US 1818188 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug i ll, 1931.
H. BERGQUIST LIQUID TREATING APPARATUS Original Filed March 29. 1922 3 Sheets-Sheet. l
Aug. 11, 1931 H. B ERGQUIST' 1,818,188
LIQUID. TREATING APPARATUS 7 Original Fiiea March '29. 1922 s sheets-sheet, 2
W ll ul'ul INVEN'I'OR Aug. 11; 1931.
H. BERGQUIST LIQUID TREATING APPARATUS Original Filed March 29. 1922 3 Sheets-Sheet. 3
INVENTOR Patented Aug. 11, 1931 oi-fr ca HUGO BERGQUIST, OF SWISSVALE, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR 'IO ELLIOTT C(IMPANY, OF PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA, A CORPORATION PENNSYLVANIA.
LIQUID TREATING arram'rus fflrig'inal application filed March 29, .1922, Serial No. 547,868. Divided and this application 'filed' June 15, 1927. Serial No.'198,91'2.
i the use to which the water is put.
It h s heretofore been customary in apparatus of this general character as illustrated, for example, in the patent to W. S. Elliott, No. 1,321,999 of November 18, 1918, to pro- ,5 vide. a series of. separate organized pieces of I apphratus to carry out the various functions contemplated. Such separate pieces are assembled in-any desired relationship, one exterior to the other, by the use of suitable piping or connections. Such a construction not only involves a great deal of expense, but it also entails a certain loss of pressure due to the resistance to vapor flow through the connecting piping or passages. Likewise, the
: amount of room required for such an installation and the possibility of increased air infiltration are both factors of importance.
.With individual units as referred to, the
pressure loss is particularly noticeable be- ;p tween the evaporating chamber and the condenser, andthis necessarily resultsin the loss or decrease of efficiency. By the present invention the objectionable features referred to are obviated and advantageous results are ob- ,5 tamed.
I have also found that where vapor enters a condenser through a relatively restricted in-. let, there is apt to result a flow through the nests of tubes which flow is localized at a ,0 point where the vapor is introduced. This operation results from the use of separate units or pieces of apparatus assembled as generally contemplated and as hereinbefore referred to. By an organization in accord 5 'ance with the present invention, I am able-to produce -auniform flow through the, condenser and also to maintain therein the desired vapor velocity. o c
In the accompanying drawings there are .0 shown for purposes of illustration only, cerbe treated is .tain preferred embodiments of the present invent on, it being understood. that the draw,- ings do not define the limits of my invention as changes in the construction and arrangement disclosed therein may be made without departing either from the spirit of the inven tion or the scope of my broader claims.
In the drawings, 7 Figure 1' is a side elevation partly brokem away, illustrating one form of apparatus for treating liquid in accordance with the present invention; Figure 2 is a vertical sectional view on the line II1I of Figure 1, looking in the direction of the arrows;
Figure 3 is a partialdetail sectional view on a line III-III of Figure 1; and, Figure 4 is an end elevation of the left hand-end of the apparatus as viewed in Fig ure 1.
The invention is concerned primarily with that class of a paratus in which the liquid to rst heated and then enters the chamber wherein there is maintained a pressure such that a portion of the liquid evaporates. This evaporation is due to an instantaneous boiling or exploding of the liquid resulting from the liberation of heat supplied by the liquid itself. This results in the release of the entrained air and gases, andtheeondensation of the condensible portion thereof. This condensing is preferably effected in such manner that the heat released bythe vapors and gases is utilized. As the invention becomes better understood, however, it will be 85 apparent that certain advantages of the invention are obtainable irrespective of the specifi'c manner of operation of the apparatus provided the operation is such as to result 7 in the release of vapors and ases. 90 In carrying out the present invention, there may be provided a container2preferabl of generally cylindrical shape andv provided with removable heads "3 and 4. This container, in accordance with the present invention, may constitute a casing withinuwhich are arranged all or part of the different units utilized in effecting the desired treatment of the liquid. With this form of my invention the liquid to be treated may be supplied to the apparatus through a suitable inlet connection 5 communicating with a chamber 6 on the head 4. This chamber is in turn adapted to deliver the liquid to the tubes 7 of a condenser located within the container 2. The op-po= site ends of the tubes 7 discharge the liquid into a header 8 carried by the head 3. This header communicates in turn with the tubes 9 of a secondary condenser located within the container 2, whereby the liquid after leaving the tubes 7 of the primary condenser flows through the tubes 9 of the secondary condenser and thence into a chamber 10 on the head 4. This chamber may be provided with an outlet connection 11 which may lead to any desired form-of feed water heater located at any preferred point with res ect to the container2. In some instances have found it desirable to position the feed water heater entirely within the container 2.
