US 1812986 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 7, 1931. J, F, RYAN 1,812,986
, OIL WELL REGULATION APPARATUS Filed Dec'; -28, 1929 1 NNW/m Patented July '87, 1931 PATENT OFFICE JOSEPH F. RYAN, F CHICAGO, ILLINOIS OIL WELL REGULATION APPARATUS Application filed December 28, 1929. Serial No. 417,151.
The invention relates to a removable liner for regulating the flow of oil from oil wells and has for its objects to provide novel and useful improvements in a device of this character. v
In my issued Patent No. 1,634,085, dated J une 28, 1927, I have disclosed a method and apparatus for regulating the flow of oil from oil wells and the presentl invention is designed to provide certain improvements over the apparatus disclosed in my said issued patent.
In` said patent a'device is shown whereby a column of oil is maintainedY in contact with an oil producing stratum .in an oil well by the utilization of the lrelative difference in specific gravity between oil and water. Two vconcentric and independent casings are provided and supported upon the usual packer which is inserted and maintained in position at any desired level within 'the oil well boring. Aperturas are provided in the outer casing which afford communication between the oil well boring and the space between the -5 outer and inner casings. Due to its greater specific gravity (approximately in Pennsylvania crude oil), the water exuding 'with the oil from the producing sand or stratum flows downwardly Vand. enters the 3") space between the concentrically disposed casing members. A, column of'water is built up between the casings and exerts hydrostatic pressure against the lighter volume of oil which is maintained eXteriorly of the outer 5 casing and adjacent the oil producing sand. The presence of this column of oil against the sand is highly desirable for the reasons fully set forth and described in my patent. Briefly stated the presence of the automatically maintained oil column prevents the sand or strata from drying up, retards the too rapid escape of gas, insures against the tendency of the water to penetrate the sand and entrap the oil, and further tending to promote the even flow of oil under uniform gas pressure until the s'rata has been completely exhausted of its oil content.
In the apparatus disclosed in my issued patent the innervand outer casing members are independent of one another and are supported by the usual packing element. In one embodiment the inner casing member is shown having a threaded connection with the packing while the outer casing rests loosely thereupon. Inremoving the device it is neces- 55 sary to withdraw the casing members separately and incident to this operation it is usually necessary to destroy the packing member wedged against the walls of the well boring.
An important object of the present improvements is to provide a removable liner of the general character disclosed in my issued patent but characterized by the fact that the inner and outer casing members are secured together to enable the device as a unit to be inserted in or withdrawn from an oil well boring with a single operation.
' To assist in positioning the liner unit at the desired level in the well boring a pusher plate member is provided and secured to the pump rod and designed to contact with the unit and force the same into contact with the usual packer element. To conveniently remove the unit a second lifter plate or unit is secured to the pump rod at a lower level and below the unit whereby the latter is engaged by upward movement of the pump rod and lifted away from its loose engagement with the packer member.
As a further object of the improved device, the inner and outer casings are or may be -provided with'perforated and centrally apertured cover plates and a similarly perforated and apertured bottom plate, said plates serving to maintain the pump rod centrally of the unit, insuring the flow of liquid past the device into the well free of obstructions, as well as .affording contact areas for the pusher and lifter plates above referred to.
A further object of the improvements is to provide a supplemental liner or gasket of soft or pliable rubber which may be interposed between the liner unit and the packing. The weight of the liner unit is sullicient to compress the rubber tightly against the packer and the wall of the boring so as to seal the device against the escape of liquid or gaseous fluid except in the manner provided for the passage of the latter.
