US 1807435 A
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May 26, 1931 T. Rc BINSON w 1,807,435 l ROOFING ELlEMENT Filed June 14 1929 lNV TOR Patented May v216, i931 UNITED STATES PATENT ori-lcs THOMAS ROBQINSON, OF NEW YORK, Y., ASSIGNOR T LANCASTER ASPHALT, ING., 0F
NEW YORK, N. Y., A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE no oFING ELErENT Application mea Jne 14,y
This invention relates to roofing elements and is concerned more particularly with a roofing element which consists of a body of hardened plastic material, and a facing sheet I applied to one face of the body to strengthen and re-inforce the body and. rotect its edges. This new product has the a vantage of having Aa longer life and offering greater resist- P ance to fire than wooden shingles andk it may be made in different shapes and thicknesses.
and ordinarily of uniform thickness from end to' end.
For a better understanding of the invention, reference may be had to the accompanyingdrawings, in which Fig. 1 is an end view of the apparatus which may be` used in making the new product; e
-Fig 2 is a Sectional view of one form of the product; A l' y Figs. 3, 4, and 5 are sectional views vof different types of the product;
Fig. 6 is a plan view of one product.; and
Fig. 7 is a perspective view7 of one form of the facing sheet. g
v While the new product may be made in various shapes and sizes, for convenience it is illustrated in the form of. an individual shingle. This shingle comprises a body 10 of hardened plastic material, made up of an aggregate and a binder. The aggregate may consist of ground cork, cinders, sand, crushed form of the that type, preferably mixed withrunfelted fibre, such as asbestos or the like.' For some purposes,
the fibrous materialmay be used alone and without mixture with thefinely divided solid materials. This aggregate is bound together by a suitable binding medll um, preferably 'of the bituminous type, asphalt of a' suitable melting point being satisfactory for the purpose. The plastic mass is made b mixing t e solid and fibrous material wit vthe heated. asphalt, a relatively 1929. seriai no. 370,974.
large proportion'of the vaggregate being employed so that the mass is Vrelatively stiff.
On one face lof .the ,body-is a protective Y facingV in the form of a fibrous sheet 11. The
sheetymateria-l is' preferably wool or asbestos felt impregnated with a waterprooingcom# pound, such as asphalt, although coarse aper and the like may also be used. All 'of the shingles illustrate-d are of taperingthickness, although it is to be understood that the new produc-t may also be made with -a uniform thickness from end to end.
The tapered shingle is preferred since by that construction the shin le may have a butt end which is relativel tinck arid at the same time may be readily aid with others in the usual overlappingcourses. Thebody of the new shingle is of'plateflike form withits greatest area substantially in a plane which may lie midway between the two faces. In that form, the faces of the plate incline to-A ward each other, as indicated at 12, to meet in ,the' plane 13. which passes centrally through the body.
The facing sheet 11 covers onev of the faces i of the body and its margins may be shaped so as to lie out of the major plane of the sheet .and thus oo ver 'such portions of theV edges of the bod-y, indicated at 14, as lie at one side of thecentral plane thereof. Preferably in this form'of/the shingle, the` sheet has portions along at least a pair of oppo site edges which extend out of the plane of the sheet, and'in'the construction shown4 in Figs. 2, 3, 5, and 7, all .four edges of the sheet are bent out of the plane so that the sheet is dish-shaped(Fig. 7) and the body lies in its concavity. With this construction, slate, and other finely divided materlals of the edges 14 lof the sheet re-inforoe the shingle at the edges thereof since the sheet edges lie 'at an angle to' the plane of the element', thus protectin the body against in.-1 jury and preventing istortion thereof.
is saturated and coatedfwith asphalt and'provided with the'usual grit surfacmgindicate'd In the finished product,the lfacing sheet at 15. The grit may be crushed slateorpther A l materials comment Y ud as surfacings 1n the roong art. The ace ofthe bdv'not protected bythe sheet'is alsoeoyedywth surf facing material, indicated at 16, the particles of this. surfacing being partially embedded in the body so as to be bound thereto.
In the construction illustrated in Fig. 4, the sheet 11 lies flat and the end and side edges of the body are inclined toward the sheet so as to give the body the proper tapering thickness and appearance at the edges 17. In this form, the sheet is provided with surfacing 15 and the body is similarly provided with surfacing 16. In the construction shown in Fig. 5, the edges of the body meet in a central plane 13 to merge together at that plane with a smooth curve indicated at 18. The central plane is thus somewhat less clearly defined by the edges than is the caseA with the construction shown in Fig. 3, for example. Also, in the construction shown in Fig. 5, the sheet 11 is coated and surfaced with grit on both faces. This double sur- 'facing of the sheet is useful in some instances in that it simplifies the handlin of the sheet in the manufacture of the pr uct and also produces a slightly better bond between 'the sheet and the body,`the projecting portions of the particles on the inner face of the sheet extending into the body and serving to interlock the sheet and body. A sheet with surfacing onboth faces may be employed in any form of shingle made in accordance with this invention.
