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Publication numberUS1805116 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 12, 1931
Filing dateApr 23, 1926
Priority dateApr 23, 1926
Publication numberUS 1805116 A, US 1805116A, US-A-1805116, US1805116 A, US1805116A
InventorsTrane Reuben N
Original AssigneeTrane Reuben N
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Radiator
US 1805116 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

May 12, 1931.

N; TRANE RADIATOR 3 Sheets-Sheet l OriginalFiled April 23, 1926 Reuben {V T712726:

W 5/ @fl/WM MMZ May 12, 1931. R. N. TRANE 1,805,116

RADIATOR Original Filed April 23, 1926 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 [72069727621 Heap/9e72, N Trans.

May 12, 1931. R TRANE 1,805,116

RADIATOR vOriginal Filed April 23, 1926 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 q T59 3 j 32 85 Z72 U6 72757: Reuben AZ Trams Patented May 12, 1931 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE REUBEN N. TRANE, OF LA CROSSE, WISCONSIN RADIATOR My invention relates to radiators, and more especially to radiators used in steam, vacuum of hot water heating systems and employing a multiplicity of fins of thin sheet metal in heat conducting relation to the heat tube portion of the radiator, which contains the heating medium. In heating a room, such a radiator, as compared with the usual cast iron radiator, operates more upon the principle of conduction of air than upon the principle of radiation.

One of the chief objects of my invention is to provide an improved heat conducting contact between the fins and the heat tube whereby very thin sheet metal may be used for the fins and the heat tube may be of relatively small diameter, and still there will be suflicient heat. conduction from the tube on to the body of the fin to conduct the heat at the required rate.

Another object is-a construction and a method of making the radiator wherein the cost of material is minimized in proportion to the capacity of the radiator, and where the manufacturing operations are greatly simplified.

Another object of my invention is the provision of a radiator which, for the same heating capacity, has a volume, floor area, Weight,

height and cost considerably less than the usual cast iron radiator construction. As compared with the usual design of cast iron radiators, my radiator unit described in this specification, for example, has but 60% of the manufacturing cost, 8% or 10% of the weight, and less floor space.

A further feature of my invention is that it enables the use of fins made from very thin sheet metal, but which are so designed that they are sufficiently strong and have a maximum area available for heat radiation. Still another object is to increase the speed of the air circulating through the radiator I unit, which I accomplish partly by the design of the unit itself and partly by providing it with a chimney-like cabinet which serves greatly to augment the air circulation.

The foregoing and many other objects,

features and advantages of my invention are set forth in the following specification, where I describe what I consider the preferred, as well as several modified, embodiments of my invention. These are illustrated in the accompanying drawings, wherein:

Figure 1 is a perspective view of a preferred form of my radiator unit;

Figure 2 is a substantially horizontal transverse section therethrough, following the axes of the heat tubes;

Figure 3'is a vertical transverse section through the unit, which may be considered as taken on the line 33 of Figure 2;

Figure 4 is a perspective view of one of the heat radiating fins or plates used in one form of my radiator unit, the particular fin shown having vertical. corrugations to provide either a honeycomb or a parallel wave construction for the unit;

Figure 5 is a perspective view of one form of a stamped, forged or spun metal spacing ring or ferrule used in conjunction with the fins in the foregoing views;

Figures 6, 7 and 8 are similar to Figures 1, 2 and 3, respectively, except that the fins have no corrugations or lateral flanges, and the lateral edges of the fins are protected by side plates;

Figure 9 is a perspective view looking toward the front and one side of a cabinet set over a radiator unit preferably of the type shown in Figures 6, 7 and 8.

In Figures 1 and 2 I have shown what I consider a preferred form of my radiator unit. It employs a pair of spaced tubes T conveniently formed by bending a single tube into a U-shape. A multiplicity of closely spaced fins F formed from very thin sheet metal are strung upon the spaced tubes, making contact therewith by the aid of flanges f struck out from the sheet stock of the fins about the margins of spaced openings through which the respective tubes pass. Theconst-ruction of the fins is best shown in Figure 4.

