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Publication numberUS1814512 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 14, 1931
Filing dateDec 9, 1929
Priority dateDec 9, 1929
Publication numberUS 1814512 A, US 1814512A, US-A-1814512, US1814512 A, US1814512A
InventorsRobert Hetherington
Original AssigneeRobert Hetherington
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Thermostatic control for shower heads
US 1814512 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 14,I 1931. R. HETHERINGTON THERMOSTATIC CONTROL FOR SHOWER HEADS Filed DeG. 9. 1929 Patented July le, 1931i mrnn stares THERMOSTATG CONTROL FOR SHOWER HES?,

'/.appueaaon' mea December a, 192e. serial no. 412,814.

My invention relates to a conduit shower bath structure in which there is an automatic limiting of the shower temperature.

A purpose oi2 my invention is to provide structure of the character indicated with a high temperature cut out that will loperate automatically soquickly and surely as to avoid any danger of a userbeing subjected to a shower that is unduly hot.

A further purpose is to provide structure ol the character indicated with a thermostatically controlled outlet to waste that will drain the water away from the shower outlets whenever and it ever the water owing M thereto becomes of undesirably high temperature andbefore any undesirably hot water 'can escape7 at the shower outlets.

' A furtherpurpose is to leakage that ma enter con uit structure of 2@ the character in icated while not in use, from discharging atthe shower outlets thereof.`

A further purpose is to automatically close a leakage outlet'from a conduit structure vof the character indicated by turning on the 25 shower, using the increased pressure incident to the increased flow whenever the shower is turned on to close the leakage outlet automatically.

A 'further purpose is tov provide structure 3 of the character indicated with a thermostatv ically controlled outlet to waste at a low portion thereof and with an inlet at a high portion thereof to shower outlets, providing a volume'below the inlet to the shower outlets a5 and a limited 'size of flow into the structure that will together insure an opening of the thermostatic outlet to Waste before hot wate can reach the shower outlets.

A further purpose is to relate the maxi- :mum inlet flow and volume of structure of the character indicated so as to insuretime for the operation of the thermostaticyelement before the temperature ofthe water reaching 451 the shower outlets can become unduly high.-

Further purposes will appear in the speciication and lin the claims. A v v I have preferred to illustrate two' only of the many dierent forms of my invention, se-

I lecting forms that are practical and eiicient` prevent anyv het in operation and which well illustrate the principles involved.

Flgure 1 is a side elevation of a spray nozzle embodying adesirable form of my invention, the nozzle being shown in a position of use.

Figure 2 is an enlarged 4longitudinal sctiori of the nozzle shown in Figure 1.

Figure 3 is a'vi'ew of the structure shown in Figure 2 looking toward the outlet face of the to nozzle into the spray openings.

Figure 4 is a section taken on the line /l--e ef Figure 2' in the direction of the arrows.

Figure 5 isa reduced scale, partly sectioned side ,elevation of structure illustrating an- 65 other'` desirable embodiment of my invention.

The embodiment ,of my invention illustratedcin Figures 1 to 4 includes a spray nozzle'lO that is connected by a suitable union 11 to a hot and cold water supply pipe 12, the 70 nozzle being provided with spray ,orifices 13,

a valved waste pipe 14, and interior connections preventing water from reaching the spray orifices whenever the valve to the waste pipe is open and for opening this valve when- 75 ever the temperature of the water in the nozzle reaches any predetermined upper limit beyond which itF is considered' undesirable for water to discharge through the spray openings. 8o he nozzle 10 is preferably made o fa good heat conducting metal such as brass, in that a rapid heat exchange between the wallsof the nozzle and the thermostatic element makes the `therm'ostatic action more quickly follow 85 a suddenrise in temperaturel of the water flowing into the nozzle. The nozzle walls desirably flare outwardly Vand upwardl and downwardly from an inlet 15 to the si e walls 16 and the upper and 90 lower end walls 17 and 18 to a forward rectan lar box-like portion 19 of the nozzle.

he sprayplate 20 perforated at 13 to pass the spray is preferably removably mounted uponthe face of lthe box, of which it forms 95 one wall. f

The sprayplate is across the open side and end Walls of the box-like portion :ind carries on its inner side back of the spra openings 13 a light sheet metal 21 which orma with 10C the main plate a header chamber 22 which opens at the top at 23 into the interior of the box at a high point thereof being preferably closed from the box except at this high over- 5 iiow inlet 23.

tionary guide 29. The inwardly directed portion of the stem is threaded and carries spaced sets of nuts 31 and 32 which are used for making a loose operating connection with a thermostat 33.

