US 1806133 A
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A May 19, 1931. w M THOMAS 1,806,133
POWER MECHANISM Filed oct. 4, 1926 :s sheets-sheet 1' May 19, 1931. w. M. THOMAS POWER MECHANISM 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed 001'.. 4, 1926 May 19, 19316 w. M. .THOMAS POWER MECHANISM Filed Oct. 4, 1926 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 ijn/vento@ WILLIQMM. THoMa fluor ucl Patented May 19, 1931 Y y l* Y Y UNrrsn fsrarss f i A1,806,133
WILLIAM ivi. THOMAS, or mnianaPoLisJNnL/ma POWER Mnciiavisrfr Appiicatinn filed october 4, 192e. serial' Nog-itam?.
An object of my invention is to provide a means of igniting a liquid or gaseous fuelV and air mixture,` in a combustion chamber means constantly, the outlets from said chambei' means being in communication With pressure operated devices, which furnish external power and at the same time serve to force a -Y continuous supply of fuel and air into said combustion chamber in efiicient'uproportions and at a suitable rate to maintain a continuous expansion.
Itis one of the main objects of my invention to introduce into the active products of combustion of the aforesaid combustion cham-V ber, a Water or steam stream, or both7 by which contact of said products will cause an intense gaseous expansion, perhaps correctly termed a continuously fed secondaryv eXpans sion.
It is a further object of my inventionto provide a. mechanism of this class in which is introduced a Water or steam stre'ainthru coils disposed Within the combustion compartments, by which such stream is preheated and in an actively expanding state before discharging into the explosive iame, by Which the efliciency of the invention is greatly increased.
Y. It is a further object to provide in conjunction With the aforeindicated mechanisms, automatic controllers for the supply of fuel,
jrair and water, although I am aware that such automatic devices are for the most part old in themselves; novelty depending upon the particular combination of same with other appliances.
The above and other objects are attained by the structure illustrated in the accompanying, drawings, in which Figure l is a'greatly reduced part sectional side view of an illustrative example of in invention and lis partly diagrammatic.; Fig. A1s a side sectional view showing the interior of the combustion cham- I bers andV combustion products storageoham- A ber drawnto a largeriscal'ethan used'in Fig.
1; Figi S-is an enlarged sectional View; of one of a number of similar check valves employed in connection With the invention; andFigill is a similar view of one of a number of` automatic pressure controlled valves used with" the invention. o
Similar' characters'of reference designate similar parts thruout 'the different.V views. Referring toligure l the numeral 1- desig?` nates the base upon which I have chosen to mount the different units of my invention. To be ein operation'of same, the Starting tank 2 is supplied With air under pressure by eX- ternal means, as Willbe explained. A conventional steam type engine 3 is first started'* in motion by air conveyed fromsaid starting tank thru the conduit 4 and controlled by the starting throttle wliich is a part ofV said conduit. Y
' A typical engine 3 Withits drive shaft 7 in axial aliney mentv with said engine, being connected v.in
.the Water pump 9 is first (directed by Way of the vconduit 13. to said jaclretmeans, thruy which circulation is carried to the 4jacket out-` let 14, it being understood that Whiler the air pump cylindersr are being' thus cooled, the Water thus used in prelieatedjfor'furth'er use in the apparatus. Y l* Liquid or gaseous fuel for the` apparatus is supplied, as vvill be understood, bythe fuel `,four-cylinderT four stage, air u `pump' 6 is secured'to the base l, adjacent the pump'l Whicliis co-aXially related with the water pump 9, being driven thereby thru the flexible shaft coupling 16.
Air from the air pump' 6 is pumpedV thru the conduit 17 to the T coupling 18, then thru the conduit 19 to the four-way fitting 20, and thence thru the conduit -21 to the starting tank 2, a check valve 22 in reverse position from that shown in Fig. 3, being provided as a part i of the conduit 21, to prevent the return of air 'starting the engine 3, but if the pressure per 'fsquare Iinch within said starting tank should *become reduced for any reason duringthe op- -eration of the apparatus, the spring means 25 'ofsaidvalve 23 will act to open same.
