US 1811948 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 30, 1931. w. A. Lo'bMls HAL 1,811,948
DEEP WELL PUMP AND SYSTEM Filed Jan. 26, 1925 5 Sheets-Sheet l lnz/ew fora Iii/0mg [Va/fer A Loam a glmrisrf. flax i012 164% K11 June 30, 1931.
w A. LOOMIS ETAL DEEP WELL PUMP AND SYSTEM Filed Jan. 26, 1925 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 hu aniara J4 mwmfe. M440.
\ June 30, 1931. w. A. LOOMIS ETAL DEEP WELL PUMP AND SYSTEM Filed Jan- 26, 1925 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 @24 re av Wa Patented June 30, 1931 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE WALTER A. LOOMIS AND SYLVESTER E. BURTON, OF LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA DEEP WELL PUMP AND SYSTEM Application filed January 26, 1925. Serial No. 4,774.
. In its process aspect, our present invention, like that set forth in the separate application S. N. 702,892, filed March 29, 1924,
y Walter A. Loomis, patented Sept. 22,'
1925, No. 1,554,444, one of the applicants herein, may be regarded as relating especially to the recovery of mineral oils, and more particularly to a utilization of relatively light or volatile hydrocarbons, such as wild gases from oil wells, in obtaining a large and comparatively regular flow of oil even from Wells to which usual methods of production have been found or have become inapplicable.
The mentioned invention of Loomis comprises a mixer insertable at a comparatively low level in a well, to which mixer oil and gas are delivered at substantially the same comparatively high pressure, and in such manner as to form therein an intimate mix- 2 ture, which increases in frothiness andrdiminishes in density as it rises, under a com bination of forces, to the top of a well;
and it is an especial object of our invention to provide means for delivering oil, or gas and oil separately, under the required comparatively high pressure, to a mixer of the general character referred to, or its equivalent.
As indicated, the operation of the men- 80 tioned system of Loomis requires a comparatively high pressure upon both gas and oil,
or their equivalents, at a mixer near the bottom of a Well, or the like; and the objects of our present joint invention include the downward delivery of gas at a higher pressure than that required at the mentioned mixer,
and the utilization of the excess energy of' this gas, by means such as an engine secured within an oil string, or the like. and directl connected with a pump, in a manner whic makes it possible to avoid such an application of high pressures outside said string as might tend to check the inflow of oil to said well. 7
Our present invention relates generally to installations and methods especially suitable for use in the recovery of oil from dee wells; and to a utilization of turbines positioned near the bottoms of such wells and operatively connected with centrifugal pumps delivering an oil mixture therethrough; and it is an object of this invention to extend the field of usefulness of the methods and principles disclosed in the mentioned application of Loomis, the present invention, in a preferred embodiment thereof, difiering from the said prior invention by Loomis in the respect, among others, that a centrifugal pump operated by a pressure and flow of a hydrocarbon gas, or the like, to be mixed with the co pumped oil, is used for the purpose of bringing said oil, under a desired upward pressure, to the level of a mixer; and, in the preferred embodiment of our invention herein described, the gas forced downward into e5 a well under high pressure may be, as indicated, utilized as an operating fluid for the driving of a turbine to which the mentioned centrifugal pump is connected; and said gas may then pass to the mentioned mixer, which may be disposed between the said centrifugal pump and said turbine, through which the resultant mixture may rise to a point of delivery.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a turbine en 'ne suitable for use in the general manner a ove indicated, and capable of numerous somewhat analogous uses.
It is a further object of our invention to provide a system comprising piping, special 8 fittings, packings, connections, and other underground and surface equipment, and also novel methods of operation, suitable for the uses above mentioned.
Other objects and advantages. of my invention will be understood from the following de'scri tion of a preferred embodiment thereof, taken in connection with the appended claims and the accompanying drawings, in which 7 .7
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic general view mainly in the form of a vertical section through a well in, which an embodiment of our invention is employed (parts being broken away above the level of the usual foot 9 valve, not shown).
' Fig. 2 is, for the most part, a vertical half sectional view through a novel turbine engine suitable for use in the practice of our invention, the plane of sectioning being sub 1m stantially that indicated by the lines 22 of Figs. 3 and 8.
Fig. 3 is a horizontal section taken substantially as indicated by the line 33 of Fig. 2, with parts broken away.
