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Publication numberUS1820899 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 25, 1931
Filing dateApr 10, 1924
Priority dateApr 10, 1924
Publication numberUS 1820899 A, US 1820899A, US-A-1820899, US1820899 A, US1820899A
InventorsHallock Greenewalt Mary
Original AssigneeHallock Greenewalt Mary
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Lighting appliance
US 1820899 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 25, 1931. M. H. GREENEWALT LIGHTING APPLIANCE 3' Sheets-Sheet 1 Original Filed April 10, 1924 9w Pa 2 m INVENTOR ATTO NEY Ma/yf/d/ackreene wa/z Aug. 25, 1931. M. H. GREENEWALT LIGHTING APPLIANCE Original Filed April 10, 1924 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 'INVENTOR Mary Ha//0cA'G/'ee/1e wa/z 6M ATTORNEY Aug. 25, 1931. M. H. GREENEWALT LIGHTING APPLIANCE Original Filed April 10, 1924 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 R O T N E V W Mary /FW/ock Greene we It ATTORNEY Patented Aii 25, 1931 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE LIGHTING APPLIANCE Application filed April 10, 1924, Serial No. 705,568. Renewed November 13, 1929.

AL actuated by an electric motor under the volitional control of an operator.

Another object of my invention is to provide a parabolic reflector, of substantially sector-shape in lateral section, operatlvely l5 associated with a color Wheel.

Another object of my invention is to provide an electrically-actuated plural-color light-modifying means with a remote means for indicating the position thereof, as well as 7 the direction and speed of operation.

ln practicing my invention I prov de a rotatably mounted color wheel comprising a worm gear wheel and a plurality of sectors of different color media mounted thereon. A

reflector of parabolic shape in longitudinal section and of substantially sector-shape in lateral section and containing a light source, is operativcly associated with said color wl'ieel. One or a plurality of such color wheels and reflectors located in side-by-side relation, are actuated by an electric motor that is under the volitional control of an operator, as to speed and direction of rotation whereby any desired color location may T be obtained.

Remote indicating means are provided to indicate the position of saidcolor wheel relatively to the light source, and also to indicate the speed and direction of rotation thereof.

In the drawings, Figure 1 is a view, in front elevation, of a device embodying my invention, Fig. 2 is a view, in side elevation thereof,

' Fig. 3 is asectional view therethrough,

taken on the line IIIIII of Fig. 2,

' Fig. 4 is a sectional view theretl'irougb, taken on the line IV-IV of Fig. 2,

Fig. 5 is a sectional view therethrongh,

taken on the line VV of g- 2,

motor, and,

Fig. 6 is a view, in vertical section, taken on the line VI-VI of Fig. 1 and shown on an enlarged scale,

Fig. 7 is a schematic diagram of connections of a control circuit for the driving Fig. 8 is a schematic diagram of connections of a remote indicating means.

A plurality of lighting ap liances designated by the numerals 11 an 12in Fig. 1, respectively comprise a color wheel 13 that may be constructed as a worm gear wheel having a rim provided with worm gearteeth, a central hub 14, and a plurality of arms 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 that extend-substantially radially from the hub 14 to the rim 13, or that may be constructed without the worm gear teeth and have a worm gear wheel operatively associated therewith. Each of the hereinbefore enumerated radial arms is provided with a substantially co-extensive metal strip 21 that is secured to the co-operating arm by a pluralit of suitable machine screws 22. A strip 23, 0 suitable cushioning or resilient material such as located between the strip 21 and the cooperating arm in order that the strip may be spaced a suitable distance from the arm, with which it. is operatively associated.

A light-modifying medium is located in each of the openings, of substantially sectorshape, provided by adjacent pairs of radially extending arms and a portion of the rim 13 included therebetween. As illustrated more particularly in Fig. 1 of the drawings,

I may provide a light-modifying means 24 in one of the openings that will color light tra ersing-the same blue. The next opening of sector-shape may be provided with a light-modifying means 25, colored green. The next light-modifying means 26 may be colored orange, the next light-modifying means 27 may be colored red, and the last light-mmlifying means 28 may be colored purple. While I have-illustrated a specific order of colors. I do not desire to be limited thereto as any desired sequence of colors may be employed. and I may employ any desired number of light-modifying means.

In order to permit of easily and quickly asbestos cord or tape, is

changing any one of the light-modifying media hereinbefore described, I provide a resilient holding means 29 for each of the light-modifying media. This holding means is suitably mounted against a portion of the rim within a suitably protected depression 30 that is located substantially .midway between two arms, as many depressions and holding means being provided as there are sectors of color media.