The distinguishing features ofmy invention reside principally in the cylindrical conilvbustion products storage chamber 26, which 25 Vconveniently rests in a vertical position on the base 1; and in the horn shaped combustion chambers 27 which feed said storage chamber,
4they being communicated at their larger ends thru the vertical walls of same to the *interior thereof, saidlarge chamber ends hav- `ing outwardlyV disposed saddle flanges 28, lwhich are removably secured to said storage "chamber by means of the studs 29 and the nuts 30. i
Air is supplied within the small ends of said combustion chambersthru the inlets 31 which are threaded thru the end plates 32' of 34 which uniteV samewith the conduits 35.V
-said combustion, chambers concentrically with said chambers, being secured by means of said plates to the corresponding end flanges 33 of said chambers. y i
The air inlets 31 are fed thru -special elbows vThe fuel nozzles 36 are securely disposed thru said elbows so as to stand concentrically with-- 4,in said air inlets, and discharge fuel in the 4 midst of the'air discharged from same.` VDirectly in front of said fuel nozzles are 'the spark gaps V37 'between the electrodes 38,
said electrodes being disposed in insulating bushings 39 thruV the walls of the combustion chambers 27 transversely to said fuel nozzles,
by which arrangement thefuel from same and air from the air inlets 31, are ignited as they are unitingly discharged. Y
In advance of said electrodes the steam nozzles 40 arerdisiposed co-directionally and coaXially with thefsaid fuel nozzles, and are thus in the path of the explosive flames 41,
which continuously dischargethrusaid combustion chambers in blow torch manner from is instantly expanded by being suddenly su- 1 perheated; and cooperates withthe gaseousA expansion of the flames themselves to supply the combustion products storage chamber 26 with highly expanded gaseous elements, at a very high pressure.
Air is furnished to the inlets 31 by the air pump 6 thru the T fitting 18 which communicates with branch fitting 42 by means of the conduit 43 from whence air is directed by means of the conduits 44 to the conduits 35 and the elbows 34. A check valve 45 positioned as shown in Fig. 3 is made a part ofthe conduit 43 which prevents return of air to said' air pump.
The air throttle valves 46-are made a part of the conduits 44, by which the rate of air flow at the inlets 31 may be determined or cuto, asdesired. The automatic pressure controlled valves 47 Y (see Fig. 4) are also made a part of the conduits 44, their pressure ,operateddiaphra'gm means 48 being in com-1 munication with the combustion products storage chamber 26 thru the conduits 48', 49
j and `50, by which arrangement sufficient pressure within said storage chamber will automatically shut 01T the air supplied thru the valves 47, it being understood'that the spring means 51 of said valves serves to open the same y when the pressure within said storage chamber becomes lower again, which increases the size and intensity of the flames 4l and thus correspondingly increases .the storage pressure. ,Y
' r1`he fuel nozzles 36 are fed from heating coils k52 which snugly encircle the combustion chambers 27, with an ample number of turns to absorb external heat from the same for preheating the fuelthus conveyed. The
conduits 53 serve to unite said heating coils with said nozzles, the fuel throttle valves 54 being placed between said coils and said conduits.
The heating coils 52 are in turn fed by the fuel pump 15 which discharges thru the conduiti55 to the branch fitting 56 from whence liquid or gaseous fuel is conveyed separately thru the conduits 57 to the said heating coils. A check valve 58 positioned as shown in Fig.
3, is made a part of the conduit 55, and serves to prevent the return of fuel to said fuel p ump. Automatic pressure operated valves 59 are made a part of the conduits 57, their pressure operated diaphragm means 60 being communicated with the combustion products lstorage chamber 26 by means of the conduitsk 49, 50 and 61, by which arrangement sufficient pressure in said combustion products storage chamber will closethe valves 59 and reduce the flames 41, it being also understood that when the storage pressure is again lowered, the spring means 62 of the valves 60 will again open the same and increase the eXpansion of said flames, until the pressure within the combustion storage 26 has been thus built up, whereupon the valves 47 and L59 will be A pressure tank'meansl63 is vmade a part i of the conduit 57 which serves as an auxiliary fuel storage tank. Said conduits 57 communicate with said pressure tank at its lower regions, by which arrangement air confined 'in the upper portion of same is compressed by the liquid fuel 6a which accumulates in said ypressure tank from saidl conduit 57 and the air thus confined serves as a pneumatic cushion to the fuel thus conveyed under compression froni the fuel pump l5, whichnot only steadies'the flow of the same to the nozzles 36, but serves as a temporary supply of fuel for said nozzles during thestarting of Athe apparatus until said fuel pump is put .well'in motionl by means of the engine 3, it being understood that said pressure tank is 'situatedsufliciently above the said nozzlesto make use of gravity in supplying fuel to the same'in Erst starting the operation of theV apparatus. l
7 'The steam nozzles 40 are fed by the preheating coils'65 which are extensively coiled within the combustion chambers 27 and the Storage chamber 26, whereby the rintense heat from'the flamestl, creates steam from water introduced thru the conduits 66 lwhich are united with' said preheating coils by means of the elbows 67.