A further and important object of the imoil to be removed from one producing sand while at the same time gas may be successfully withdrawn from a Alower sand or stratum. The liner unit, positioned at the higher level prevents contact of the gas with the upper oil producing area and consequent drying of the sand. f f
The unitary construction of the inner and outer casing members is of advantage in the event a soft producing sand should cave or sift into the boring so as to clog the space between theouter casing and the wall of the hole. In such event the liner unit may be lifted out and cleaned. rl`he upward movement of the liner permits the oil and water lowingfrom the sand to act as a washing medium. to remove'the sand from the top of the packer in the event that any should have becomeV lodged upon it. This crumbling tendency of the sand is a result frequently encountered in shooting an oil well sand in certain localities.
In addition to the general objects recitedV above, the invention has for further objects such other improvements and advantages in construction and operation as are found to obtain in the structures' and devices hereinafter described or` claimed.
In the accompanying drawings forming a part of this specification and showing, for purposes of eXemp-lilication a preferred form and manner in which the invention may be embodied and practiced, but without limiting the claimed `invention to suc-h illustrative instance or instances:
Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view of a preferred embodiment of the invention positioned wit-hin a-well shot-hole or boring.-
Fig..2 is a. horizontal sectional view on line 2-2 of Fig. l. i 1
Fig. 3 is a similar view on line 3-3 of Fig. l.
Fig. 4t is a view similar to Fig. 1 on an enlarged scale to more clearly illustrate the improvements. v
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 3 and illustrating a modication of the device.
Referring to the drawings, 1 indicates an oil well shot hole or boring having frictionally or otherwise suitably disposed therein at the desired level a packer 2. The packer is of-usual or preferred construction and is installed at thedesired level in the well by lowering a casing to which Vthe packer is lmoved from the Well.
coupled, after which the casing is released from engagement with the packer and re- The packer is held solidly in place by its tendency to expand against the walls of the hole or boring. A usual form of packer is about three to four feet in length and is constructed of material having a tendency or the quality to eX- pand. rWhen it is lowered inthe hole a turn of the casing releases a support at the top of the packer and the top is then compressed against the bottom by letting the weight of the tubing or casing down upon it. The
rubber casing of the packer grips the wall of the hole and seats itself lir'mly thereagainst.r
rEhe removable liner constituting the present improvement is supported .within the shot hole by means of the packer 2 and consists of an outer tubular casing 3 of a diameter substantially lessthan that of the well boring, and an inner tubular casing 4: of a diameter appreciably less than that of the outer casing.- |The said inner and outer casings are flanged outwardly at their lower lends as indicated at 5 and are each secured by rivets or other fastening means to a perforated circular Vplate 6 having a'diameter less than that of the bore to permit the liner to be lowered as a unit into the Well. An annular gasket or packing 7 of soft rubber is preferably interposed between the packer 2 and the liner unit. VA cover plate 8 having perforations 8a is secured to the top of the outer casing 3 and a similar cover plate 9 having perforations 9a is secured to the top of the inner casing Ll.' The perforated plates 6, 8 and9 are 'centrally apertured as indicated at 10 for the loose reception of the usual pump rod tubing 11 which extends From the illustration it will be noted that thetop of the inner casing member 4 terminates of preference an appreciable distance below the top of the outer casing member 3. The relative dimensions of these members however may be varied depending upon operating conditions, and it is not necessary that the same be confined to the einbodiment illustrated in the drawings. liner pusher member in the form of a pusher plate 12 is rigidly secured to the pump rod tubing 11, and has been illustrated as disposed within the liner between the upper ends of the inner and outer casing members. A similar liner lifter member 13 is likewise rigidly secured to the pump rod at a point below the liner and may be disposed adjacent the lower perforated plate 6. The members 12 and 13 may be constructed of wrought or malleable iron and further may be located and secured respectively below and above the usual collar members 12a and 13a which unite sections of the tubing. The pusher and lifter plates and their respective collar members may be of unitary construction if desired, as will be apparent, instead of being separately constructed and secured to their respective collars. If desired the liner pusher member 12 