Fig. 4"is an elevational view, with parts broken away, taken as indicated by the arrow 4 of Fig. 3.
Figs. 5, '6 and 7 are respectively an end elevation, a section, and a front elevation of a preferred type of bucket hereinafter referred to.
Fig. 8 is a horizontal section taken substantially as indicated by the line 8-8 of Fig. 2, with parts broken away.
Fi 9 is an elevational view taken substantlally as indicated by the arrow 9 of Fig. 8;
Fig. 10 is a view taken substantially as indicated by the line 10-10 of Fig. 2, but showing a preferred type of mixer in which the passages for admission of gas are inclined laterally or tangentially as well as upwardly from the exterior.
Fig. 11 is a view of an advantageous type of pump, suitable to be'connected by a continuous hollow shaft with an engine, rotors and stators being sectioned onlines 11-11 of Figs. 12 and 13. I
Fig. 12 is a horizontal sectional view taken substantially as indicated by the line 12-12 of Fig. 11, showing a rotor only.
Fig. 13 is a similar sectional view of either an intermediate pump stator or a bottom element, this view being taken as indicated by either of the lines 1313 of Fig. 11.
Referring to the details of that specific embodiment of our invention chosen for purposes of illustration, this embodiment, like that of the mentioned invention of Loomis, may comprise an oil string 11, the lower end of which, or a portion extending through productive strata, may be provided with perforations 12; and within this string we may provide a string of oil delivery tubing 13 the two mentioned strings being connected and secured at the top of the well by means such as a cap 14, shown as provided with lateral pipes 15, 15, respectively valved at' 16 and 16.
Within the tubing 13, and at a suitable low level, we may, as in the case of the mentioned invention of Loomis, provide asuitable mixer 17 shown as provided with upwardly and inwardly inclined passages 18 for the admission of gas thereto; and gas on its way to the Said mixer, may pass through a gas jacket 19, shown as equal in diameter to and co-axial with the tubing 13 and as extending upwardly from the level of the mixer 17 and provided with inlet ports 20. Although this gas jacket may be regard- .ed as a continuation of the tubing 13, it is shown as rigidly secured, as by a threaded connection and separate screws, to an inter mediate fitting 21, which ma be provided with a gland 22, to pack ofi a section of inner pipe 23, extending thereabove, and, in the present case, through a packing 24, interposed between the pipe 23 andthe tubing 13.
In the mentioned device of Loomis, the mixer 17, or its equivalent, may be entirely stationary; and the same pressure may be applied to the oil on the inside and the outsideof a downward extension 25, in open communication with the interior ofthe mixer 17; but in our presentinvention the mixer 17 or its equivalent, may be rotated incidentally to the operation of a ump 26, by which oil may be delivered at ah said mixer than that which prevails outside the extension 25,which, like the jacket 19, with which it may constitute a single main body, may be regarded as a continuation of the tubing 13. The pump 26 may beany usual or preferred type of centrifugal pump, and it may comprise stators 27, rigidly secured, as by means of screws 28, within the extension 25. To impart rotation to the rotors 29 of such a centrifugal pump, assuming such rotors to be rigidly connected in a usual manner witha central shaft section 30, or its equivalent, we may connect the same by any suitable means, as by a spider 31 having apertures 32, with a hollow shaft section 33, with which the mixer 17 or its equivalent, may be integral; and rotation may be imparted to this sectional shaft by means such as a special turbine 34, adapted to fit within the jacket 19, comprised 'in the mentioned main body, assuming this to be a stationary element.
In the disclosed embodiment of the turbine 34. the hollow shaft section 33 is shown as extending from the rotatable spider 31 through the stationary gland 22, in which it may freely rotate while delivering the pumped oil to the mentioned pipe 23,, shown as threaded into an extension 35 projecting upwardly from said gland; and on the hollow shaft section 33, or its equivalent, we may secure rotor or bucket discs 36,,in any desired relationship to stator elements such as nozzles 37 and guide discs 38, both of which may be provided or integral with rings or bands, such as the covers 39, 40, shown as rigidly secured to the extension 25, integral with the jacket 19 and constituting a virtual continuation of the tubing 13.