` The parts of the coils 65 within the vcombustion chambers 27 are more or less "lio in a cork screw formation and these coils 65A gradually decrease in diameter, coincident to the decrease in diameter of the "interior ofthe chambers 27, the extreme outer ends of these coiled portions being bent inwardly to form the nozzles 40.
In order to hold the coiled portions 65A in substantially fixed relation with the chambers 27, the interior of eachY of said chambers is provided with spirally arranged studs 27A, which project between the coils 65A, so that said coils cannot move bodily endwise. These studs 27A are spaced apart and not only retain the coils in position, but aid in heating said 'coils and the contents thereof, as well as i i superheating the thickened walls of the chambers 27, and increasing the temperature thereof to such aT degree that the/coils 52 will be heated to such an extent that the contents'V A p thereof will be more or less vaporized before 55 reaching the nozzles 36.
The conduits 66 are in turn fed with water from the water pump 9, which communicates with the water jacket discharge 14, by means i' of the water pressure tank 68 and the coni 'G0 duit 69,. which is united with the conduits j eating with the combustion products storage 37 would be submerged Vthe regular conductors 81,
chamber -26 by means of the conduits 48', 74,
and 7 6,v by which arrangement sufficient pressure within the said storage chamber will automatically close the valves 72 and lack of pressure within said storage will permit their f spring means 77 to open they same and admit more water at the nozzlesd() in accord with the amount'of fuel and air automatically fed to the nozzles 36 and inlets 31, by the valves A 60 and i-7, respectively, as aforementioned.
The water supply to the lnozzles i0 may be also manually varied as desired by means of the water throttle 78, which is made a part of the conduit 69.
It is understood'that in 'some'instancesthet j Vlack offull operation of the fuel-nozzles 36,
the inlets 31 or the electrodes 38, will permit an amount of unevaporated water to be disstorage chamber 26. Thisgis not seriously objectionable unless water should thus accumulate to the extent thatthe electrode gaps however, I lhave provided near the lower regions of said combustion'products storage chamber, an automatic valve means 78of standard design, having parts which automat-V ically expand and contract thewater level not shown) within said storage chamber, for opening and closing the valve, said valve being suitably communicated with the interior of said storage chamber atits lower regions. This valve is madea part of theV vconduit 69, by which arrangement thewater level rising within the storage chamber 26 automatically shuts olf the water to thenozzles lO,v and prevents further rising' of same.
ln this connection a conventional glass waten gauge means 7 971s installed at the lower re' gion of said storage chamber, whereby the Voperator can observe the rising water, in
conjunction Vwith the automatic control of the same, as will be understood by those'fa,
miliar with the art. When water accumulates in said storage chamber-the same will be eventually evaporated by. heat from the flames t1 and become'a regular part of the expanded gaseous mixture within said storage chamber. l j
In this example of myinvention the engine 3 is used to drive thedynamo 8O which is conveniently disposed co-axiallywith sainev on the other side thereof from the air piunp` 6. Said dynamo is used to furnish'current to external destinations (not shown) thru although it is understood that power may be transmitted direct from the engine shaft or the fly Wheels 82A. Compressed air alsobe Fdirected to external uses by properly extending the conduit 82, which is conveniently threaded into the foureway fitting 20. y Y
As before mentioned, the engine 3 is `first started in motion by air compressed in the '1" With this inmind,r
charged from the nozzles Ll0 which accumu-'f v lates in the bottom ofthe combustion-products ,starting tank2, but after the apparatushas Abeen set in operation asaboveexplainedand 'gdescribed, the Vexpanded gases being under compression within the `combustion products storage chamber 26 are directed to said engine thru the conduit 83, the main engine throttle valve 84 being made a part of same, it being understood that the starting throttle valve 5 ywould be ordinarily closed as soon as operation of said engine is maintained thru said :main throttle valve. f
Steam or gas expanded by combustion may -be conveyed from the storage chamber 26 thru the conduit 85 which communicates with the conduitV 83, to external use in driving piston operated machinery orthe'like, or for heating purposes as desired. Y Electrical current for the electrodes 38 is -normally supplied from the dynamo 80 thru v.switch means 86,.the,transformer 87, the'induction vibrator coil 88 and the conductors 89, in order as stated.
.InV starting the operation of the invention for the first time, the starting tank 2 must belirst filled with air under compression from external sources, thru the closable entrance 98. l
The basel is of hollow construction and is not only adapted tosupport the diderent mechanisms of the apparatus, but is also Y adaptedto conceal the water supply tank 94 and the fuel tank 95. `The conduit 96 extends from the intake of the Water pump 9 thru the adjacentr wall of said base within the respectively. rIhe water tank 94 is supplied with water thru the filler means 98 and fuel v is supplied to the fuel tank 95 thru the filler means 99, as needed.