may be secured to the tubing above the-cover plate 8 of the outer cas- 1ibrg member 3 instead of between said mem- The oil producing sand or stratum is indicated at 14 (Fig. 1) and the liner unit is positioned within the well supported by the packer 2 in such manner that the upper end of the outer casing 3 extends for somedistance above the upper limits of this oil producing area as will be clearly apparent from the illustration. To position the unit within thewellthe tubing 11 is lowered and the pusher plate 12 engages the perforated plate 9 of the inner casing member in the event resistance is encountered, and forces the 'unit Y downwardly until further movement is arrested by the packer 2 or the soft rubber gasket 7 carried thereby. To remove the unit the tubing is lifted until the lifter member 13 engages below the plate 6 constituting the base of the unit and further upward move ment raises the entire device away from the packer and soft rubber gasket and outof the lwell boring, as will be apparent. The perforations in the lower plate 6 are indicated at 15 and are disposed within the inside diameter ofthe inner casing member 4. The outer casing member is suitably perforated or apertured adjacent its lower end as indicated at 16 to afford fluid communication between the well boring and the annular chamber orspace between the outer and inner casing members. v
The principle of operation of the device is identical with that fully disclosed in my 'issued patent aforesaid. Oil and water from the producing area 14 descend downwardly on the exterior of the outer casing and pass through the apertures 16 into the annular chamber 17 between the inner and outer casing members. As the flow increases the fluid -rises until it reaches the top of the inner casing and escapes or is discharged through the perforated plates 9 and 6 into the well. The surplus or excess fluid from the producing strata on the exterior of the liner unit rises and is discharged into the unit and thence to the well through the perforated plate 8 of the outer casing member. Due to its greater specific gravity the preponderance of fluid between the casing members consists of water indicated' at 18 which has penetratet the apertures 16 of the outer casing. The oil column 19 of relatively less specific gravity is maintained by hydrostatic pressure within the annular chamber formed between the .dwell boring and the outer casing wall and has been fully enlarged upon in my issued patent referred to. Briefly stated the presence of the protective covering insures against the penetration of water into the producing sand or area, the tendency of the water being otherwise to drive away the oil or entrap the same in the sand. rlfhe presence of the oil covering further promotes a more even and uninterrupted flow of oil from the sand, as well as rendering the strata capable of producing to its utmost extent until the entire supply is exhausted. The presence of the protective covering of oil against the exposed surface of the producing sand further provides the desired pressure lto retard the escape of free gas and insures that the latter shall bringforth its maximum amount of oil.
The presence of the perforated plates 8 and 9 on the upper ends of the outer and inner casing members respectively, materially aids in maintaining the upper ends of said casing members in their desired spaced relation when the unit has been assembled on the pump rod tubing, and guards against any tendency of the inner casing to tilt relative to the outer casing member or vice versa. The said plates further obstruct the entrance of solid matter into the unit which might otherwise gain' access and interfere with the operation of the device.
When the unit is lowered into the well or forced into position by the pusher member 12, the pressure exerted or the weight of the unit serves to expand the packing material 7 of soft rubber so as to effectually seal the unit against the escape of oil, gas or water into or out of the well exteriorly of the inner casing member ll. Preferably the rubber 7 is of suflicient resiliency to maintain this iiuid seal by the weight of the liner unit. The presence of the rubber seal permits gas to be taken from a lower level in the well through the apertures 15 of the plate 6, without per 4mitting said gas to contact with the exposed face 14 of the producing sand, thereby insuring against any drying effect of the gas on this producing are( i If desired the perforated plates 8 and 9 may be replaced by spider members or open framework as illustrated in Fig. 5. In such instance penetration of the fluid is insured at the same time guarding against access of solid or foreign matter. Radiating arms or frame members 2O are employed which extend between the outer periphery of the plate and a central spring member 21, the latter serving as a spacer for the pump rod tubing 11 and to insure against seating of the latter relative to the liner unit. 4
The invention as hereinabove set forth is embodied in a particular form of construction, but may be variously embodied within the scope of the claims hereinafter made.