The mentioned stator elements 37, shown as provided with inclined passages 37 and with rings 39, may be constructed substantially as shown in Figs. 3 and 4; and the rotors comprising discs or bodies 36, buckets 41 and covers or bands 42 (shown as of such diameter as to be freely rotatable within skirts 39'- projecting from the rings 39) may be interposed, substantially as shown in Fig. 2, between the first mentioned stator element and the additional stator elements comprising bodies or discs 38, provided with buckets inclined oppositely to those of the discs 36, and surrounded and rigidly retained by the bands 40,-which may be of sufficient breadth to extend also past spacing rings 43. It will be understood that sets of turbine elements corresponding in function to the above may be duplicated to any necessary or desired extent, three sets of such elements being illustrated in Fig. 2. All of the mentioned rotor elements and the spacers 43 are shown as threaded onto the hollow shaft section 33; and the shaft comprising the mentioned sections may be provided with, for example, a bearing sleeve 44, shown as secured by screws 45 in addition to threads 46. Thrust ball bearings may optionally be provided both at 47 and at 48, whether or not arrangements be made for balancing effects, as hereinafter proposed.
The upper ball bearing 47 may be a doublethrust bearing secured above a nozzle and comprising a channeled two-part seat 49, 49 and the lower bearing 48, when provided, may be retained between,forexample, ashoulder 50 and a fixed bearing sleeve 51, or the like, the latter being a guide provided with a lining 52 of a bearing metal or alloy and retained by means including screws 53 and a ring or shoulder 54, projecting inwardly from the extension 25.
When the mentioned parts are of sufficient rigidity and durability, assuming the rotors of the engine 34 and the pump 26 to be permanently secured in co-axial alignment, it may be regarded as unnecessary to provide, as at 55, Fig. 1, an additional bearing spider to receive end thrust; and it will be understood that such end thrust may be substantially eliminated by suitable expedients of design and operation. v
So far as an efiicient action of the mixer 17 is concerned, the rotation of this element may be regarded as of minor importance or wholly incidental to the transmission of power from the turbine 34 to the pump 26; but since apertures 18 are designed for the inward admission of gas, it may be regarded as desirable that these apertures be given such a lateral or spiral inclination as may contribute to the inward. movement of the gas therethrough; and we consider it advantageous to so form, for example, the mentioned spider 31, or its equivalent, as to constitute the same an impeller tending to force oil, or the like, into the hollow shaft section 33, or its equivalent, and upwardly therethrough. This element obviously then becomes, in a sense, a supplement to or a part of the pump 26, whether or not any plates are provided interiorly of said shaft; and in order wholly or partially to counterbalance or offset the downward thrust of the rotor elements of the engine 34, when designed along the lines indicated, we may so form any rotating spider 31, serving as an impeller, and we may utilize in the pump 26, or its equivalent, runners or rotors so designed, that the upward thrust produced by the reaction thereof against the pumped oil may, to any suitable extent, oppose the mentioned downward thrust of the engine 34.
It will .be noted that the intermediate fitting 21 and the gland 22 are heldstationary, (the former being shown as secured by threaded connections, and also by screws 56, to the tubing 13, or a continuation thereof, and the latter being shown as retained in its adjusted position by bolts 57) while the hollow shaft section 33, delivering to the pipe 23 the pumped oil or other fluid in admixture with-gas, rotates therein, and any desired inserts 58, of a bearing metal, or the like, may accordingly be provided in either or both of these elements. To avoid undue wear of parts, any usual or preferred means may be employed to prevent entrance of sand, or the like, into the downward extension 25 of the tubing string 13, which extension preferably reaches to or near the bottom of a well and may be provided with sand-excluding apertures (not shown in Fig. 1) at any desired level below pump 26, or its equivalent; and an outer casing C may be cemented off at a suitable level, as at C. r
Although there may be certain cases in which gas naturally occurringin a well can be directly utilized for pumping, as by an admission of the same through lateral openings 20a shown as closed by plugs 206, which are capable of being transferred at will to the correspondingly threaded apertures 200 at the upper ends of the gas passages 20, gas from any suitable source may be delivered into the oil string 11, or its equivalent, and transferred therefrom to theinterior of the tubing 13, or its equivalent, at any suitable level lower than that of the mentioned pack-- arrows 63. The oil and gas mixture, or other mixture, delivered at the top of the well, may be separated in any suitable way, as by means of over-size separators and compressor C, or its equivalent, may be employed to force all or a portion of the gas back into the same or another well, as through pipe 62a. Separated oil, or a desired product, may be withdrawn, as through a pipe 63a, for purification, use, storage or sale.