The thermostatic element 33 has one end fastened at 34 to the wall of the box at preferably an intermediate point of the box length whence it extends diagonally upwardly to near the upper end of the box, makes an easy return bend at 34 and extending downwardly presents its freeend to make a loose operating connection at 35 with the stem of the valve 27. As illustrated the thermostatic element is perforated at 35 to ass the valve stem 30 with easy clearance, t e sets of nuts 31 and 32 forming abutments on opposite sides'of the thermostatic element.

Preferably the abutments 31 and 32 presented by the stem on opposite sides of the thermostatic element are so set that the thermostatic element holds the valve slightly open at ordinary temperatures when the pressure inside the box is atmospheric.

As soon as a user turns water into the nozzle for use as a spray, the liquid pressure inside the box increases sufficiently to close the valve against the slight opening pull of the thermostat.

If the temperature of the water rises, the force with which the thermostat tends to open the valve progressively increases with the progressive increase in temperature until at the selected high'temperature'this force is suicient to overcome the liquid closing pressure upon the inside of the valve, the valve being snapped open by the pull of the thermostat which immediately stops discharge through the spray openings 13, the hot water draining away through the waste outletr It will be seen that the liquid pressure inside the nozzle will be determined for a given liquid by the rate of flow into the nozzle and the size and number of the spray openings.

For a given size and number of spra openings and a given size of inlet 'opening the amount of water entering the nozzle will depend upon the available pressure in the su ply pipe 12 which is frequently different 1n the spray different communities, and I accommodate my nozzle to operate alike on different commercial supply pressures by adjustably throttlin the nozzle inlet.

This a justable throttle desirably includes a screw plug 36 provided with one or more longitudinal outside taper slots 37 that provide conduit connection. between opposite sides of a wall 38`into which the plug is threaded.

The plug 36 is adjustably threaded through the wall 38 across the inlet opening 15 of the nozzle, the wall 38 having a thickness small as compared to the length of the plug.

The pressure control can, of course, beA

located elsewhere.

The conduit slots being progressively deeper at one end than at the other, any desired amount of throttling may be attained by Varying the. longitudinal position of the lug.

As illustrated the plug may be conveniently inserted or adjusted while the spray plate is oi, the outer end of the plug being provided with a screw driver slot 39 so that a scriver may be. conveniently used for inserting or adjusting the plug.

I preferably provide the nozzle outlet with a cylindrical `extension 40 upon which I mount a short L discharge fitting 41.

As illustrated the mouth of this fitting makes a machine t with the outside of the cylindrical extension 40 which is grooved at 42 to receive the end of a screw 43`of the {itting 41, the angular position of the discharge end of the fitting being adjustable after loosening the screw.

Normally the vmember 41 'discharges into one end of a bathtub or on the drained ioor of the shower compartment sufficiently distant from `the spray.

It sometimes happens that the valves from line 12 leak or are not entirely closed with the result that a small quantity of water flows into the nozzle when the nozzle is not in use. This water escapes out the waste valve, irrespective of whether it is hot or cold, the valve being kept open by the thermostatic member and the ow ofwater into the nozzle being too small to permit accumulation of water suicient to either close the valve or to make the thermostatic member function a-s a thermostat.

When the spray water is turned on for use at the spray, the first rush of water increases the pressure inside the nozzle and eiects a closure of the waste valve.

The box does not fill instantaneously with water due to the inlet iow being limited at the throttle plug 36.

If the water is too hot for use at the spray the thermostat will force open the waste valve before the boxl has filled sufficiently to overow into the orifice header 19, the water falling as soon as the valve opens.

