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Publication numberUS1818073 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 11, 1931
Filing dateMar 8, 1929
Publication numberUS 1818073 A, US 1818073A, US-A-1818073, US1818073 A, US1818073A
InventorsJames Scott Long
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
And one-third to
US 1818073 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Patented Aug. 11 1931 ,UMNITE'DQ STATES PATENT/OFFICE JAMES SCOTT LONG, 01? BETHLEHEM, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR, ONE-THIRD TO LEHIGH UNIVERSITY, A CORPORATION OF PENNSYLVANIA, AND ONE-THIRD TO ARCEER-DANIEI4S-MIDLAND COMPANY, A CORPORATION OF'DELAWABE, AN D WIL- LIAM O. GOODRICH. COMPANY, A CORPORATION OF WISCONSIN PROCESS or TREATING OILS AND PRODUCT THEREOF No Drawing.

My invention, relates particularly to a process of treating drying or semi-drying oils to cause them to dry, set or body faster than oils not so treated, and product thereof.

. The object of my invention is to provide a process of treating drying or semi-drying oils in such a manner as to cause them to dry, set or body faster, and in a different way I and with a different result than in previous processes, due to the treatment to which they are subjected. In carrying out my invention I subject drying or'semi-drying oils to lished in The Journal of the Franklin In-,

stitute, December 1926, and an earlier form of which is the Lenard cathode ray tube which is described by P. Lenard in Ann. (1. Phys. 51, pp. 225267 (1894:). These electrons, or cathode rays, are caused to emanate from a metal plate or other window formed in the tube. Preferably, in carrying out my invention I provide a tube of this type having a window of larger area than disclosed in the although this is not essential. The eflfects attained inaccordance with my invention may be secured by the treatment of such oils, whether raw or previously heat-bodied or boiled or blown or refined or otherwise processed, and the effect of this treatment is not only to cause them to "dry or set or body faster, but in a different way and with a different result, as will hereinafter appear.

While the. theory of the action referred to is not completely and wholly understood, there are certain actions which take place, due to the impinging of the electrons upon the oil, etc. For example, when the said rays of the molecules of the said gases in addition to the action which is caused by the striking of the oil molecules by said electrons, resulting inthe formation of X-rays, which Application filed March 8, 1929. Serial No. 345,579.

which are called.

above mentioned publications, q

the surface of dryin strike against the molecules of oxygen, ni-" have a distinct efiect in bringing about the drying, setting or bodying of the oil above referred to. Furthermore, the rays passing through he air result in the formation of ozone, oxides of nitrogen and, also, an active nitrpgen. The drying, setting or bodying efiedt'due to the ozone as well as to nitrogen including the active nitrogen, has been demonstrated by actual test. There is also a corona effect due to the strained electrostati-c field acting upon the oils, or products made from or containing them, which aids in the drying action.

These oils may be subjected to the electrons or cathode rays, in bulk or in films, whether prevlously untreated or previously partially set, dried or bodied, as hereinafter referred to more in detail. Also, when the films of the oils are exposed to the rays in a position near the window of the tube, peculiar as well as beautiful wrinkled or patterned effects are produced in the films of oil.

In this way products of many different kinds may be so obtained, or treated by my process in some stage of their manufacture, as, for example, patent leather, oil cloth, oil fabrics generally, linoleum, window-shade materials, paint, oils, varnishes, enamels, lithographic varnishes, printing inks, lacuers, etc., and-in producing such products oil to be treated may be obtained by brus ing, flowing, dipping, spraying, and may have been partially dried or set or bodied on the surface, if desired, followed bysetting,-drying or bodying through the action of the said electrons or cathode rays.

While my invention is capable of being carried out in many difierent ways, for the purpose of illustration I shall describe only certain ways of carrying out the same hereinafter. v

For example, in carrying out my invention, the oils treated may be of any of the drying or semi-drying oils, as, for example, linseed oil, China wood oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, etc., the oils used for this purpose being any such oils at any stage from the raw state to the wholly or partially set, dried or-bodied, as, for instance, in the'form of a film. Also,

drying or semi-drying oil materials, by which lead, cobalt, manganese, iron or other metals,

I mean drying or semi-drying oils or prod ucts made fromthem or containing them, can

be exposed in a stationary position before the window of the tube so that the rays strike the surface normally, or at an angle thereto, or they may be moved past the window by some suitable device such as a conveyor, or conveying action arranged to expose the same thereto for the desired length of time. Or, if desired, they, may be located'in a vessel ro- 7 tated on an axis located at an. angle to the path of the electrons or rays in front of the window. Again, if desired, they may be-exposed to the electrons or rays by means of a rotating drum or roller dipping into the oil in a vessel so that the rotation of the drum or roller carries .the oil from the vessel through the air or gas in front of the window, and thus exposes it to the rays. Algain, if desired, instead, the oil may be sprayed through a chamber in the form of fine drop lets or mist, and thus'exposed to the action of the rays. It is-to be understood that many other methods of subjecting them to the rays may be used, if desired, according to the particular circumstances of each particular treatment. As above referred to, the oils or products made therefrom, or containing them will be acted upon more rapidly the nearer they are located to the window of the tube. Also, if the vesselin which they are contained is evacuated to some extent up to a high degree of vacuum, the effectiveness of the rays is found to be increased in the setting, drying or bodying of the .oils. Generally, the effect of the treatment is to increase the temperature of the body exposed to the rays, but for some purposes it may be found advantageous to subject the oils or products made from or containing them to an elevated temperature to speed up the action or change the type of action. Or, in other cases, it may be found desirable to cool them to hinder some reactions and accentuate others. Also, the effectiveness or speed or action may be varied accordingto the design of the tube used, and particularly the voltage used therein. Grenerally speaking, however, it is found that by the use of such a tube the setting, drying or bodying takes place with extraordinary rapidity, and may be even completely effected according to the conditions of the particular treatment from within a few minutes to an hour or so in a given instance.