While I have hereinbefore described a particular embodiment of light modifying means comprising a plurality of separate members that are properly colored, I may employ a single, substantiallycircular colored member such as colored transparent bakelite, or some other heat resisting material possessing the other requisite essentials, or pyrex glass, haying a material of various colors. each of sector-shape, located against the outer surface thereof in which case the strips 19 and 23 and the screws 22 would be entirely eliminated as is shown partially done in Fig. 1, the lines denoting color, of the sectors in this drawing, being then extended to meet or slightly overlap each other. This latter construction has the advantage that the adjacent coloring members may overlap or merge slightly and therefore the change from one color to another will be more gradual than is the case with the construction shown in the drawings. The latter construction prevents the projecting of the arms of the gear wheel when a concentrated filament is used as a light source.

Each of the hereinbefore described color wheels are rotatably mounted on a standard 31 by means of a suitable bearing member 32 that may take the form of a bolt having a screw-threaded end upon which is mounted a nut 33 held in its proper operative position by a cotter pin 34. The standard 31 has its lower end mounted on a base plate 35, a plurality of machine bolts 36 being employed to hold the standard against the base.

The standard 31 is provided with a supporting plate 37 mounted there-against and composed of a relatively thin sheet metal member that has a central opening 38 therein which surrounds the hub 14. The lower and relatively narrow portion of the member 37 is secured against the front surface of the standard by a plurality of machine screws 39, while the upper portion thereof is relatively wide and has an opening 41 therein that is of substantially sector-shape and of substantially the same sizeas the light-modifying means. a

A reflector 42, the front edge of which is bent outwardly, as is shown more particularly in Fig. 6 of the drawings, is secured against the supporting plate 37 by a plurality of relatively small machine screws 43. The

reflector 42 is of substantially sector-shape at its open front end, as is shown more particularly in Fig. 3 of the drawings, in order that it may'conform. to the shape of the respective light-modifying means hereinbefore described as carried by the color wheel. This allows of the greatest square inch opening possible to a compact means for merging one full intensity color into another. At the rear closed end of the reflector the shape in lateral section is substantially circular, while intermediate thereof the shape is substantially that of a sector or a triangle whose curved angles become more and more obtuse the triangle decreases in area, thus insuring the availability of every ray possible to the light quantity use.

Figures 3, 4, and 5 illustrate the shape of the reflector, in lateral section at various points along the length thereof. I wish to make it. plain that the usefulness of this reflector is not restricted to its place in this particular appliance. The reflector is of substantiallyparabolicshape,in longitudinal section, and the inner surface thereof is either highly polished as is usual in reflectors of this kind, or provided with a suitable lightreflecting coating. A light unit 44, that is of a highly compact type and of relatively great intensitv, is mounted in the reflector 42 in such position that the filament is localed at substantially the focus of the reflector. As lamps of this type are usually provided with relatively elongated bulbs it may be necessary to provide a cover member 45 on the reflector 42 substantially opposite to a removable socket member 46 in which the base of the light source is mounted. The cover member 45 may be so constructed that it will allow of ventilating the l'elloctor and may also be hinged to permit of inserting the lamp from the top. A suitable twin conductor cord 47 permits of energizing the light source 44.

As hereinbcfore stated, the color wheels may be built as worm gear wheels, (or as parts joined to gear wheels), and I provide a suitable electric motor 48 that may be located on the base 35 to cause rotation of the respective color wheels. The shaft of the motor 48 may be provided with a pinion 49 that meshes with a gear wheel 51 that is mounted at one end of a shaft 52 that is suitably supported in a plurality of end bearing members 53 and an intermediate bearing member 54. The shaft 52 may be held in its proper operative position in the bearing members by a plurality of spaced collars 55 suitably mounted thereon. The worm gear wheel comprising a part of thecolor wheel 11, or moving the same, is actuated by a worm 56 that is suitably mounted on the shaft 52 betweena pair of the bearings 53, and a secondworm 57 mounted on the shaft 52 operates the color wheel 12.

In Fig. 7 of the drawings I have illustrated lue a diagram of connections for the motor 48, to permit an operator to have volitional manual control thereof. A two-pole reversing switch 58 is mounted at any suitable or desired point, and may in fact be mounted on the light player console that is more particularly described and claimed in my copending application Serial No. 684,162, filed January I}, 1924. The motor 48 is preferably made a direct current shunt wound motor in order to permit of easily and quickly varying the speed thereof, an adjustable resistance 59 being provided. A pivotally mounted electricconducting member 61 has its outer end in operative engagement with the resistor 59, and is moved byan actuating member 62 extending through the top plate 63 of a light player console. The member 61 is yieldingly held in substantially the position illustrated in the drawings by a spring member 64 that is insulated therefrom.

