|Publication number||US1820878 A|
|Publication date||Aug 25, 1931|
|Filing date||Sep 22, 1926|
|Priority date||Sep 22, 1926|
|Publication number||US 1820878 A, US 1820878A, US-A-1820878, US1820878 A, US1820878A|
|Inventors||George H Wyckoff|
|Original Assignee||Doherty Res Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (22), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Aug. 25, 1931. e. H. WYCKOF-F 1,820,878
CATALYTIC COMBUSTION BY MEANS OF REFRACTORIES' Criginal Filed Sept. 22, 1926 ZJwwM LCoz GEORGE H. WYCKOFF 3351;; hi s am,
' ing of catalytic'material, more linings in the Patented Aug. 25, 1 931 UNITED'QSTATEIS"PATENT OFFICE GEORGE E. WYCK OFF, OF MOUNTAIN LAKES, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO DOHERTY RESEARCH COMPANY, OF NEW YORK N. Y., A CORPORATION OF DEEAWABE 1 caranrrrc comausrrou BY MEANS or anrnacroarrs Application fll'ea September 22, 1926, Serial No. 137,067. Renewed January 3, 1951.
The present invention'relates to the promotion of combustion in internal-combustion engines.-
It has been proposed to use refractory tion engines and to-u'se refractory coverings on the pistons or on piston extensions in such engines for the purposeof minimizing the loss of heat through the cylinder walls and through the piston during Working stroke. It has been proposed, also, to use a thin coatspecifically material containing cerium oxide, on the inner surfacesofthe combustion space of internal-combustion engines to obtain improvement in efliciency of combustion.
Qne object of the present invention is to provide a cylinder lining for internal combustion engines which will provide a minimum loss of heat due to radiation and give a catalytic effect for the promotion of combustion. I v
It is evident that any cylinder lining materialsused for minimizing the loss of heat fromthe interior of an engine through the cylinder Walls and pistons must havea high insulating capacity; in other Words, the specific resistance to large. However, if the material is unable to withstand the maximum pressures developed within the engine atthe temperatures so occurring at the time of combustion, a given material can not be used even though it has a high specific resistance. The material used must therefore retain a high compression strength at high temperatures. It is evident also, that a very thin layer of material having a high heat resistancemay prevent the esca e of as much heat as a thicker layer of material having a lower heat resistance." It is therefore desirable that thematerial to be used as a lining for cylinders of internal-combustion engines should have not only a high specific resistance-to heat flow, but should also be capable of withstanding the pressures and temperatures developed within the engine When used in relatively thick layers.
As the heat lost through the Walls of a cylinder and piston is reduced vthe temperatures of the inner surfaces of these walls cylinders of internal-combus heat flow should be necessarily increases and the total radiation from said inner surfaces also increases. The increased radiation from the surfaces of the combustion space of the engine .is an advantage in that radiation of certain wave lengths has a specifically favorable effect on promoting combustion. Further,an increase of the total radiation acts to increase the radiation of the most desirable wave lengths for promoting combustion. The proper selection on of refractory substances for linings therefore may have a very desirable effect oncombustion in the cylinder due to their increasing effect on the radiation. After combustion has been completed within the engine cylinder 6 the lining surfaces radiate energy into the products of combustion Within the cylinder as they are cooled by expansion both during the power stroke and at"the time of exhaust. It is desirable therefore that the lining materials should have a high radiation constant and it has been found that different materials have different radiation constant. If the radiation constant is not sufiiciently high the surface of the linings will become heated to such a high temperature due to low radiation exchanges to the products of combustion so that preignition will occur-Within the cylinder when operating on certain cycles. This has been found to be particularly true when operating on the ordinary Otto cycle. Moreover, certain substances possess the characteristic of selective radiation. As above indicated, radiation of certain given Wave lengths is much more active in promoting combustion than radiation of other wave lengths. It is evident therefore that mate-. rials having a greater percentage than the average of their total radiation in the most favorable wave lengths for promoting c'ombustion aremoredesirable for use within engine cylinders than those Whose radiation is equally distributed throughout the wave length range, or those having selective radiation of a Wave length range not particularly favorable to the promotion of combustion.