In order to keep the radiator as light as possible,-I prefer to use very thin metal for the fins. Sheet copper .007 inches thick has been found to give very satisfactory results and a minimum 3 weight. Obviously the flanges f struck from such sheets will not lows have enough strength to form and maintain a good heat conducting contact with the outer surface ofa tube T; and also the flanges are neither strong enough nor thick enough to serve as spacers between adjacent fins without danger of the flanges overlapping or being crimped. To overcome these difficulties, I provide spacing rings or ferrules R which are disposed as sleeves about the outer peripheries of the flanges f and with .he faces of the rings abutting the opposed faces of adjacent fins F. These spacing rings not only serve as relatively unyielding sleeves between which and the tubes the flanges f may be tightly and permanently compressed to preserve afirm heat conducting contact over a large area between the fins and the tubes, but also supplement the heat conduction by reason of the contact between the faces of the rings and the flanges of the fins thereby serving much as hubs to augment the cross sectional area of heat conduction where the heat conduction must necessarily be the most concentrated in its path from the tube to the radiating surfaces of the fins.

In order to avoid any complications from varying coeflicients of expansion, I make the tubes T, the fins F and the spacing rings R all of copper and, at least in those methods of assembly wherein I expand the tube in order to press the tube and fin tightly against each other and against the spacing ring, I prefer to maintain a proportion between the thicknesses of the three elements somewhat as fol- The fins are formed from sheet stock .007 inches thick, the shell of the tube T is about .020 inches thick and the spacing rings are stamped from stock about .030 inches thick. Instead of forming rings of rectangular cross-section, as by cutting them from tubing, I prefer, for the sake of economy, to

stamp the spacing rings from sheet metal,

and I have found that in stamping them the most satisfactory form, from the viewpoint of production, is a channel-shaped section whereone flange of the channel is longer than the other, as this does not necessitate drawing the metal so much as it would if the flanges were equal.

For an ordinary commercial radiator unit which 18 comparable in floor space w1th the usual cast-iron radiator, I prefer to make my radiator unit of suitable length with parallelogram shaped fins about three inches high and six inches wide.

' At each end of my radiator unit, as shown in Figure 1, in lieu of final fins F, I prefer to use end plates P. of rather rigid sheet steel. The heat tubes-in the drawings the legs of the U-shaped tube T-pass through the end plates F. At the far end, the eight of the U lies along the outer side of the end plate,

while at the near end the rotru-tling ends of the tubes are provided with coupling members 31 by which-the tube T is connected to the inlet and outlet heat pipes ,32 and 33 respectively. In referring to these pipes as heat pipes, I contemplate that my radiator is equally applicable to steam, hot water, or vacuum heating systems.

In order to eliminate the necessity of lateral strips or other external means for holding the two end plates P in correctly spaced relation, I prefer to use a coupling construction of the type indicated at 31 whereby the tube T itself serves to tie the two end plates in proper position. To describe one of the coupling members 31 in detail, an outwardly flanged collar 3a is slipped over a protruding end of the U-shaped tube T, the collar having an outwardly belled bore. An elbow 35 or other desired fitting, which has annularly beveled edge, 36 for swedging the outer edge of the tube T, is pulled up against the collar Set but with the swedged end of the tube therebetween to form a fluid tight. union between the tube and the elbow. This is done by an inwardly flanged nut 37 which abuts the collar 34-. and screw threads onto the elbow 35. Obviously other suitable types of couplings may be substituted.

It is to be noted at this point, however, that the radiator does not have any gasketed or other connections for the steamline except these two couplings 31 and that in connecting and disconnecting the radiator these two couplings are the only ones which need be disturbed.

The upper edges of the end plates are shown with outwardly turned flanges 38 which extend over the space occupied by the bight of the tube T at one end and over the couplings 31 at the other end, thereby making the unit self-contained in that no parts project beyond its horizontal perimeter. In instances whre the end plates are not projected rearwardly to the room wall to form hangers for the radiator, or when it is not practicable to bend down cut-out strips from he end plates to form-supporting legs, I prefer to use strips of angle iron to form Z-shaped legs 39 for supporting the radiator. These angle irons cover the lateral edges of the end plates and extend down their height, whence they are offset outwardly longitudinally of the radiator and at the height of its lower edge and then extend down to the floor with their corners in' vertical alignment with the outer corners of the flanges 38. The purpose of thus off-setting the legs 39 is to permit the legs to be concealed by the corner posts or legs of the later described cabinet which fits over the unit to augment the draft of air.