'Leraars llf the. temperature of the water is too low to operate the thermostat the water iills the nozzle, overows into the header 'compartment and discharges as spray through the openings 13. lf the user inadvertently turns on too much hot water there is no danger of scalding at the spray as the hot water can not reach the spray orices.

ln Figure 5 l show an embodiment of my invention that separates the spray nozzle trom the chamber carrying the thermostatic element andthe valve to waste. 4 Y

ln this view hot and cold water valves 42 and 43 deliver into opposite sides ot a T 44 which has a branch pipe 45 to the nozzle.

Preferably a valve 46 is placed at the branch outlet control of the total flow to the spray without adecting the relative openings of the hot'and cold water valves 42 and 43.

l place a chamber 47 in the pipe 45 and inside this chamber ll place the thermostatic element 33 to operate a valve 27 that connects the chamber to waste through a suitable pipe 14. ,Y

The operation of the thermostat may be exactly as already described so that description of the thermo'staticl element in the tirst form may be considered to apply also to the second. I

rllhe spray nozzle 48 is connected to the top of the chamberlil through suitable intermediate piping, shown with a union49 near l the downwardly directed nozzle.

lili

atv

Preferably a suitable, throttle plug 36 is inserted in the branch pipe 45 betere the volume chamber 4,7 'carrying the thermostatic element as at the inlet side of the valve 46.

'lhe operations of both forms are as already described.

lt will be evident that the conduit connection between the inlet and the spray nozzle openings may vary greatly comprising all or a large part of the compartment within which the thermostat is placed, for example, as in Figures l-4 or including all of the comp-artment containing the thermostat plus additional piping, for example, as in Figure 5; the purpose and intent being that the level to which the water must rise in order to be sprayed shall be high enough above the waste outlet controlled by the thermostat so 'that action of' the thermostat will drain the water away from the nozzle openings or from the passage or path of the water to reach these nozzle openings. As the water pressures upon the equipment will be diderent in ditlferent installations' it is desirable that the equipment shall be suited for the 4highest water pressure availableor that the pressure be standardized by intermediate valves pr mechanism.

The outlet to the waste pipe must of course lbe carried so as not tospla-sh the user. ll have not considered it necessary to illustrate this further than to show the outlet, the piping connections for this purpose being fully within the judgmentof plumber whether the apparatusb'e part of the spray head and so exteriorly open to view as in the irst figures or concealed as in Figure 5.

lln view of my invention and disclosure varlatlons and. modlcations to. meet 1nd1- vidual whim or particular need will doubtless become evident to others skilled in the art,to obtain lall or part of the benets oi my invention without copying the structure shown, and l, therefore, claim all such in so :tar as they fall within the reasonable spirit and scope of my invention.

Having thus described my invention, what l claim as new and desireto secure byLetters atent is:

l. ln conduit'shower equipment,a shower nozzle having shower outlets, a throttled liquid inlet conduit, a conduit between the inlet and shower outlets, a safety outlet conduit adapted to ydrain away the liquid enteringthe intermediate conduit to prevent a hot discharge at the-shower outlets, 'a valve in the safety conduit normally closed during use of the shower andy aithermostat adapted .to open the valve .at high temperatures ot the liquid.

2. lin a conduit .shower equipment, a throttled inlet conduit, a shower nozzle having shower outlets, an intermediate conduit between the inlet 4and outlets, a safety outlet conduit adapted to drain away the liquid entering the intermediate conduit to prevent it reaching the shower outlets, a valve for the safety outlet conduit and a thermostat inside the intermediate conduit operatively connected to the valve adaptedto open the valve at high temperature.

3. ln a conduit shower equipment, a throttled inlet conduit, a shower nozzle having shower outlets, an intermediate conduit between the inlet and outlets, a safety outlet conduit adapted to drain away the liquid entering the intermediate conduit to prevent it reaching the shower outlets, a valve for the safety outlet opening against the liquid pres- ,sure inside the intermediate conduit, and a resilient thermostat inside the intermediate conduit connected to the valve and adapted to pull the valve open at a high temperature by overcoming the saidliquid pressure, the

thermostatresiliently holding the valve open vata at conditions of ordinary temperature and atmospheric pressure and the valve normally closing against the normal pull of the thermostat responsive to liquid pressure inside the intermediate conduit during use ofthe shower, the thermostat being adapted to pull the valve open at a high temperature by overcoming the said liquid pressure.

