US 1818339 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 11, 1931. F. LANG 1,818,339
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed April 19. 1929 Patented Aug. 11, 1931- UNITED STATES PATENT. OFFICE FRANZ LANG, OF MUNICH, GERMANY, ASSIGNOR TO ACRO AKTIENGESELLSCHAIT, OI KUESSNACHT AM BIGI, SWITZERLAND INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Application filed April 19, 1929, Serial No. 356,423,'and in Germany .Tune 28, 1928.
The present invention relates to internal combustion engines of the type operated by the injection of liquid fuel which is selfignited and wherein the compression chamber is divided into three portions, firstly the cylinder chamber, secondly a mixing chamber and in free communication with the cylinder chamber, into which the fuel is injected, and thirdly a chamber which is connected 'with the mixing chamber solely by a throttling orifice.
In such engines the third chamber acts as an air reservoir into which air is forced during the compression stroke and then flows during the combustion through the throttling orifice into the mixing chamber where it supplies the combustion air.
In certain known engines of the type described, the throttling orifice consists of a single narrow port. It has however also been proposed to'divide the throttling orifice into a plurality of ports. These proposals do not however detail the relative location of the individual ports.
According to the present invention, the throttling orifice is divided into a main port and at least one auxiliary port, the mouth of which is directed into the mixing chamber 39 so that the current flowing out of the same meets the jet of fuel at a different point and a different angle from the current emerging from the main port. A considerably better admixture of the fuel with the air is obtained in many cases in this manner than is possible with only one wide main port without any auxiliary ports.
Two forms of construction of the invention by way of example are shown in the accompanying drawings in which Figure 1 is a longitudinal section through the cylinder and piston in one form of construction in which the auxiliary chamber is located in the piston.
Figure 2 is a longitudinal section through the cylinder and piston of a modified form of construction in which the auxiliary chamber is provided in the cylinder head.
Figure 3 is a plan view of a detail of Fig- 50 ure 2.
In the first form of construction shown in Figure l the actual cylinder is indicated by a, the plston reciprocating therein by b, the cylinder head by c and the injection nozzle and holder by d. The piston is hollowed out on the side opposite the cylinder head and a bell-shaped shell 6, the open faceof which is covered by a cover f, is provided in the recess. The shell and cover are held in ppsition by a covering ring g screwed on to the plston.
The compression chamber is divided into three portions. It is composed of I firstly, the cylinder chamber h, the volume of which varies during the movement of the piston, second, a frusto-conical mixing chamber 11 located in the cover f and in free communication with the cylinder chamber, and thirdly a chamber defined by the shell and the 70 cover. This is permanently connected with the mixing chamber by a narrow port m and also by a plurality of narrow auxiliary ports n. The narrowest part of the auxiliary ports is at the point where they open into the mixing chamber.
The operation of the engine described is as follows After the fuel injected into the funnel chamber 71 in the proximity of the top dead centre has commenced to burn, the air forced out of the cylinder chamber into the auxiliary chamber by the piston during the compression stroke flows through the main port m and the auxiliary ports 1 back into the mixing chamber and there assists the combustion. The orifices of the auxiliary ports in the mixing chamber are so positioned that air emerging therefrom meets the jet of fuel injected through the nozzle (1 at a different point and a different angle from the current emerging from the main port.
' In this manner intimate and rapid admixture of the air with the fuel and consequently smokeless combustion is obtained.
The ducts of the auxiliary ports follow a straight course. The axes thereof intersect at a point located on the axis of the cylinder. The auxiliary ports are symmetrically positioned.
a compression space, an auxiliar chamber on the .rical arrangement of the auxiliary A notable feature of the first form of construction is that better evacuation of the auxiliary chamber is obtained by meansof the auxiliary ports than was possible w th a suitably enlarged main port as the air which is located in the portion 0 of the chamber located above the dotted linetherefore as regards the main ports in a dead spacecan escape through the auxiliary rts.
The main difference between the second form of construction and the first is the arrangement of the auxiliary chamber which is provided in the cylinder head instead of in the piston. Corresponding elements are indicated by the same reference numerals as in Figure 1.
The only difference in operation in the second form of construction is that a resultant blowing effect is obtained by the symmetorts which forces the flame formed in the ml xing chamber 11 against the cylinder wall so that v the parts surrounding the mixing chamber are not to strongl heated.
The number 0 auxiliary ports and the sha of the same is of no importance for the rea nation of the invention. On the other hand, however, it is important that the total cross section of the ports includin the main port should always exceed a de nite minimum.
v 1. An internal combustion engine comprising in combination a cylinder forming a main compression chamber, an element having a truncated conical opening, the narrow end of which lies remote from said main compression space, an auxiliary compression chamber on the opposite of said narrow end of said truncated conical space communicating with said truncated space by auxiliary passages in said element at an angle to the sides of the conical space therein and an injection nozzle adapted to project fuel throughpart of said main compression chamber into said conical space.
2. An internal combustion engine comprising in combination a cylinder forming a main compression chamber, an element having a truncated conical opening, the narrow end of which lies remote from said main compression 0 posite of said narrow end of said truncated conical space communieating with said truncated space by auxiliary passages in said element at an angle to the sldes of the conical s ace therein, the narrowest cross section of a main compression chamber, an element having a truncated conical opening, the narrow end of which lies remote from saidvmain compression space, an auxiliary compression chamber on the opposite side of said narrow end of said truncated conical space, the remote corners of which communicate with said truncated space by auxiliary passages in said element at an angle to the sides of the conical space therein and an injection nozzle adapted to project fuel through part of said main compression chamber into said conical s ace. 7
4. In an internal combustion en 'ne having a main compression chamber an an auxiliary compression chamber, a member provided with a truncated conical passage connecting said chambers, said member being provided with an auxiliarypassage extending from said auxiliary compression chamber to said truncated conical pas sage; 5; An internal combustion en ine havin a main compression chamber and an auxiliary compression chamber connected by a mixing chamber tapering toward said auxiliary compression chamber, said mixin chamber also being connected to said auxi iary compression chamber by an auxiliar. passage tapering toward said mixing cham r.
6. An internal combustion engine of the self-ignition type having a main compression chamber and an auxiliary compression chamber connected by a truncated conical mixing chamber tapering toward said auxiliary compression chamber, said mixing chamber being provided with a throttling constriction where it opens into said auxiliary compres sion chamber, and an injection nozzle adapted to project fuel through part of said main compression chamber into said mixing chamber, said mixing chamber also being connected to said auxiliary com ression chamber by a plurality of auxiliary nets.
7. An internal combustion engine as setout in claim 6 in which the auxiliary ducts are unsymmetrically arran ed.
In testimony whereof I ave hereunto affixed my signature.
which is at the point at which t hey open into said conical space,