It'will be seen, especially in Figures 2 and 3, that the two legs of the U-shaped tube T do not lie in the same horizontal plane but that one leg is an inch or so higher than the other. This is done so that when used in a steam or vacuum heating system the condensate will gravitate back to the return lines til) ply heat-and still have the tubes vertically offset. The other reason is to permit setting the radiator unit closer to the floor without cutting down the necessary air inlet passage therebeneath. This feature'will be discussed in further detail in connection with the later described cabinetwhich I use to increase the The lateral edges of each fin F carry transversely offset flanges 40 with lesser return bent flanges 41. The chiefpurpose of the flanges 40 is to space the thin fins F at their outer edges as well asat the tubes T, and in this way they are aided by the return bent flanges 41 which prevent overlapping or telescoping of the lateral edges of the fins. Other advantages of the lateral flanges 40 are that they serve to stiffen or -re-enforce the fins, they form in effect a continuous lateral wall for the unit, protecting persons from the sharp edges of the fins and confining the upward air-flow through the unit so that it cannot be diffused before passing through the entire height of the unit, and, because of the bending of the fins to form the flanges, the metallic copper is given a certain temper which serves still further to strengthen the thinned fins.

'"The confining of the air passing through the radiating unit to a strictly vertical path may be further insured by providing the fins F with vertical corrugations 42 which. in alternate fins, are alternately arranged thereby giving a honeycomb construction to the radiator; This honeycomb construction also serves more evenly to space the fins intermediate the tubes and lateral flanges 40, and,

' similarly, the corrugations add still more temper to the copperfins. It is also to be noted that both the flanges 40 and the corrugations 42 tend to increase the area of the fins in contact with the upwardly passing air without enlarging the perimeter ofthe fins. If the fin corrugations are not alternately arranged-but instead are all similar, the re- 'sult will be a parallel -wave construction rather than a honeycomb.

The radiation afforded by the unit may be further increased by giving a dull finish to the surface of the fins. This may be-done in a number of ways, such as painting the fins with a dull paint or by exposing the assembled unit to acid fumes.

I have shown in the accompanying drawings many alternative means for securing a good heat conducting contact between the fins and the tubes and I contemplate that many others may be employed with satisfactoryresults. I believe, however, that the most satisfactory results are obtained by the use of rings surrounding flanges f of the fins F between which rings and the tube the flanges f are permanently inched so that the fins, flanges, rings and tu e become in effect an integral metallic path for the conduction of heat. In carrying out the foregoing general scheme there are several alternative ways of getting this pinching action. From the standpoint of production I have found that the most effective method is to assemble the fins inposition on the tubes with spacing rings R between adjacent fins and with the parts fitting rather snugly and compressed longitudinally .on the tubes to their desired final position. The tube is then internally expanded against the relatively unyielding rings R with the-result that by the expansion of the tube the flanges 7' of the fins are permanently pinched into firm heat conducting. contact with the tube and with the spacing rings, while the flanges of the spacing rings are held permanently in firm heat conducting contact with the faces of the fins about the margins of their flanged openings.

In Figures 6, 7 and 8 I have shown a form of radiator similar in all respects to that shown in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4, except that the fins F do not have the lateral flanges 40 flanges f. The sharp lateral edges of the fins are protected by side plates 85 which extend from one end plate P to the other end plate and are co-extensive in height with the height of'the fins F at their respective lateral edges. The ends of the side plates 85 are flanged inwardly to overlap the lateral edges of the end plates which in turn are overlapped by the angle irons 39 forming the legs. Thus the rivets which, in Figures 1, 2, and 3, hold the legs to the end plates,-in the present figures also pass through the flanges on the side plates. The lower edges of the side plates 85 are reenforced by return bent flanges 86 which are terminated short of the ends of the side plates in order to provide room for the lateral flanges of the legs 39. The end plates together with the side platesform a comparatively rigid frame for the radiator unit which not only keeps it in alignment, but guards the fins. The side plates also hold the many fins and spacing rings in tightly assembled position While the tubes T are being expanded in the manufacturing process and ll l through the unit and between the fins. As previously mentioned, the use of the lateral flanges on the fins and the corrugations 42 serve to increase the draft of air through the unit. I have found that the radiator unit must not be too high for most economical operation, for if the vertical distance through which the air has to pass between the fins is too great, the air becomes heated substantially to the temperature ofthe fins, and for the last portion of its upward travel absorbs very little more heat, so that the radiating fins above a certain level are not nearly so effective asthe lower part of the fins. When the radiator unit is used alone, that \is, without a stack or chimney, the most economical results, I believe, are had when the height is about 7 inches.