Unavoidable leakages, the condensation of liquid hydrocarbons from the gas forced infor special structures or provisions directed" to an effective lubrication of our turbir. en-
gine; but, if desired, any suitable quantity of a preferred lubricating oil may be delivered to our turbine, without introducing any additional pipes in a well, by means such as an auxiliary tank L, from which a valved branch 64 is shown as extending to the pipe 62a, through which gas may be forced into the well; and separate apertures 65 may be provided, if desired, at any suitable low level, to facilitate the advance of a lubricant admitted, in the manner described, or in any e uivalent manner, through tubing 13.
ithin this tubing itrmay freely advance to the bearings of the turbine 34, any sand contained in the lubricant being separated, as at 65a.
As suggested in Figs. 10-13 inc, instead of using a sectional shaft of which only a part is hollow, and instead of admitting oil below the pump 26, we may employ a one piece hollow shaft 33' extending continuously, and with or without a change in diameter, downward from engine 34, or its equivalent, through both a mixer and a pump 27a; and oil may be admitted to this pump through the extension 25 at any suitable levels, such as tlose of the openings 65, above said pump 2 a.
In this form of our invention, the pump stators 66 being shown as secured to the extension 25', and the pump rotors or runners 67 being rigidly secured to a slightly constricted lower portion 68 of the hollow shaft 33', these elements may be proportioned somewhat as shown; and a bull plug 69 serving as a transverse partition across the extension 25' below the end of the shaft 33 and optionally provided with a central depression, may serve to secure not only 'a special bottom stator 70, below the lowermost of the rotors or runners 67, but also in case spacers 71 are employed, to prevent longitudinal movement of the entire set of stators, although the latter are shown as separately secured by screws 72.
By devices of the-general character above suggested, the opposite thrusts upon the shaft 33, or its equivalent, may be balanced with any required degree of precision. By making the diameter of the shaft 33 less in the region of the pump than in the region of the engine, we moreover provide adequate space for the rotors of the pump, and we also provide for such an increase in the capacity of the shaft 33'as shall enable it to take care of the increased volume resulting from the admission of gas through the mixer 17, without any immediate or notable increase in the upward velocity of the mixture through the 3- interior of the engine, as compared with the upward velocity of the pumped oil through the interior of the pump.
Although exact pressures and dimensions may be regarded as immaterial to our present invention, assuming, by way of illustration, that (1) our pumping organization is installed at so low a level that the hollow shaft section 33 and the pipe 23 can have a diameter of only about 1 inches, the associated engine parts being proportioned substantially as indicated in Fig. 2, and assuming (2) that the oil level in an oil string during production is such as to provide an upward pressure of some 50 pounds, at the level of the mixer 17 and in addition to that due to pumping, and assuming (3) that a pressure of about 250 pounds is desired at the mixer, then gas may be supplied to the uppermost stage of the turbine 34, or its equivalent, at a pressure such as 350 pounds, and the pump 26, or its equivalent, may be so constructed or adjusted as to produce, on pumped oil of a particular type, an additional upward pressure of some 200 pounds, so that both the oil and the gas may reach the mixer at substantially the same pressure of 250 pounds,the drop of 100 pounds in pressure, during the passage of the gas through the turbine, representing energy used in operating .the pump, or lost as heat, or the like. In this illustration it is of course assumed that the mentioned pressure of 250 pounds at the mixer is a pressure ascertained to be suitable, in the case of a particular well, to deliver a desired mixture, increasing in frothiness as it rises, at a desired 'rate, to the top or beyond the top of a well; but it will be obvious that the principle of our invention is not restricted to the use of any particular operating fluid, nor to the pumping of any specified liquid.
Although we have herein described alternative complete embodiments of our invention, it will be understood that various features thereof might be inde ndently employed, also that various modi cations might be made by those skilled in the art to whichthis case relates, without the slightest departure from the spirit and scope of our invention, as the same is indicated above and in the following claims.
For example, depending upon its availability in the elevation of a particular liguid pumped, we may optionally introduce 0 or exhaust gases containing the same, into the pipe 62a, to serve as' an operating and elevating fluid; and whenever the, operating fluid employed is such as to form a deposit on the rotor blades of our engine, or elsewhere, we may optionally introduce at suitable intervals, either in conjunction with a lubricant or separately therefrom, a solvent substance such as an alkaline reagent adapted to cut and remove the mentioned deposits. We suggest the use of a soft soap containing free alkali as suitable for a combined lubricating and solvent effect when separated hydrocarbon gases are used substantially as above described.
