US 1811195 A
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June 23, 1931. c.. B. WATSON METHOD OF' TREATING PETROLEUM OIL Filed Feb. 9, 192'? f'- I l I l l I l l Patented June 23, 1931 UNITED srArEsf-'PATENr oFFicE CORNELIUS '.B. WATSON, OF CHICAGO, ILLIEN'OIS, ASSIGNOR TOKTBE PURE OIL COMPANY,
OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, .A CORPOBATON OF OHIO METHOD or TREATING rariaoLEuu on.
Application led February 9, 1927. Serial No'. 167,052.
This invention relates' to improvements in the art of treating petroleum 011, and has -or an object the provision of a noveland improved method for converting relatively heavy hydrocarbon compounds of high boiling point into lighter compounds of relatively low boiling point.
Another object of the invention resides in the prvision of a process for cracking petro-` leum oils while the operation is carried on in the vapor phase and to produce a motor spirit characterized by its anti-detonating properties.
The further object of the invention rests in improved method of cracking petroleum ,oil, which consists in heating the oil initially to a vaporous state, and causin the same to attain a temperature wherein t e oil verges on the state of cracking or molecular decomposition, and in actively interminvling the oil while in the condition set forth wtith steam or steam and air superheated to a temperature above that of the oil vapor, whereby the temperature of the oil, by the process of heat interchange thus provided, is raised sufciently to eiect the cracking thereof, provision be'ing made for removing and fractionating the light bodies of oil released by the process and for separately collecting the free carbon 0r coke' deposit, formed by the reactions, in a portion of the system remote from the cracking and ractionating apparatus. v
For a further and more detailed understanding of the invention reference is to be had to the following description and the accompanyin drawing- In said rawing; The figure is a diagrammatic view show ing apparatus by which the present inven tion may be practiced.- Y, A
In the embodiment of the invention herein selected for illustrating my improved process, the numeral 1 designates a primary heatthe oil that is handled or other control factors. Upon leaving the heater, through the outlet pipe 2, the oil is in a substantially vaporous state and relatively low pressures.` The outlet pipe 2 enters a reaction zone 3, provided in a separating and fractionating tower 4. The pressures applied to the oil in the still 1 are dsuilicient preferably to=1nain-V tain the desired velocity of oil low throughA the heating coil of the still and to overcome pipe friction. These pressures may range from five to 50 pounds per squarerinh, although it is within the province ofthe invention to employ higher pressures in the still 1 if desired. In the ractionatin tower the pressures are released due to the` ashing of the oil into the larger reaction chamber 3, and the pressures in such fractionating cham# ber are rarely in excess of 20 pounds pei" square inch and usually much lower pressures are employed.
Also entering the reaction zone is a conduit 5, which extends from,a superheater 6, through the coils of which are passed steam and alr in commingled form and obtained from any suitable source of supply." -The steam and air are` preferably heatedby the the temperatures thereof elevatedsuiciently j to cause the cracking or molecular decompo` sition of the oil vapors, thereby 'breaking' down the heavier compounds thereoi into lighter compounds more suitable for use as a motor fuel.
Beneath the reaction zone, the tower, v4,. l
is formed to include a large receiver, 7, into which falls the heavier bodies of the hydrocarbon which are unsuitable for motor fuel purposes. -These bodies may include large amounts of free carbon or coke, which settle within thevbottom of the receiver and may be withdrawn from time to time through the medium of a discharge opening 8, normally closed by means of a cover or lid 9. The heavier liquids, which also accumulate in the bottom of the receiver may be withdrawn by way of an outlet pipe 10, connected with the bottom of the receiver by means of a plurality of short horizontal pipe sections 11, the latter being valve regulated, so as to control the level of the liquid in the bottom of the receiver. It will be understood that the liquid withdrawn from the system by way of the outlet pipe may, if desired, be recirculated through the primary heater, or ma)7 be led off to any other suitable receptacle and employed for other purposes.
Above the reaction zone the separating tower is formed to provide a fractionator 12, which may be of any standard construction. In the present instance, however, the same includes a bottom 13, arranged immediately above the reaction zone 3, provided with an upstanding passage 14, through which the lighter fractions or products of conversion pass into the bottom of the fractionator, per se. The passage 14, may, if desired, be protected by a dome 15, which prevents condensation within the fractionator from falling downwardly into the reaction zone. The fractionator employs the usual trays 16, arranged horizontally and in vertically spaced order within the interior ofthe tower. These trays are provided with upstanding tubes 17, through which pass the ascending vapors and descending condensate. The lighter vapors which pass from the top of the fractionator may be conveyed to a condenser 18, in which the vapors are liquefied and may then be conducted to a separate tank or the like 19. The high boiling compounds, which are collected in the bottom of the fractionator, may be withdrawn and stored in a separate receptacle 195, or may be conducted to further fractionators in order to secure the desired number of cuts or oil fractions. If desired, the interior of the fractionator may be provided with one or more cooling or reluxing coils 20, through which the cold oil, obtained from a source of supply 21, may be forced by means of a pump or its equivalent 22, and also by means of which the temperature of the oil vapor is immediately lowered following conversion to approximately 650 degrees F. or lower. From the coils 20 the oil may then be led to the inlet side of the primary heater 1. By this arrangement the temperature of the cold oil may be elevated before its insertion into the primary heater for the dual purpose of controlling the temperatures within the fractionating tower more conveniently and also for the purpose of extracting and using waste heat developed within the ractionator. It is, of course, within the province of the invention tween 1000o F. and 150001? so that the temperature of the oil vapors is raised to a temperature at which they will decompose, withf drawing non-vaporous products from the reaction zone, withdrawingr the vapor products overhead from the reaction zone and suddenly cooling them to a non-converting temperature directly after they leave the reaction zone, and then fractionating the cooled lighter vapors to obtain the desired motor fuel fraction.
In testimony whereof I aix m signature.
CORNELIUS B. ATSON.