I have found, however, that if a chimneylike casing or conduit is provided above or below the radiator unit, a surprisingly rapid multiplication of the speed of the air flow 1s secured. As the height of the chimney increases, the velocity increasesalthough not in straight proportion-and the less the radiator unit need be in height. I have found from careful experiments that, considering the cost of the radiator unit and the cost of the chimney-like casing or cabinet and the.

limitations on its dimensions in keeping with convenience when installed, the most advantageous proportion is one of about 3 inches in height for the radiator unit, and about 24 inches of chimney thereabove.

A heating cabinet made in accordance with the foregoing principles is shown in Fig. 9.

The cabinet, it will be understood, is pref erably not secured in any way to the radiator unit, but merely sets over it. This permits the cabinet to be lifted bodily off the radiator unit so that the wall behind the cabinet can be cleaned and the floor beneath the radiator unit can also be cleaned efl'ectively.

My heating cabinet, as contrasted with the unattractive appearance of the usual cast iron radiator, offers an opportunity for ornamental cabinet work which may be in bar mony with the other furniture in the room, such for instance as-by designing the cabinet to conform with the popular period furniture. WVhile I have shown the cabinet of sheet metal to be finished in simulation of wood, I contemplate that the cabinet can actually be made of wood if desired;

While I have described the foregoing preferred embodiments of my invention, and have, suggested these several modifications, I contemplate that many changes may be made without departing from the scope or spirit of my invention. 4

I claim:

1. A radiator comprising a tube for containing a heating fluid medium, a multiplicity of spaced heat radiating fins having aligned openings therein through which the tube extends,.the fins having flanges about the margins of the openings for externally engagingthe tube, and a plurality of rings of heavier stock than the flanges between which rings-and the tube the flanges are permanently pinched into heat conducting contact with the tube, the rings having lateral faces of greater width than the thickness of the stock of the ring, which faces'are held in heat conducting contact with the faces of the fins about the margins of said openings whereby the rings serve as hubs for the fins to increase the sectional area of heat conducting metal between the tube and the extremities of the fins.

2. A radiator comprising a, heat tube, a plurality of spaced radiating fins of' thin sheet metal having aligned heat tube openings therethrough, through which the tube passes, integrally formed flanges on the fins about the margins of the openings for surface engagement with the periphery of the tube, and spacing rings surrounding the flanges and wider than the flanges for spacing the fins and thereby relieving the flanges of longitudinal strain.

3. A radiator comprising a heat tube, a plurality-of spaced radiating fins of thin sheet metal having aligned heat tube openings therethrough, through which the tube passes, integrally formed flanges on the fins about the margins of the openings for surface engagement with the periphery of the tube, and reinforcing ferrules surrounding the flanges for maintaining them in firm contact with the tube and for spacing the fins.

4. A radiator comprising a plurality of vertically disposed fins mounted in spaced relation upon horizontal heat tubes to provide for the upward flow of air between the fins, and means for supporting the radiator with one lateral edge of the assembled fins higher from the floor than the other lateral edge to provide a greater air-inlet passage at the one edge than at the other. 7

5. A radiator comprising a horizontal heat tube and a multiplicity of vertically disposed radiating fins having central apertures'for the passage of the heat tube and arranged on the heat tube in spaced relation, the fins being provided with vertically extending corrugations, the corrugations in successive fins being alternately arranged to provide a honey-comb construction.

6. A radiator comprising a horizontal heat tube and a multiplicity of vertically disposed radiating fins having central apertures for the passage of the heat tube and arranged on the heat tube in spaced relation, the fins being provided with vertically extending corrugations, the corrugations in successive fins being alternately arranged to provide a honey-comb constructionfor spacing the fins and for providing a multiplicity of vertically extending tubular chimneys through the radiator.