`of Water accumulates, air being compressed.
The lower region of the water pressure i, tank 68 joins. the water jacket outlet 14, and
conduit69 as above mentioned. In the lower region of said pressure tank a varying amount thereby inthe above region of same, which acts as a pneumatic cushion to protect the water handling parts of the invention from any irregular movements ofv water thru same, due to sudden failure of the invention dling parts, I have made the conventional.V
to function or over action of the water pump 9. 'Io further protect the said water lian- ;,relief valve. 99 a part of the conduit 69, said -valve discharging water back into the water i tank 94 thru the'conduit 100 when water 1 ventional air safety valve 101 is mace a part of the four-way fitting 20 which yields to an Yover amount of air pressure within the con-f duits 19, 21 or 82, allowing surplus air to pressure within the conduit 69 becomes greater than desired. In like manner a con- Ydischaige into space, as will be understood by those familiar with the art. In like manner, I have also provided a relief pressure valve 102 in Vcommunication With the conduits and 57 whichserve to discharge overA .supplied fuel back into the fuel tank 95 thru the conduit 103 when the pressure of such fuel is compressed beyond a suitable amount per square inch, due to over action of the fuel pump 15, vor other reasons. In addition;
to the abovel recited relief valves, I have also provided the safety valve 104 in the upper -head of the Vcombustion productsV storage chamber 26' which automatically relieves expanded gases from said storage chamber into` 'the open when the pressure of thesame reaches an undesired high amount. 4
Itis understoodthat the `engine 3, the air i' pump 6, lthe water pump 9, and the fuel pump 15, may be vvaried as to number vand size of cylinders, and may be otherwise modified Vwith the other units and details of the invention without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention.
. The air pumpintake 105 serves as a meansr' of supplying air tosaid air'pump from the surrounding atmosphere. y l
While the highest efliciency of the in'- vention is reached by theproper introduction of water or steamat the nozzles 40, it must also be understood that the invention will operate eficiently without the same in which instance the gaseous expansion of the flames 41 willamply supply the combustion .products storage chamber 26 for operating:
the engine 8, etc.
By removing the nuts 30 the combustion lchambers 27 may be removed from the stor- V age chamber 26,7by which convenienty access may be had tothe interior of same for vari-` ous repairs; and a hand hole means 106 is i. provided in the upper extremity of said storvvage chamber for interior access to the same in carrying out inspection and repairs.
As above indicated the horn shaped combustion chambers 27 attach tothe 'combustion products storage chamber 26, at their large ends, by which arrangement said chambers serve as amplifiers for the gaseous expansion with same.
The check valve-107 in reverse position from` that shown in Fig. 8, is made a part of the water' conduit 13 and prevents reversal of the flow vof water transmitted thru the same.V
A check valve 108 positioned as shown in Fig. 3, is made a part of the conduit 82, which prevents air returning thru the same.
It has been found desirable to explain the Y invention by the particular example shown,
invention depends for novelty, to a great eX- tent, upon the combustion chamber 27 and the adjacent parts, it seems that the illustration will suiiice in claiming the invention broadly without regard for the minor distinctions between similar use of liquid or gaseous fuel, considering also that Fig. l is a somewhat diagrammatic representation.
Vhile I have illustrated in a general way, certain instrumentalities which may be employed in carrying my invention into eect, it is evident that many modifications may be made in the various details, without departing from the scope of the appended claims.
I claim as my invention:
l. In a power mechanism, a combustion products storageJ member, combustion chambers on opposite sides of said storage member, said chambers being tapered, a plurality of studs on the inner surfacesof said chambers, arranged in spiral formation, coiled Water carrying members within said storage member and combustion chambers, the coils within said combustion chambers being spirally arranged for receiving said studs therebetween, nozzles in the said combustion chambers formed at the terminus of said spirall arranged coils means for conve infr D 7 C fuel into the ends of said combustion chambers, and means for igniting said fuel as it enters said combustion chambers.
2. In a power'mechanism, a combustion products storage member, a tapered combustion chamber on each side of said storage member and communicatingV therewith, a plurality of spirally arranged and spaced studs on the interior of said combustion chambers, coiled water carrying pipes within said storage member, said pipes having spirally arranged sections within said combustion chamber and in spaces between said studs, nozzles in said combustion chamber on the ends of said water pipes, coils encircling said combustion chambers for conveying fuel thereto, and means for igniting aid fuel as it enters said combustion chamers.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand on this the 30th day of September,
1926, A. D. Y
WILLIAM M. THOMAS.