Of course, the speed in the particular instance will be determined to some extent by the many conditions or factors bearing upon the setting, drying or bodying of such oils. For instance, this action will depend to some extent upon whether or not driers are present, or in what percentage they are used in the composition, such, for example, as metallic soaps or other accelerators such as resinates or linoleates, or other compounds of inasmuch as such accelerators, as well as any other auxiliary setting, drying or bodying agents would to some extent decrease'the time of treatment required in the particular instance.

It will also be understood that any other desired constituents may be present in the oils during the treatment, or added thereafter, in making paints, oils, varnishes, enamels, etc., therefrom, or any other of the manifold manufactured products which can be produced thereby or from the use of the materials made in accordance with my invention. For instance, any desired pigments,

driers, thinners, solvents, plasticizers, etc., may be added, as well as any desired gums, resins, etc. Thus, it will be understood that my invention is useful in the processing of any of the products hereinabove referred to.

In order that my invention may be better understood, for the purposes of illustration, I give the following specific instances showing how' the same has been applied:

Example 1V 0. 1.-Patent leather was pre pared in the usual manner with three coats of linseed oil finished and dried completely "except for the final treatment of sun ex;

posure. This treatment demands eight hours exposure to direct sunlight. Samples of this leather were exposed to the rays generated in a Coolidge cathodetube operated on one milli-ampere at a pressure of 250 kilovolts. The samples were held 10 inches from the window of the tube parallel to the Window and exposed for ten minutes. Such exposure gave a more complete and better finish than eight hours exposure to sunlight, so that the samples could safely be faced together and shipped.

E trample 1V0. 2.A rotary drum was positioned horizontal with its curved face at a minimum distance of 3 inches from a tube similar to that referred to in Example No. l and operated by alike current. This drum dipped into a dish of linseed oil and rotated very slowly so that the film of oil was exposed to the action of the .cathode rays for about 2 minutes. The treated oil was scraped from the drum after such exposure. The resulting product Was bodied approximately to F on the Gardner scale, but dried far faster than oil which had been bodied to a similar extent by the usual heat treatment.

Example N 0. 3.Printed linoleum was exposed to a similar tube using a like current to that described in Example No. 1 for 10 minutes at distances ranging between 4 and' applied to panels which were exposed at a distance of 3 inches from the same type of tube referred to, for from 8 to 10 minutes. Such exposure gave a drying eifect equivalent to 10 hours of air drying.

Ewample No. 5.Sand paper of the water 2 minutes and were renounced dry.

Example N 0. 6.- aper was printed with usual colored lithograph inks. On exposure for 2 minutes to the cathode tube de-- scribed, at a distance of 3 inches from the window, the ink had set sufiiciently to permit the sheets to be bound together and to an extent approximately equal to one hours drying under usual conditions.

While I have described my invention above in detail I wish it to be understood that many changes may be made therein wlthout' departing from the spirit of the same.

I claim:

1.,The process which comprises sub ect- .ing a dryin or semi-drying oil material to the action 0 impinging rays of electrons.

I 2. The process which comprises sub ecting a drying or semi-dryingoil materlal to the action of impinging cathode rays.

3. .The process which comprises subjecting a drying or semi-drying oil material to the action of impin 'ng cathode rays of the nature produced y a Coolidge cathode ray tube.

4. The process which comprises subjecting a drying oil to the section ofimpmglng rays of electrons.

5. The process which comprises subjecting a drying oil to the action of impinging cathode rays.

6. The process WhiCh'COIIlPI'lSBS subject ng a drying oil to the action of impinging calghode rays from a Coolidge cathode ray tu e.

7. The process which comprises subjecting a dr ing oil in the form of a film to the action 0 impinging rays of electrons.

8. The process which comprises sub ecting a dr ing oil in the form of a film to the action 0 impinging cathode rays.

9. The process which comprises sub ect'- ing a drying oil in the form of a film to the action of impingingv cathode rays from a Coolidge cathode ray tube.

10. The rocess which comprlses subjecting a drymg or semi-drying oil -material which has been previously partially set,

dried or bodied, to the action of the impinging rays-of electrons.

11. The process which comprises sub ecting a dryin or semi drying oil material which has heen previously partially set,

'dried' or bodied, to the action of impinging cathode rays.

