,A 2o inwardpositoion. 7,. A sidewall-,channelin yuse in underground bore les, comprising: .a main body'member'; 'means for suspending saidfb'od'y member from a .drill'string'm drill .-25 member adapted` tube-'projected laterally fj relative Y toi said lbody 1 member for .imparting rotation-to vsaid`- drill ymember from lsaid drill o j stringgfandg'meaiisf for holding saidybody '30, member .stationary relative .tothe rotation of wall of a bore hole, a collar `member for holde5 releasing position. I,
[bore hole for movingsaidfcollar to a inger l use linunderground'bore holes, comprising: ar
.-f'main bodyr'membe'r; means for suspending said body member from a kdrill string; means vffor reventing the rotation of :said body :inem er--relative to said drill string; and a drill-member adapted to' be projected laterally "from said bod member, said drill .meniber comprisinga exible member, a drill bit adapted to rotated by .said drill string, `and means fordelivering a circulating fluid A fside wallfjchanneling organization, Il vforfu'se in underground -.bore holes, comprising: j a.- main ,bodyineinberg means lfor `.susr. pendinggsaid"gbodyjineinber; yfrom a drill ,55 means for preventingn the-.rotation organization, for Y therein an upper chamber, a downwardly from saidbody. member means rotatablel said drill string; comprising downwardly ex-- i tending `fingers,,resilient ineansA adapted to` force saidl lingers into engagement 'with' the inggsaid fingersl in an inward position, and means engageable with the 'bottom of saidV I to said drill bit throughsaid flexible member.
of said body member relative to said drill strin and a drill member adapted to be prodrill member comprising a iiexible member a drill bit adapted to be rotated by said drill string, and limitin elongation of said exible member.
.-11. A side wall ,channelin organization, for use in underground bore ioles, compris ing: a main body member; meansv for sus-` jecte laterally from said body member, said means preventing the pending said body member from a drill string; meansfor preventing the rotation of said body member relative to said drill string; and a 'drill member ada ted to 'be projected laterally from said bo y member,
said drill member comprising a iiexible tube,
a drill bit outwardly mounted on said ilexible tube, and means for connecting said ilexible tube with the lower end of said drill 12. A side wall/"channeling organization, for usevin underground bore holes, pomprising: a main `body 'member having formed extending longitudinal assage, and a latertudinal passage, said upper chamber bein adapted to rotatably receive the lower en of a drill string; adrill string extending intov said chamber and supporting said main ber downwardly mounted on said driving member; anda drilling member mounted on `the lower end of said flexible member, adaptedto be projected from said lateral passage.
13. A side wall channeling organization,` for use lin underground bore holes, comprising: a body member -having formed Atherein an upper chamber, a ldownwardly extending longitudinal passage and a' lateral passage communicating with said longitudinal passage, said upper chamber being adapted to rotatably receive the' lower end of a drilll strin a drill string extending into said cham er and supporting said main body; a driving member downwardly mounted on said drill string and extending into said longitudinal passage; a flexible member downwardly `mounted on said driving member; a drilling member mounted on the lower end of. said flexible member, adapted to be pro- `communicating with said longitudinal passage, saiduppei"- chamber being adapted v.to rotatably receive/the lower end of a drill ^`vstring; a drill'string extending into said 90 al passage lcommunicating with said 1ongi-v body; a driving member downwardly mounted on said drill string and extending into said longitudinal` passage; a flexible memjected fromsaid lateral passage;and means chamber and supporting said main body a driving member downwardl mounted on said drill string and exten longitudinal passage; a' flexible downwardly mounted on said driving member; a drilling member mounted on the lower end of said flexible member, adapted to be projected from said lateral passage; and means for holding said body member against rotation relative to said drill 'string subse r quent to the lowering of said organization into a bore hole.
15. An organization, for making side wall' channels in bore holes, which comprises: a body member rotatably suspended on a drill string; a laterall extending drill member mounted in said ody member; and means for advancing said drill member through said body member into the side wall of said bore hole by said drill string.
In testimony whereof, the said EDWARD A. SPENCER, Jr. and FAY OLIVER have hereunto set their hands at Los Angeles, California, this 10th da of April, 1928.
E WARD A. SPENCER, JR. FAY OLIVER.
ing into said member