In the manufacture of the new product, the apparatus conventionally illustrated in Fig. 1 may be employed. The sheet 11 is drawn from a supply and impregnated, coat-V ed, and given a grit surfacing by the usual processes. The sheet is then ledbetween a pair of molding drums 19, 19. These drums have cavities 2O in their surfaces, pairs of cavities registering as the drums rotate to deline a space corresponding to the shape and size of the shingle to be produced. In the Space above the drums is maintained a supply 21 of the plastic material which is to form the body and as the drums rotate the.
registering cavities -Inold the plastic material to the proper form of individual elements and at the same time the sheet material is drawn between the drums and pressed into one mold cavity so as to conform tothe surface of the plastic mass being molded. The drums are formed with cuttlng or scoring edges 22 between adjacent cavities so that during their operation a succession of individual elements is ,delivered therefrom, the units either being wholly severed or else separated by lines ofA scoring so that they can be readily broken apart. Following the formation of the elements in the manner described, a layer of surfacing is a plied to the exposed facing of the body. his may be done by blowing the surfacing material against the plastic surface by an air blast, or. a sheet of paper on which the grit has been afiixed by a soluble adhesive, such as sodium silicate, may be led around the drum 19 in a manner similar to that employed in connection with the facing .sheet 11. The paper has grit on that surface which comes in contact with the plastic mass and in the formation of the products by the operation of the drums the grit on the paper is embedded on the face of the body of each element. After the elements are completed, they are dipped in water, 'causing the adhesive material to dissolve, after which the paper may be removed, while the grit remains partially embedded in the surface of the elements.
A third process which may be used for applying grit to the face of the body involves coating the faces of the mold cavities of the drum 19 with a soluble adhesive, such as sodium silicate, and blowing grit against the coated surface. The grit becomes embedded inthe plastic body material during the for* mation of the shingles so as to cover all surfaces of the bodynot protectedvby the facing sheet. v Y
The shingles are laid on the roof in overlapping eourses in the ordinary manner with the facing sheet forming the bottom of each shingle. The sheet strengthens the shin le,
protecting it against injury during handllng and laying, and when `the sheet is formed so that its edges are upturned additional strength is imparted to the shingle by reason of the inclination of these edges of the sheet to the plane of the shingle. The asphalt used in the body is of a high melt point so that there is no tendency for the body to become softened and distorted upon exposure to the sun.
The new product is much superior to ordinary prepared roofings now in common use,
since it may be made with a relatively thick butt end. The product is highly resistant to fire and but little felt is used inits manufacture, the facing sheet being much thinner than felts ordinarily used for roofing .purposes. -In felt roofings as now made, the main body of each shingle consists of impregnated and coated felt and the thickness of the felt substantially determines the thickness of the finished product, so that heavy felts are required for the production of shingles of the -best quality. The felt constitutes one of the greatest items of expense in the manufacture of prepared roongs and is also probably the chief point of weakness, since the decays and disintegrates, which action is accompanied by warping of the shingles, particularly at the exposed ends. Also, such shingles areso thin that their exposed ends are readily lifted by the wind. In the present product the major portion of the shingle consists of hardened plastic material which is not Subj ect to distortion. While felt is employed, it is of relatively light weight and is used as a reinforcement instead of constitutlll@ ing the inain body oit the meterial. The new shnigie may be made with any desired butt thickness and it substantially stiffer than ordinary telt rooiigs., The entire shingle is grit surfaced end by using grits of different eoiors, e tinal product of any desired eppeerance may be produced.
'What d claim is:
L it roobng element `which comprises a m body of hardened plastic material softening under the action oi' heat and a sheetof fibrous material covering one tace only of the body,
the sheet having its edges turned toward the body to provide a ooncayity in which the body W lies, lsaid body having an exposed portion t projecting beyond the eoncavity of the sheet.
2. A roong eiement `which comprises a body ot hardened plastic material softening under the ection or heat end a sheet of tibrons -ineteriai on onev tace only ot the body and covering part ot the edges thereof, the' sheet being generaiiy conceve and said body having en exposed portion iying beyond the edges oit said sheet.
3. A rooting eiementvwhich comprises a body hardened piastic material softening tinderthe action et heat ot taper-ing thickness iroin end to end and a sheet of ibrous materia-ion one tace oniy 'oit the body7 least .a pair opposite edges of tbe sheet extending ot the piane of the main part et the sheet partiaiiy oyeriying the edges oit Vthe il* dy end said bodyhaying an exposed porrm n projecting beyond the edges of said sheet. rooting eiement which comprises a ierdened inateriei softening Le notion heat tapering thickness w end sheet of iibrons nian one tace o oi the body9 the i the sheet substantieliy in e the sheet extending y ne to provide e concayity in body 'liesa said body herring an dertien beyond said con which comprises n haring its edges she 3 dish-shaped, and s rneteriai softening c t. eaction o; liev sting on the cone tace or the sheet7 seid sheet covering one y of said the iatter haring projecting beyond the edges or seid d i rooting element which comprises e body' o hardened. loiestic material softening i the ection of heat having a tapering ess from one end to the other with the defining margins oi' the body iying entielly in central piane, and a sheet ons materiali over one face oniy the d coveringJ such portions or" the'edges as lie-at one side of? said central piene, ey boring en enposed tace tying et r side ot seid central plane.
Leontien 3 7, A tapered rooting element which comprises a body of hardened plastic material softening under the action of heat, a layer of surfacing material on one tace of the body, the particles of said surfacing material being partially embedded in the body, and a sheet of fibrous materiel covering the other tace only of said body and having its edges' entending toward the body and covering portions of the edges of said body, said portions extending through the 'full length ot said edges but only a portion oit the Width thereof.
8. A. rooin made up of brous material and a binder softening under the action of heat, and a sheet of impregnated fibrous materiai covering one tace only ot the body, the edges of seid sheet extending along the edges ot the body and covering a portion thereof` of less Width than the thickness of thefbody.
iin testimony Whereoii amr my signatnre` THGMAS ltBlNSN.
element comprising e body' dit,