It has been found, further, that the presence of small quantities of radioactive substances in materials used as linings for the combustion spaces of internal-combustion eni may be kept bustion engines and on the pistons or piston extensions of such engines. Moreover, the resistance to heat flow from linings and piston coverings formed of native zircon is such that the total radiation loss from high power cylinders in which the temperatures reach the disassociation point of a heavy fuel oil same time, the specific radiation favorable to combustion, given off by the zircon linings is high and the total radiation is suflicient to prevent preignition when used' in Otto, engines. Furthermore, the native zircon sands found in Florida and vicinity, while supplied to the tradein high degree of purity, contain a fraction of 1% of substances of a radioactive nature and the radiation or rays given off by the linings of this material have been found to be very effective in promoting combustion in engines, partly due to the effects of the radio-active material.
In the accompanying drawing, the figure is a seetionalview of the cylinder and piston of an internah'combustion engine with linings therein which embody the preferred form of the invention.
In the drawing, 10 is the cylinder of an internal-combustion engine having a combustion space 12. Air for supporting combustion is introduced into the space 12 from the pipe 14 through the intake valve 16. If desired, the fuel for the engine may be introduced into cylinder 10 at the same time as the air, in the 'form of a carbu reted mixture. 'In
this case, the engine may be operated according to the ordinary Otto cycle.r If desired, however, after the air has been taken into the cylinder heavy oil fuel may be sprayed into it from the pipe 18 as is customary in the operation of the so-called Diesel engine. In case the heavy oil fuel is used, the air introduced into the cylinder "preferably is compressed and preheated to the ignition point of the fuel, prior to its entering the cylinder.
If desired, the air may be compressed within the cylinder to the point of ignition as is' commonly done in Diesel engine practice. However, hot tube or other form of ignition apparatus may be used if desired.
After the fuel has been ignited and burned in the engine, the products of combustion expand in the usual manner and are exhausted through an exhaust valve 20 and pipe 22.
Methods of and apparatus for introducing fuel as a carbureted mixture or as .a spray are well known in the art and are not illusto approximately 5%. At the.
trated or described in detail herein. More over, methods of operating intakea'nd exhaust valves of internal combustion engines and -apparatus for carrying out such methods are also welllinown in the art and need no illustration or description herein.
The inner surfaces of thecombustion space .ida or in other deposits of zircon possessing small amounts of radio-active impurities. The piston 26 of cylinder 10 moreover is preferably provided with an extension havinga relatively thick covering 28 also of zircon and preferably of the radio-active variety. By the arrangement of piston and piston extension just mentioned the piston rings 30 can bear against theinner surface of a water plates or linings 24 or bonded z rcon,
cooled section 32 of the cylinder 10. This feature, however, forms no part of the present iIIVGIItiOIlE The piston rod 34 preferably is connected to a crank shaft (not shown) in the ordinary manner.
The engine according to the present invention may be governed in any preferred or ordinary manner.
Having thus described my invention, .I claim:
1 In an internal-combustion engine, a cylinder the combustion space of which is covered at least in part by a lining containing a radio-active substance and having sufficient thickness to materially reduce the passage of heat through the wall of the cylinder.
2. An internal-combustion engine, the combustion space of which is at least partially covered by a lining of zircon including a radio-active substance.
3. An internal-combustion engine whose surfaces exposed to combustion are substan' tially entirely covered by heat insulating coverings'containing a radio-active substance.
4. An internal-combustion engine whose surfaces exposed to burning fuel are formed entirely of heat insulating coverings of zir-.
In testimony whereof I afiix my signature.
GEORGE H. WYGKOFF.
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|U.S. Classification||123/668, 92/170.1, 92/248, 123/670|
|International Classification||F02B77/02, F02B51/02|
|Cooperative Classification||F02B77/02, Y02T10/126, F02B51/02|
|European Classification||F02B77/02, F02B51/02|