When the operator desires to cause the motor to actuate the color wheel he moves the reversing switch 58 to either one of its limiting positions in accordance with the direction in which he desires the color wheel to move. By pressing upon the member 62 with either a finger or his hand he energizes the motor 48 and causes it to operate at a speed that is in substantially direct proportion to the pressure exerted by the operator on the member 62 against the spring. 64. That is, the harder the operator presses on the actuating member 62, the more resistance is cut out of the circuit and hence the higher will be the speed of the motor. The length of time that the operator presses on the pressure member 62 determines the amount of turning movement of the color wheels effected by the motor.

It is highly desirable, if not actually necessary, to provide a means for indicating the po ition of the color wheel relatively to the light source as it is desirable to locate a predetermined color means in front of the reflector before the light source is energized. The light unit and color wheel may also be located some distance away from the operator and be invisible to him.

In Figs. 1-2, 6 and 8 I have illustrated a relatively simple and compact means for in dicating at a distance, the position, and progress of the color wheel. An annular member 65, that may be of metal or of an electricinsulating material, and that is of substantially the same diametral dimensions as the rim of the wheel 13, is mounted against the front surface of the plate 37. The member 65 is provided with a channel 66 in its front surface, within which are located a plurality of spaced elongated individual resistor members 67, 68, 69, 71, and 72, their number being equal to the number of color media. I may employ either a granular resistor material such as carbon or graphite, or a suitably embedded resistor member of wire. In either case the resistor member is lnsulated from gular extent. of each of the resistor members is substantially equal to that of the color media and blocks 74, of electric-insulating material, separate the adjacent ends of the resistor members. The annular member 65 is secured against the plate 37 by a plurality of machine screws 75.

A plurality of relatively small lamps 76,77, 78, 79, and 81, are located near the operator and are colored blue, green, orange, red, and purple respectively. One end of the respective resistor members is electrically connected to one terminal of the lamps byconductors 82, 83, 84, 85, and 86 respectively. The outer periphery of the annular member 65 is grooved, as illustrated in Fig. 6 of the drawings and the conductors may be located therein and extend to the bottom portion thereof where they may be formed into a cable and run to the light player console at which the operator is located. The other terminal of the respective lamps is electrically connected together and to a supply circuit conductor 87. A second supply circuit conductor 88 is electrically connected to the color wheel 13, which carries a brush 89, that operatively engages the front surface of the annular member 65 and the resistor members carried thereby.

The brush 89 is illustrated as being in operative engagement with the resistor 67, that is electrically connected to the blue signal,

lamp 7 6. The color wheel is in the position illustrated in Fig. 1 of the drawings, that is, the blue color means is directly in front of the reflector and the light source. All of the resistors 67, 68, 69, 71, and 72 are so proportioned relatively to the signal lamps controlled thereby that the intensity thereof is reduced to a predetermined minimum value when all of the resistance is in .circuit. Hence, when the brush 89 is at substantially the middle of the resistor the signal light 76 will be at an intensity that is intermediate between the maximum" and the predetermined minimum value. This indicates to the operator that the blue color means is in substantially its proper central position relatively to the reflector.

If the operator causes the color wheel to rotate in a counter-clockwise direction, the brush 89 operates to cut out the resistance 67, thereby causing the intensity of the lamp 76 to increase to its maximum value and then to be decreased to zero as the brush moves away from the resistor 67 and then engages the resistor 72. The lamp 77 is initially energized to its lowest value, as all of the resistor 72 is in circuit therewith and is then cut out by a continued rotation of the color wheel. As the signal lamp 77 is green it in dicates to the operator that the green color its support by a suitable insulating mate- Il8.l indicated by the numeral 73. The anmedium is being moved in front of the refiector. It may be noted that the sequence of colors of the signal lamps is the reverseto that of the color media, in order that the correct indications may be given to the operator of the positions of the color wheel.

When thecolor wheel is rotated in a counter-clockwise direction the respective signal lamps are initially energized to a minimum value and the intensity is then increased. Whereas, if the color wheel is rotated in a clock .vise direction the reverse condition of energization of the respective signal lamps obtains. Hence the operator may determine the direction of rotation of the color wheel by noting whether the signal lamps become brighter or dinnner as the color wheel rotates, and a central position of a color medium is indicated by the intermediate intensity of a signal lamp.

This indicator may also beemployed to move the color wheel to a predetermined position when the light source is'not energized. The color wheel may be positioned relatively to the reflector, its exact position being given by the indicator, and the light source may then be suitably energized.

I may employ lighting appliances of the hereinbefore described construction, as the light sources referred to in my copending application Serial No. 684,162 filed January 3, 1924. I may also employ such lighting appliances as the sources of light described in my copending application Serial No. 697,265 filed March 6, 1924. In each of these cases the light source may be located in any one of a number of different positions, in general, however, being located at some distance from the op erator, and hence the motor must beremotely controlled. A number of such lighting appliances may be located in predetermined positions in an auditorium in order to effect illumination thereof, or more particularly, to permit of practicing my system of light and color play as disclosed and claimed in my previous applications.