7. A radiator unit comprising a horizontal heat tube, a multiplicity of vertically disposed radiating fins mounted on the tube in spaced relation, a pair of end plates mounted on the heat tube adjacent the first and last fin respectively, heating fluid inlet and outlet connections for the heat tube beyond the respective end plates and offset flanges on the end plates extending at right angles to the direction of air flow through the radiator for overlying the space occupied by said connections whereby the outer corners of the flanges define an all over perimeter for the radiator unit within which air may'flow only between the fins.

' 8. A radiator unit comprising horizontal heat tubes, a multiplicity of vertically disposed radiating fins mounted on the tube in spaced relation, a pair of end plates mounted on the heat tube adjacent the first and last fin respectively, heating fluid inlet and outlet connections for the heat tube beyond the respective end plates, oifsetflanges on the end plates extending at right angles to the direction of air flow through the radiator foroverlying the space occupied by said connections whereby the outer corners of the flanges define an all over perimeter for the radiator unit within which air may flow only between the fins and depending legs secured to the end plates for supporting the unit a fixed distance above the floor, the lower ends of the legs being positioned substantially in alignment with the outer corners of said flanges.

9. As an article of manufacture an end structure for a radiator of the heat tube and radiating fin type, comprising a vertical end plate apertured for the passage of a heat tube, a horizontal flange overlying the space adj acent the outer side of the plate, and a pair of depending legs, one at each lateral edge of the structure, the lower ends of the legs being substantially in vertical alignment with the outer corners of the flange.

10. A radiator unit comprising a heat tube bent into a Ushape to provide a pair of spaced horizontally disposed legs interconnected by an elbow, a multiplicity of vertical radiat ing fins apertured for the passage of the respective legs and mounted thereon in spaced relation, an end plate mounted on the tubes and disposed between the first fin and the elbow portion of the tube, a second end plate mounted on the tubes and disposed adjacent the last fin, a coupling member adjacent the outer face of the second plate forming heating fluid connections to the resp'ectiveends of the heat tube, and horizontally disposed baffles extending outwardly from the respective end plates to give the radiator unit a horizontal perimeter with the couplings and elbow vertically there within and for confining the upward air passage through said marginal perimeter to the spaces between the fins.

11. A radiator unit comprising a horizontal heat tube, a multiplicity of vertically disposed radiating fins mounted on the tube in spaced relation, a horizontal baflle extending outwardly from the first and last fins respectively to give the unit a horizontal perimeter greater than that of the assembled fins, and heating fluid inlet and outlet connecting members for the respective ends of the tube disposed vertically within the areas of the respective baffles whereby air passing upwardly within the horizontal perimeter of the unit is confined to the spaces between the fins.

12. A radiator unit comprising a heat tube, a plurality of radiating fins transversely mounted thereon in spaced relation, anend plate apertured for the passage of the heat tube and mounted transversely thereon adjacent the outermost fin, and a coupling for connecting the heat tube with a source of heating fluid,

said coupling including an annular member contacting the outer face of the end plate to hold it against the said outermost fin.

13. A radiator comprising a heat tube, a plurality of sheet metal radiating fins having openings for the passage of the heat tube and mounted thereon in spaced relation, in-

tegrally formed flanges about the margins of the openings for heat conducting surface contact with the periphery of the tube, and. spacing ferrules formed from sheet metal and disposed about the flanges to pinch them into contact with the tube, the ferrules having offset flanged portions parallel with the bodies of the radiating fins for contacting the respective adjacent fins to increase the cross sectional area of heat conduction between the tube and fins beyond that afforded by the cross sectional area ofthe fins where they join their flanges.

14. A radiator comprising a heat tube, a plurality of sheet metal radiating fins having openings for the passage of the heat tube and mounted thereon in spaced relation, integrally formed flanges about the margins of the openings for heat conducting surface contact with the periphery of the tubes, and spacing ferrules of channel cross section. disposed about the flangesv with their Webs pinching the flanges into contact with the tube and the legs of the channels making surface contact with the bodies of their asso ciated fins and with the bodies of their respective adjacent fins to increase the cross sectional area of heat conduction between the tube and fins beyond that aflorded by the cross sectional area of the fins where they join their flanges.

