|Publication number||US1806755 A|
|Publication date||May 26, 1931|
|Filing date||Oct 28, 1927|
|Publication number||US 1806755 A, US 1806755A, US-A-1806755, US1806755 A, US1806755A|
|Inventors||C. W. Hansell|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (14), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
May 26, 1931. c. w. HANsELL 1,806,755
ANTENNA Filed oct. 28. i927 2 sneetspsneez 1 l Alli/m4 -Fg 4mm/M Q 1a 12 g l g Maman nfs fon wmv/v6 s mA/vsM/UM F49, 2 ANIM/v4 ANTENNA Mrt/INA so 52 34 v v v s l Y N s E n 4R/,mf was fafa uaRY//va/ a/vszf of mmf/ow 35 \mR/Aaze w.; me ra Fan/.s aan 16 INVENTOR CLARENCE W. MANSELL mAA/.m/rrm A ORNEY May 26, 1931 c. w. HANsx-:LL .l 1,806,755
ANTENNA Filed oct. 2s, 1927 2 sheets-sheet 2 l.zo A 32 34 INVENTOR c1. Rance w. nANsEL BY @f2/am,
T l AroRNEY l more particularly to a method'and means for an object of'm invention, which Patented May 2s, 1931 UNITED' STATES OFFICE w. or nom rom, Nnw Yonx, AssrGNon *ro RADIO consom- 4'rrorr or AnmaIcA,l A conronA'rIoN or DELAWARE e 4 -AmnmA y Amunt-ion meombrvss, navay mm n. saam.
This invention relates to antenn, 'and slight y varying the directivity of directive antennae'.
An antenna system may be station in the Uni States to a country in Europe is poorly received in other countries in different azimuthal directions,even t ough the angular dierenfce is relatively slight. For communication with the various countries without the inconvenienceand ex'- nse of separate transmitting installations 1t is desirable that the directivity be subject, when desired, to a slight variation or warping. To provide such an antenna stem 1s accomplish by provi 'ng antenna sections located relatively in broadside, and while keeping the directivity of each section constant, slightly vary the phase relations between the sections in order to warp the directivity slightly. More specifically, I provide a symmetrically branched system of transmission lines for feeding the separate directive antennee cophasially, but I provide means for varying the effective lengthl of the lines to make the branches asymmetrical in order to shift the resultant direction of propagation relative to the usual` direction of transmission from the fixed antennae. It has been suggested that a transmitted beam be focused by slightly varying the phase relations of sections located in broadside symmetrically with respect to an axis lying in the direction of transmission, and to provide means for so doing is a further object of my invention. f
For varying the phase relations I vary the effective length of the transmission lines feeding the antenna sections by winding a bare portion of the transmission line upon a rotatable metallic drum, and I provide means to take up the slack occasioned by rotation of the drum.
The invention is described more in detail in the following specification, which is accompanied by drawings in which Figure 1 indicates a system having two sections of broadside antennae;
suiliciently dil rective so that enteigy propagated 'from a Y and Figure 2 represents a somewhat similar system having three sections;
-Figure Bis an elevation showing one meth od for varying the eective length of a transmission line; c
Figure4is a wiring diagram for a triple broadside antenna arranged for warping and focusing a transmitted beam;`
Figure 5 is an alternative arrangement;
Figure 6 .indicates an arrangement which may be usedfor warping the directivity of an antenna provided with any desired number of sections.
Referring to .Figure 1 there are two sections of broadside directive antennae 2 vand transverse radiators 8. For a more detailed description of such antennae a copending application of Nils E. Lindenblad, Serial No. 229,407, filed on even date herewith, may be referred to.
In accordance with my invention instead of providing one large broadside antenna I pro.- videtwo sections, as indicated, and these are fed by symmetrically branched transmission lines 10, 12, and 14, which lead to a source of transmission energy 16. The junction point of the line 14 with the lines 10 and 12 is made variable and it is readily seen that by its movement the lines 10 and 12 are made relatively longer or shorter, thereby slightly varying the relative phase of the antennae sections 2 and 4, which results in a warped resultant directivity. l v
In Figure 2 there are three sections 20, 22, and 24, fed by transmission lines 30,- 32 and 34, vwhich normally are symmetrically branched, that is, the length of transmission line from the transmitter 16 to the antenna sections is electrically equal or different by full wave lengths. Itis clear that by shifting the point of junction of the line 36 with the lines 30 and 34 the latter are relatively lengthened or shortened while the length of the line 32 is unaltered, so that the resultant directivity will b e warped, just as in the arrangement shown in Figure 1.
The line 32 has been shown connected with the line 36jby a variable junction point, lwhich serves as a means for focusing transmitted beam of energy. This is not @part of my invention, bein described and claimed in the application o Nils E. Lindenblad before re- .ferred to, but is here disclosed merely to show that warping of the directivity and focusing of the width of the transmitted beam may be employed in combination in a very simple manner.
' In Figure 3 there is shown n. transmission line conductor 30, brought through a wall insulator 42, and then led to a drum the shaft of which is rotated by means of a dial 44, the scale for which may be calibrated in direction, or degrees of warpin or in terms of the receiving stations towar which the transmitted beam is directed. To take up the slack provided by rotation of the drum there is a tension cord 40, the operation of which is clear from the drawing.