5. In conduit shower equipment, an inlet conduit, a nozzle having spray outlets, a conduit between the inlet and outlets having a high connection to the nozzle, a safety conduit from a low pointA of said intermediate conduit adapted to drain the liquid entering at the inlet so that it may not reach the shower outlets, a Valve for the safety conduit and a thermostat inside the intermediate conduit adapted to open the valve at high temperature.

6. In a 4shower nozzle having shower outlets, a safety outlet adapted to drain the liquid entering the nozzle away from the shower outlets, a valve at the safety outlet and thermostat inside the nozzle adapted to open the valve at high temperatures.

7 In a shower nozzle, an outlet chamber having spray orifices from one side thereof, and an overiow conduit connection'at a high point to the outlet chamber, a valve across the safety outlet, a thermostatic element in the main chamber eifectively lower than the ov'eriow to the outlet chamber land connections adapting the element t0 open the valve.

predetermined temperature.

n a shower nozzle, an outlet chamber having spray orifices, a main chamber having an adjustably throttled inlet, a safety outlet and an overflow conduit connection at a point higher than the safety outlet to the outlet chamber, a valve across the safety outlet, a thermostatic element in the main chamber ei"- fectively lower than the overflow to the outlet chamber and connections adapting the element to open the valve at a predetermined temperature.

9. In a shower nozzle, an outlet chamber having spray orifices, a main chamber having an inlet, a safety outlet near a low point and an overow conduit connection at a high point to the outlet chamber, a valve inside the main chamber across the safety outlet, a

thermostatic element in the main chamber efectively lower than the overiow tothe outlet chamber and connections adapting the element to hold the valve open at ordinary temperaturesrand atmospheric pressure, the liquid pressure inside the main chamber when shower liquid is turned into the main chamber initially closing the valve and subsequently holding it shut against the pull of the thermostatic element unless oruntil rise in temperature to a predetermined limit progressively increases the opening pull of the thermostat to overcome the holding pressure of the shower liquid to snap open the valve.

10. In a shower nozzle, an outlet chamber including inner and outer plates, the outer plate having spray orifices from the chamber, a-main chamber having an inlet, a safety outlet near a low point and an overflow conduit connection at a high point to the outlet chamber, a valve in the safety outlet, a thermostatic element in the main chamber effectively lower than the overflow to the outlet chamber and connections adapting the element to open the valve at a predetermined temperature, the outlet chamber removably closing one end of the main chamber.

1l. In a shower nozzle, a metal chamber having an inlet, a throttling plug therein, walls of the chamber flaring outwardly and upwardly and downwardly from the inlet, another wall of the chamber having shower orifices, a header chamber on the inside of the said other wall discharging out the orifices, the header chamber having a high inlet from a high portion of the first chamber, and a thermostatically controlled safety outlet conduit and valve at a low part of the first chamber adapted to open automatically at a high temperature.

ROBERT HETHERINGTON.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2829836 *Oct 9, 1952Apr 8, 1958Mackenzie William HSeparator for vapor and condensate
US3430270 *Oct 19, 1966Mar 4, 1969American Standard IncPlumbing fittings
US5141153 *Oct 16, 1991Aug 25, 1992Moen IncorporatedEnergy conservation and anti-scald/burn single handle valve construction
US7681804 *Jun 15, 2005Mar 23, 2010Showerstart, LlcMethods and apparatus for an automatic temperature-controlled valve
US20060157575 *Jun 15, 2005Jul 20, 2006John LockhartMethods and apparatus for an automatic temperature-controlled valve
US20140311592 *Sep 20, 2013Oct 23, 2014Kylin Sanitary Technology (Xiamen) Co., Ltd.Temperature control outlet device
WO2002028540A1 *Oct 5, 2001Apr 11, 2002Rosen AntoniusDual shower in three designs
Classifications
U.S. Classification236/93.00R, 236/93.00B, 4/615, 137/877
International ClassificationB05B12/08, B05B12/10
Cooperative ClassificationB05B12/10
European ClassificationB05B12/10