1. A liner for maintaining a column of oil removable as a unit from its support within the well boring.
2. A liner for maintaining a column of oil adjacent an oil producing stratum of an oil well and adapted to be supported loosely on a packing within a well boring, said unit comprising concentric cylindrical members spaced from and secured to one another, the outermost of said cylindrical members being spaced from the walls of the well boring and terminating at its upper end at a higher level than the top of the innermost cylindrical member, means affording communica-tion between the well boring and the space between said cy lindrical members, and a plate connecting the lower endsof both of said cylindrical members with each other whereby they may be removed from the well boring as a unit independently of said packing and having perforations dis-posed within the wall of said inner cylindrical member to afford communication therethrough, whereby said liner lmember is freely removable as a unit from its support within the well boring;
3i. A liner for maintaining a column of oil adjacent an oil producing stratum of an oil well and adapted to be supported 'on a packing within a well boring, said unit comprising concentric cylindrical members spaced from and secured to one another, and means affording communication between the well boring and the space between said cylindrical members, the innermost cylindrical member terminating at its upper end at alower level than the top of the outermost cylindrical member whereby the spa-ce between said members may be adapted to contain a column of water, and the space between the outer of said Vmembers and said boring may be adapted to contain a balancing` column of oil and maintained in position by the hydrostatic pressure of said water column, the unitary construction of said liner member permitting its free removal from its support on said packing and its ready insertion thereagainst.
4. An apparatus for regulating the flow of oil from oil wells, comprising in combination a packing member positioned within an oil well boring, a liner member removable as a unit and consisting of a plurality of casing members loosely 'supported by said packing member and secured to one another whereby said casing members may be inserted in and removed from the well boring as a unit independently of said packing member, the innermost of said casing membersbeingdisposed within the adjacent casing member and spaced therefrom, and the outermost of said casing members being spaced from the walls of the well boring, said outermost casing member being arranged to afford co1nmunication between the spaces on each side thereof from below the tops of said casing members, whereby separate fluid columns are maintained in said oil well within and adjacent said unit and apump rod Vwithin the innermost casing member and adapted for insert ing said casing members in and removing them from the well boring as a unit and independently of the packing member.
5. An apparatus for regulating the flow of oil from oil wells, comprising in combination: a packing member positioned within an oil well boring, a liner member consisting of a plurality of casing members secured to one another and supported by said packing member, the innermost of said casing members being disposed within the adjacent casing `member and spaced therefrom, and the outermost of said casingmembersbeing spaced from the walls of the well boring adjacent the oil producing strata and communicating with the space between said casings, whereby `fluid columns of fluids of different specic gravity are maintained in said oil well by the hydrostatic pressure of theinner fluid column so that the oil in the outer-fluid column is maintained in contact with the oil .producing strata.
6. A liner for preventing the access of water to the surface of oil producing strata in an oil well, and insertible in and removable fromcsaid oil well as a unit, comprising in combination: a packing member positioned within an oil well boring, a pair of casing members supported by said packing member adjacent the oil producing strata, one of4 said casing members being disposed within the other and spaced therefrom, and the other of said casing members being spaced from the walls of said well boring, a perforated plate secured to the lower ends of both of said casing members, and means affording communication between said casing members, whereby laterally connected fluid columns are maintained by hydrostatic pressure in said oil well above said packingmember, and the outer fluid column is maintained in contact with the oil producing strata.
7. An apparatus for regulating the flow of oil from oil wells, comprising in combination i a packing member positioned within an oil well boring, a liner member removable as a unit and consisting of a plurality of casing members secured to one another and loosely supported by said packing members, the iny of the well boring and terminating at its upper end at a higher level than the top of the innermost casing member, said outermost casing member being arranged to afford oommunieaton between the spaces on each side thereof from below the tops of said casing members, whereby separate iuid columns are maintained in said oil well within and adjacent said unit.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand.
JOSEPH F. RYAN.