* After leaving the feed water heater in' which it is raised to any desired temperature, the liquid is adapted to be delivered to a master control valve 12, the flow through which may be regulated by av suitably arranged fioat operated mechanism 13 actuated by the level of the liquid within the container 2 in known manner. After leaving the master controlling valve, the liquid is adapted to be delivered through a suitable connection 14 to one or more secondary valves 15. These valves, while they may be of a large number of different constructions, are preferably of the type shown and claimed in my copending application Serial No. 536,871 filed Feb. 13, 1922. In accordance with this form of my invention, the secondary valves each comprise a chamber 16 preferably vertically disposed and of such depth as to permit the accumulation of the desired head of water above the valve. Extending upwardly from each of the valves, and suitably secured thereto, is a valve stem. 17 passing through a suitable bushing or packing 18 in a casing 19. The upper end of each of the valve stems is preferably screw threaded to receive an adjustable filler head 20 by means of which the compression of the spring 21 may be varied as required.
The upper endof each valve stem, and also the compression spring, may be protected as, for example, by the provision of a removable cap 22.
Where a secondary valve of this character is utilized, it will beapparentthat the adjustment of the compression spring will determine the static head of water within the chamber 16, and that this may be varied to obtain any static head required for a given operating condition. For example, if the spring is so set that the static head necessary to overcome the tension thereof is equivalent to two feet of water, the valve will immediately be in to open as soon as the water in the chamber above the same rises to a distance of two feet. As this head increases, the extent to which the valve opens likewise increases. In this manner, there is insuredat all times, a substantially uniform velocity of discharge whereby the desired rate and manner of distribution are accurately controlled.
For effecting a further breaking up and distribution of-the liquid, the secondary valve is adapted to deliver the liquid to suitably arranged distributors 23 in the chamber 24 within the container 2. The spring of the secondary valve naturally restrains the opening of the valve, whereby the liquid will issue into the chamber 24 with considerable velocity. This, in, combination with the distributing means provided, effectively breaks up the liquid into fine particles or thin sheets, enabling the entrained gases and vapors to immediately free themselves from the liquid.
Within the chamber 24 I maintain a pres sure having such a value that the heated liquid sprayed thereinto will be instantly boiled or exploded due to the release of a portion of its contained heat, thereby resultin in the partial evaporation of the liquid an the instantaneous release of its entrained air and gases. For example, ifI maintain within the chamber 24 a pressure of five pounds per square inch absolute, water would boil in this chamber at a temperature of approximately 162 F. If the temperature of the water immediately before it passes the valve 15 is in excess of 162 F., a portion of it will be evaporated in the chamber 24 in the manner described.
The vapor released during this evaporation, together with the released gases, will enter the primary condenser and pass around the tubes 7 therein. Due to the location of this condenser within the container 2, it may be formed with an opening 25 extending the entire length, or major portion of the length, of one of its sides. This permits a uniform flow'through the nests of tubes within the condenser of a character which cannot be produced when the vapor and gases are locally supplied to the condenser through a restricted inlet. Furthermore, with a condenser of the construction illustrated, it will be apparent that-the area available for the flow of vapor and gases therethrough, decreases toward the outlet 26 ofthe condenser. This arrangement permits a proper proportioning of the flow areas for the vapor and gasestherethrough. I
It is desirable to have the available flow area diminish as the vapor penetrates into the condenser for the reason that the vapor is condensed by the first tubes against which it-1i1n-,
pinges, whereby the volume of flow decreases as penetration into the condenser increases.
During the passage of the vapor and gases through the primary condenser, it will be apparent that the heat thereof is absorbed by the incoming liquid passing through the tubes 7. III thIS manner, the heat of the vapor and gases is utilized in eflecting a partial preheating of the liquid. The primary condenser also serves the purpose of establishing.
make use of a suitable pump 27 of any well known type. This pump, however, is prefer-- ably of the steam ejector type. ,The entraining steam may be delivered thereto in-any desired manner, and preferably exhausts from the ejector into the'secondary condenser from which it may escape to the atmosphere through a suitable outlet 28.
By this arrangement the heat of the exhaust steam is also utilized for further raising the temperature of the liquid flowing from the primary condenser through the tubes 9 of the secondary condenser. In this manner it is possible to retain practically all of the heat utilized in the operation of the organized apparatus. It willbe apparent that, if desired,
the flow of liquid may be reversed in the ap paratus, whereby'it will fiow first through the tubes of the secondary condenser and then.
through the tubes of'the primary condenser.