15. A radiator comprising a heat tube, a plurality of sheet metal radiating fins having openings for the passage of the heat tube heatconducting surface contact with the periphery of the tube, and ferrules comprising inner cylindrical surfaces for contacting the respective flanges to pinch them into firm heat conducting contact with the tube and also comprising-plane surfaces parallel with the fins and making heat conducting surface contact therewith whereby the heat is conducted not only directly from the flanges to 17; In a heat exchange device, a tube, a'

plurality of heat radiating fins, integral flanges .on said fins adapted to bear in heat exchange relation against said tube, rings of channelhaped section surrounding said tube and said flanges between adjacent fins,

the inner side of said ring holding the flange pinched against the tube in secure heat exchange relation and the sides of said channelshaped rin bearing against the fins in heat exchange riilation.

18. In a heat exchange device, a heat tube, a plurality of heat radiating fins, annular flanges on said fins contacting said tube-in heat exchange relation throughout their inner surfaces, reinforcing rings surrounding said tube and said flanges, the inner surface of said rings contacting sald flanges closely and uniformly for holdlng the flanges pressed uniformly against the tube in heat exchange-relation to exclude air pockets from between said tube and said flangeand from between said flange and said ring.

1 9. In a heat exchange device, a tube, a plurality of heat radiating fins disposed thereon in spaced relation to each other, integral longitudinally extending annular flanges on said fins, the inner surface of said flanges closely and uniformly engaging said tube in heat exchange relation therewith,

annular reinforcing ferrules surrounding said tube and having smooth inner surfaces engaging said flanges closely and un formly and holding the flanges firmly pressed against said tube in direct heat conducting 7 relation thereto.

20. In a heat exchange conducting heating medium, a plurality of .heat radiating fins onsaid tube in spaced relation to each other, smooth cylindrical flanges on. said fins surrounding and imiformly engaging said tube, ferrules surrounding said tube and said cylindrical flanges, said ferrules having smooth cylindrical innensu'rfaces contacting said flanges uniformly, and pressing the same into -my name inate contact-With said tube for conducting contact between the tube and the flanges and between the flanges and the ferrules.

In witness whereof, I hereunto subscribe this 3rd day of April, 1926.

REUBEN N. TRANE.

device, a tube for i llt

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2602650 *Apr 12, 1951Jul 8, 1952Philippe Marcotte LouisFin type radiator
US2840352 *Sep 1, 1955Jun 24, 1958Dunham Bush IncEvaporative condenser
US3212288 *Mar 24, 1961Oct 19, 1965Heil Quaker CorpHeat exchanger with condensate collector
US4789027 *May 9, 1986Dec 6, 1988Sulzer Brothers LimitedRibbed heat exchanger
US4796692 *Feb 21, 1986Jan 10, 1989Energiagasdalkodasi IntezetConvector with finned tubes
US5224537 *Feb 24, 1992Jul 6, 1993Valeo Thermique MoteurConnecting device for connecting a serpentine heat exchanger to a fluid flow pipe
US5697546 *Apr 30, 1993Dec 16, 1997Cicioni; Albert BrianMethod of forming a compact hydraulic radiator for use in construction equipment and fabrication thereof
US6199625Jun 11, 1999Mar 13, 2001Psc Computer Products, Inc.Stackable heat sink for electronic components
US6450250 *Aug 3, 1999Sep 17, 2002Psc Computer Products, Inc.Stackable heat sink for electronic components
US7121327 *Dec 28, 2000Oct 17, 2006Hon Hai Precision Ind. Co., Ltd.Heat sink assembly
US7409983 *Nov 18, 2005Aug 12, 2008Fu Zhun Precision Industry (Shen Zhen) Co., Ltd.Heat dissipating apparatus
US7426956 *Dec 9, 2005Sep 23, 2008Fu Zhun Precision Industry (Shen Zhen) Co., Ltd.Heat dissipating apparatus
US7540320 *Feb 10, 2006Jun 2, 2009Thomas Middleton SemmesHigh efficiency conditioning air apparatus
US20070175124 *Aug 8, 2006Aug 2, 2007Gary WebsterRadiator with Cover and Mounting Board and Method of Installation
Classifications
U.S. Classification165/68, 165/182, 237/49, 165/131, 165/181, 165/150
International ClassificationF28D1/047, F28D1/04
Cooperative ClassificationF28D1/0475
European ClassificationF28D1/047E