We claim as our invention:
1. An organization of the character described which includes an engine, a pump therebelow, a stationary tubing extending above said engine, a packer carrying said tubing, a pipe extending within said tubing and to a point above said packer, and a vertical hollow shaft between said engineand said pump, and in which said engine and said pump both include stationary elements secured to said stationary tubing and said vertical hollow shaft constitutes means for delivering a pumped liquid into said pipe.
2. An organization of the character defined in claim 1 which includes an oil string and also an additional packer interposed between said tubing and said oil string, and in which means are provided whereby an operating fluid, in its descent to said engine, is transferred from said oil string to said tubing at a level between the first mentioned packer and said additional packer.
3. In an organization of the character described, a centrifugal pump, and a turbine engine producing an exhaust gas and directly connected with said pump'by a vertical shaft, the said shaft being hollow, inlets communicating with the interior of said shaft to permit the advance of pumped liquid and commingled exhaust gas therethrough, said inlets being adapted toserve as a mixer for said pumped liquid and said exhaust gas.
4. In an organization of the character described, a delivery tubing, a centrifugal pump and a turbine engine producing an exhaust gas and directly connected with said pump by means ofa hollow shaft adapted to permit upward advance ofpumped liquid and commingled turbine exhaust gas, rotors V on said shaft, said hollow shaft being'provided with gas inlets, to provide turbine exhaust gas ports and to serve as a means to commingle pumped liquid fluid and exhaust gas.
5. In an organization of the character described, a ump, a turbine producing exhaust gases an connected with said pump by means comprising a hollow shaft for the reception of pumped liquid, and a mixer in said shaft for the admission of exhaust gases from said turbine.
6. In an organization of the class described, a pump, a turbine adapted to deliver exhaust gas and connected with said pump by means of a laterally apertured hollow shaft extending through said turbine and providing an exhaust conduit for a pumped mixture including said exhaust gas, said laterally apertured hollow shaft permitting the exhaust gas to enter said hollow shaft to commingle with the pumpedfluid.
7. In an organization of the character described, a pump, a turbine producing exhaust gases and connected with said pump by means of a laterally apertured hollow shaft to which both the pumped liquid and the gases exhausted from said engine are admitted for evacuation, said lateral apertures beking adapted to permit the exhaust gases to flow into the interior of said hollow shaft.
8. In an organization of the character described, a pump, a turbine adapted to deliver exhaust gases within a well and connected with said pump by means comprising a hollow shaft adapted to receive said gases and also the pumped liquid, and means comprising a concentric tubing outside of and extending above said shaft, for delivering a lubricant and gas to said turbine.
9. A turbine engine, a mixer and a centrifugal pump disposed on a substantially vertical axis, the fluids from said engine and pump passing through said mixer, said engine and pump being provided with rotor blades on a common shaft and adapted to produce a substantial balance of end thrusts.
10. A turbine engine and. a centrifugal pump disposed on a substantially vertical axis and provided with rotor blades on a common shaft and adapted to produce a substantial balance of end thrusts, a passage for the pumped liquid admitted with exhaust gases being provided through said turbine.
11. In an organization of the class described, an'oil delivery tube, a pump in said oil delivery tube, a turbine in said oil delivery tube, a coupling operatively joining said pump and said motor, a hollow shaft extending through said turbine, stators secured to the enclosing wall of said turbine pump,
I an oil delivery tube, a pump in said oil delivery tube, a turbine in said oil delivery tube, a coupling operatively joining said pump and said motor, a hollow shaft extending through said turbine, stators secured to the enclosing wall of said turbine, pump rotors mounted on said hollow shaft, said shaft extending below said turbine and being provided with openings for commingled fluid and gas therethrough, and a mixer included within said hollow shaft at a point below the turbine, said mixer serving as means through which exhausted gases are admitted to said shaft.
13. In an organization of the character described, a hollow shaft, a mixer formed as part thereof and through which fluids maylivery means including a rotatable portion of said hollow shaft and the mixer carried thereby. 1
In testimony whereof, we have hereunto set 5 our hands at Los Angeles, California, this 15th day of January, 1925.
\ WALTER A. LOOMIS.
SYLVESTER E. BURTON.