Since a combination of colors is also useful, for example, red and blue make purple, and red and green make yellow, such combinations can also be obtained by the proper operation of two or more mechanisms as herein described.

I may employ the construction illustrated in Fig. 1 of the drawing in footlights. \Vhen so used a' less number of individual light sources may be employed than heretofore, and the light produced thereby may be colored when and as desired. It is only necessary to provide an indicator as hereinbefore described to indicate to the operator, which of the respective colors is located in front of the reflector, the usual means for controlling the intensity of the light sources being employed in connection therewith to suitably regulate the intensity of the light sources and their tint.

The device embodying my invention thus provides a novel construction. The color med1a are mounted directly on the color wheel, and a reflector that is of substantially sector-shape in lateral section is operatively associated with said color media. Either one or a plurality of such color media and reflectors may be employed and may be caused to operate by controlling means that is under the direct volitional manual mascular touch and timing feel control of the operator. Any desired timed sequence of movement of the color media may be effected by the operator.

The device embodying my invention also provides a relatively simple and compact means actuated by a rotatable color wheel for indicating to a remotely located operator the position, and progress of a color wheel.

The parabolic reflector, of sector-shape in lateral section at its front end, and the color media of corresponding sector-shape, permit of obtaining the greatest possible area of the beam of light produced by the light source, andthe compact, lensless construction permits of the effective use of all of the light produced, an action that is highly important in color lighting.

Various modifications may be made in the device embodying my invention without departing from the spirit and scope of my invention, and I desire that only which limitations shall be placed thereon as are imposed by the prior art.

7 I claim as my invention 1. In a lighting appliance, the combination with alight source, of a reflector therefor, of substantially sector shape in anterior transverse cross sections and approximately parabolic shape in its posterior portion.

2. In a lighting appliance, the combination with a light source, of a reflector therefor, of substantially sector-shape in lateral anterior section, a plate to which said reflector is secured, having an opening of sectorshape thcrethrough, and a light-modifying means moving in front of said plate.

3. In a lighting appliance, in combination, a base, astandard, a color wheel rotatably mounted on said standard, a supporting plate secured to said standard, a reflector, of substantially sector-shape in lateral section, mounted on said supporting plate back of said color wheel, a light source in said reflector, an electric motor. and means actuated by said motor directly operatively engaging said color wheel at its periphery for causing rotation thereof.

4. In a lighting appliance, in combination, a supporting plate having an opening therein. a reflector, of substantially sectorshape in lateral section, having its open end secured to said plate at one side thereof and at said opening, a rotatable color wheel lo .cated closely adjacent to said plate and at i the other side thereof, and, a single means for operatively supporting both said plate and said color wheel in proper operative po sitions relatively to each other.

5. In combination, a source of light, a series of color filters, a motor. driving mechanism fOr moving the colorfilters in succession across the path oflight from the source,

and means for controlling the speed of move.- ment of the color filters, said means for controlling the-s eed of movement comprisinga rheo'stat having a contact member, flexibly resilient means for moving said member,

- whereby the movement may be controlled by' a hand pressure andrelease of suchpressur'e. 6. 'In combination, a source of light, a series of color filters,- a motor driving mechanism for moving the color filters in succession across the path of light from the source, j mote means for controllingthe speed of movement of the color filters and for chang' ing their direction of movement, a plurality of signal lamps adjacent the controlling.

means corresponding to and in a corresponding order to the various color filters, and means operated upon movement'of a color filter across the path of light to increase the intensity of the signal lamp corresponding thereto as the filter moves in one direction and to decrease the intensity of said lamps as it moves in the other direction. In testimony whereof I aflix my signature.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2420023 *Apr 29, 1943May 6, 1947Sun Chemical CorpChangeable lens and filter structure for copy cameras
US2480178 *May 8, 1946Aug 30, 1949Ivan H ZinbergLight conductor
US4392187 *Mar 2, 1981Jul 5, 1983Vari-Lite, Ltd.Computer controlled lighting system having automatically variable position, color, intensity and beam divergence
US4600976 *Feb 25, 1985Jul 15, 1986Michael CallahanColor changer mechanism
US5371655 *May 22, 1992Dec 6, 1994Panavision International, L.P.System for varying light intensity such as for use in motion picture photography
US5515119 *Mar 25, 1994May 7, 1996Panavision International, L.P.System for varying light intensity such as for use in motion picture photography
U.S. Classification362/231, 359/889
International ClassificationF21V7/09, F21S10/00, F21S10/02, F21V7/00
Cooperative ClassificationF21V7/09, F21S10/02, F21S10/007
European ClassificationF21V7/09, F21S10/02, F21S10/00C