Where the apparatus is operated under atmospheric pressure conditions, the use of ex- No. 547,868 filed March 29, 1922, and in which I have disclosed and claimed a construction of the general character herein described to; gether with the provision of means for reducing the temperature of the liquid after it has been treated in the chamber 24.
By the present invention, there is provided an ,apparatus which utilizes to advantage the spaces within the chamber of the container, thereby reducing the cost of independent containers and heat exchangers -necessary for the practice of this system of liquid treatment. The apparatus is (mmpact, accessible and may be inexpensively installed and operated. It thus possesses many advantages over apparatus as heretofore provided for this general purpose.
The condenser structure is also such as to receive and condense vapors under conditions tending to higher efliciency.
1. In a liquid treating apparatus, a container having a liquid space and a vapor space, a primary condenser in said vapor space and enclosed Within said container, an ejecting means therefor, a secondary condenser within said vapor space and enclosed within said container, said ejecting means discharging into said secondary condenser, and means for passing the liquid to be treated in series through said condensers.
2. In aliquid treating apparatus, a container having a series of units enclosed therein, means for passing liquid in series through such units and delivering it to said container and causing a partial evaporation thereof, means for automatically controlling the supply of liquid, at least one of said units constituting a condenser, and means cooperating with said condenser for effecting the withdrawal of non-condensible gases from said container.
3. In a liquid treating apparatus, a container having a series of units enclosed therein, means for delivering liquid to said container and bringing the same into pressure equilibrium with the pressure conditions obtaining therein, means for automatically controlling the supply ,of liquid, at least one of said units constituting a condenser, and ejecting means cooperating with said condenser for efiecting the withdrawal of noncondensible gases from the container, said ejecting means discharging into another of said units.
4. In a liquid treating apparatus, a container having a series of units enclosed therein, means for delivering liquid to said container and bringing the same into pressure equilibrium with the pressure conditions obtaining therein, means for automatically controlling the supply of liquid, at least one of said units constituting a condenser, and means cooperating with said condenser for efi'ecting the withdrawal of non-condensible gases from the container, there being a second condenser cooperating with said last mentioned means" for receiving the discharge therefrom.
5. In a liquid treating apparatus, a container comprising a chamber forming an evaporating chamber and having a plurality of condensers therein having separate vapor spaces, means for passing the liquid to be treated serially through said condensers dur-Jf ing its passage to said evaporating chamber, and gas withdrawing meansinterconnecting the respective spaces.
6. In a liquid treating apparatus, a container having a liquid space and a vapor space, a plurality of heat exchange units of different capacities in said vapor space, means for passing the liquid to be treated in series through said units, means for controlling the flow of liquid through said units in accordance with the demands in said apparatus for treated liquid, and means for. effecting the passage of gases through said units at'a different pressure for each unit.
7. In .a liquid treating apparatus, a container comprising a chamber forming an evaporating chamber and having a plurality of condensers therein, means for passing the liquid to be treated serially through said condensers during its passage to said evapo- 'rating chamber at least one of said condensers having a vapor inlet extending longitudinally thereof throughout the major portion of its length to provide a uniform vapor flow into and through the condenser, and means for Withdrawing vapors and gases from the condenser having-the elongated space, said condensers being of such construction that the cross sectional area-thereof in I the direction. of vaporflow gradually decreases, and means for withdrawing vapors and gases from adj acent the flow terminus of one condenser and discharging them 'into the other condenser.
9. In a liquid treating apparatus, a contamer having a liquid space and a vapor space, a primary condenser in said vapor space and enclosed within said container, a restricted dlscharge conduit therefor, a sec- .ondary condenser within'said vapor space and enclosed within said container, said conleast'one of said units constituting a condenser, and means cooperating with said condenser for effecting the withdrawal of noncondensiblegases from the container, there being a second condenser cooperating with said last mentioned means for receiving the discharge therefrom.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand.
duit discharging into said secondary condenser, means insuring thedischarge of noncondensible gases from said condensers, and means for passing the l quid to be treated in series through said condensers.
10. In a liquid treating apparatus, a con-' tainer having a liquid space and a vapor space, aiprimary condenser in said'vapor space and. enclosed within said container, a.
secondary condenser within said vapor space and enclosed within said container, means including a relatively small conduit for conducting vapors from the primary-to the secondary condenser, means for passing the liquid to be treated in series through said condensers, and -means for automatically controlling the flow of liquid through all of said condensers in accordance with the demands on said apparatus for treated liquid.
11. In a liquid treating apparatus, a container having a series of units enclosed therein, meansfor delivering liquid to said containerthrough a series of said series of units enclosed therein and bringing the sameinto pressure equilibrium with the-pressure cond1t1ons obtaining therein, means forautomatically controlling the supply of liquid, at