In Figure 4 there is indicated a triple broadside antenna, comprising the sections 20, 22 and 24, fed by transmission lines 30, 32 and 34. These have been shown as single lines for the sake of simplicity, but the two wires from each are shown passing .through the -station wall by means of insulators 42. The wires of line 30 are Wound upon drums 50 and 52 in one direction, while `the wires from 34 are Wound upon drums 54' and 56 in'theo'pposite direction. These drums are all mechanically mounted upon a single shaft 58, but are electrically insulated therefrom. The dotted lines 40 indicate the. arrangement for taking up the slack, shown more in detail Y in Figure 3. Rotation of the dial 44 varies the 'effective length of the lines 30 and 34 equally and oppositely relative to the length o the line 32 and consequently warps the resultant directivity.
If it is desired to focus the transmitted beam, in accordance with the invention described and claimed in the application of Nils E. Lindenblad before referred to, it is merel necessary to provide the conductors of the l1ne 32 with drums'60 and 62, actuated by a focusing control 64, as is indicated in the drawing. Conductors from the corresponding drums are joined and lead to av transmitter 66.
In Figure 5 there is shown a slightly different alternative arrangement in which the wires from the lines 30 and 34 of like polarity are led to drums and 72, and so wound -thereon that the drums merelyI give the conductors traction, that is, the shortening of one lead provides a cable for the lengthenin of -the other lead. As before, the indivi ual slack of the wires is taken up by the tension means 40, and, if it is desired to focus the transmitted beam, focusing drums 60 and 62 with a dial 64, may be provided.
It is clear that while three sections form a convenient arrangement yet there is no rea'- son why theinvention, in best form, should not havel a great man more sections. This will necessitatepa slig tly different form of drum mechanism, and to illustrate this any lengths. It is then clear that rotation in one direction or the other will warp. the resultant directivity ,in either direction.
Of course, an arrangement analogous to Figure 4 may be provided, in .which the transmission lines are wound in o posite directions on pairs of drums whic increase in step -up ratio. Thus, with eight sec tions, t ere ma be provided either eight sets of drums of dlerent diameters, or two sections of drums such as are indicated in Fig? ure 6, with four of the transmission lines being wound in one direction, while the other four are wound in the op site direction.v
It is to be understood t at my invention, in so far as it applies to warping and directivity, is equally applicable to forms of directive antennae having fixed directions of propagation other than the broadside antenna,
such as the end-on antennadescribed'in a conding application of Nils E. Lindenblad, grial No. 229,408, filed on even date herewith, and that the hase variation may be accomplished electrically, instead of mechanically, vas by varying the magnitude of series reactances.
It is also to be understood that the invention, in so far as it a. plies to varying phase by varying the eiectlve length of transmisi slon lines, is applicable to warping antennae of any number of sections, or to focusing antenn of any number of-sections, even including the ultimate case in which each section reduces toa single non-directive radia- I claim: l 4
1. The method of warping the directivity of a broadside directive antenna comprising a large number of nondirective radiators disposedv along a line substantially at right angles to the direction of transmission which includes exciting yadjacent radiators in groups'of radiators cophasially, and exciting the groups of radiators in slightly different phase relation in order toy warp the resultant directivity.
2.A directive antenna comprising a plurality of radiating sections located substantiallyv in line and relatively in broadside, a source of transmission energy, means to feed the/sections from the source substantiall cophasially, and means to slightly relatlvely.
vary the phase relations between the sections in order to warp the directivity ofthe antenna.
3. A directive antenna comprising a plurality of sections of broadside radiators located relatively in broadside, a source of transmission energy, means to feed the sections from the source in slightly variable phase relation, and means to feed the radiators in each section cophasially.
. 4. A directive transmission antenna system comprising a plurality of directive antennae having similar fixed directions of propagation and located substantially in line and relatively in broadside, a source of transmission energy, and means to feed the directive antennae from the source in slightly variable phase relation in order to warp the directivity of the antennae.
5. A directional antenna comprising sections havin ixed directivities, etricall branche transmission lines or coupling t' e sections, and means for varying the hysical length of the lines to make the ranches asymmetrical in order to warp the directivity of the antenna.
6. A directive antenna system comprising a plurality of directive antennae havin fixed directions of propagation and locate relatively in broadside, a source of transmission energy, symmetrically branched transmission lines or feeding the antennae from the source, and means for varying the eiective lengths of the lines to make the branches asyme metrical in order to warp the resultant direction of prepa ation.
7. A directive antenna comprising broadside sect-ions of radiators located relatively in broadside, a source of transmission energy, branched transmission lines for feeding the sections from the source, means to excite the radiators in each section cophasially, and means for vari g'lthe effective lengths of the lines to-ma e t e branches asymmetrical in order to warp the directivity of the antenna.
8. In combination, an antenna, a transmission line coupled to said antenna and including a bare transmission line portion, a metallic 4drum upon which said portion is wound, means to rotate said drum to vary the effective len h of the line in order to vary the phase o the energy of the antenna, and means to take up the s tion of the drum.
9. In combination, a plurality of aerials, a plurality of transmission lines cou led thereto each including a bare transmission line portion, a lurality of metallic drums upon which sai rtion is wound means to rotate said ruins to differently vary the efectivo lengths of the lines in order to relal tively vary the phase of the energies of the f: tra' aerials,'and,-means to take up the slack occasioned by rotation of the drums.
of the drums.
- CLARENCE W. HANSELL.
ack occasioned by rota- I
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|U.S. Classification||342/368, 343/894, 343/814, 191/12.20R|
|International Classification||H01Q3/32, H01Q3/30|