12. The process which comprises subjecting a drying or semi-drying oil material which has been previously partially set, dried or bodied; to the action of impinging caghode rays from a Coolidge cathode ray tu e.

13. The process which comprises subjecting a drying oil which has been previously partially set, dried or bodied, to the action of impinging rays of electrons.

1 1'. The process which comprises subjecting ;a drying oil which has been previously partially set, dried or bodied, to the action of impinging cathode rays.

15,. The process which comprises subjecting, a drying oil which has been previously 17. The process which comprises subjecting a drying oil which has been previously partially set, dried or bodied, in the form of a film, to the action of impinging cathoderays.

18. The process which comprises subjecting a drying 011 which has been previously partially set, dried or bodied, in the form of a film, to the action of impinging cathode rays from a. Coolidge cathode ray tube.

19. The process which comprises subjecting a drying oil which has been previously partially set, dried or bodied, in the form of a film, to the action of impinging rays of electrons so as to obtain a patterned efli'ect.

20. The process which comprises subjecting a drying oil which has been previously parof a film, to the action of impinging cathode rays from a Coolidge cathode ray tube so as to obtain a patterned efiect.

22. The process which comprises subjecting a'drying oil which has been previously partially set, dried or bodied, in the form of a film, to the action of impinging rays of electrons so as to obtain a wrinkled efi'ect.

23. The process which comprises subjecting a drying oil which has been previously partially set, dried or bodied, in the form of a film, to the action of impmgmg cathode rays so as to obtain a wrinkled 'efi'ect.

24. The process which comprises subjecting I a drying oil which hasbeen previously partially set, dried or bodied, in the form of a film, to the action of imp nglng cathode rays 4- remove obtain a wrinkled effect.

25. The process which comprises subjecting a drying or semi-drying oil material to the action of X-rays.

, 26. The process which comprises subjecting a drying or semi-drying oil material to the action of impinging rays of electrons, said material being maintained under pressure less than that of the atmosphere.

27. The process which comprises subjecting a drying or semi-drying oil material tothe action of impinging cathode rays, said material being maintained under pressure less than that of the atmosphere.

28. The process which comprises subjecting a drying or semi-drying oil material'tp the action of impinging cathode rays from a Coolidge cathode ray tube, said material being maintained under pressure less thah that of the atmosphere. i

In testimony that I claim the foregoing, have hereunto set my hand this 2nd day of March, 1929. 1 JAMES SCOTT LONG.

Patent No. l, 818, 073.

(Seil) CERTIFICATE or CORRECTION.

i'ant ed August 11, 1931, to miss scorr LONG.

. it is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 3, line 39, claim 4; for the word "section." read'ac'tion; page 4, strike out lines 3 to 5, comprising claim 25, and for the ordina'ls of claims 26, 27 and 28 read 25, 26 and 27; and that the said'Letters Patent should be read with these correctionsiherein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the PatentOffice. Signed and sealed this 3rd day of-November; A. D. 1931.

I M. J. Moore, Acting Commissioner of Patents,

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2670483 *Oct 5, 1951Mar 2, 1954United Shoe Machinery CorpStiffening portion of shoes
US2793970 *Jun 3, 1955May 28, 1957Morris R JeppsonMethod of manufacturing electrical capacitors
US2803598 *Oct 16, 1953Aug 20, 1957Exxon Research Engineering CoGamma ray polymerization of unsaturated esters
US2936275 *Jul 2, 1956May 10, 1960Exxon Research Engineering CoRadiochemical treatment of drying oils
US3041203 *Feb 6, 1956Jun 26, 1962Miehle Goss Dexter IncQuick dry vehicle and method of drying same
US3047422 *Jan 9, 1956Jul 31, 1962Miehle Goss Dexter IncCoating material and method of drying same
US3050413 *Feb 1, 1956Aug 21, 1962Miehle Goss Dexter IncQuick drying printing ink for coating materials and method of drying same
US3051591 *Jul 23, 1958Aug 28, 1962Miehle Goss Dexter IncQuick drying vehicle and method
US3090698 *Feb 14, 1961May 21, 1963Standard Oil CoProcess for irradiating high hydrocarbon coatings on metal to form polymeric coatings and resultant article
US3097960 *May 28, 1956Jul 16, 1963Gen ElectricProcess for improving the crocking and color-fastness of pigment-printed fibrous sheets by irradiation
US3133828 *Dec 13, 1961May 19, 1964Alfred D SlatkinProcess and apparatus for polymerized surface coating
US3140197 *Mar 31, 1960Jul 7, 1964Heberlein & Co AgFinished textile and method of producing same
US3402073 *Nov 16, 1964Sep 17, 1968Texas Instruments IncProcess for making thin film circuit devices
US3973132 *Apr 14, 1975Aug 3, 1976Softal Elektronik GmbhApparatus for the treatment of non-conductive foils or like thin sheeting
US4070497 *Mar 6, 1973Jan 24, 1978Ppg Industries, Inc.Process of applying and curing a plurality of coatings
Classifications
U.S. Classification204/157.63, 522/182, 204/157.6, 522/66, 101/424.1, 204/157.87
Cooperative ClassificationC07C51/15