|Publication number||US1823158 A|
|Publication date||Sep 15, 1931|
|Filing date||May 10, 1930|
|Priority date||May 15, 1929|
|Publication number||US 1823158 A, US 1823158A, US-A-1823158, US1823158 A, US1823158A|
|Inventors||Spatta George, Edmund C Mogford|
|Original Assignee||Clark Equipment Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (73), Classifications (12)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Sept. 15, 1931. E. c. MOGFORD ETAL 1,323,158
AXLE AND HETHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Original Filed May 15, 1929 WMW Q Fatented Sept. 15, 1931 UNITED STATES CLARK EQUIPMENT MICHIGAN PATENT OFFICE EDMUND C. MOGFORD GEORGE SPATTA, OF BUCHANAN, MICHIGAN, ASSIGNORS TO COMPANY, OF BUCHANAN, MICHIGAN, A CORPORATION OF AXLE AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME Original application filed May 15, 1929, Serial No. 363,362. Divided and this Serial No. 451,229.
Our invention relates to tubular front axles for automobiles and the like and to the method of making the same.
This application is a division .of our copending application Serial No. 363,362, filed is avoided in our method of construction as the spring pads are of pressedsteel and the knuckles in the end of the tubing can be forged very nearly to the size required with much less Work or machining and less waste of metal. v
Our method of constructing axles may also be employed in axles of the Elliott type and constitutes an improvement over devices of the prior art.
In such tubular axles of the prior art the tubing is of the same section from end to end'whereas in the axle made in accordance with the teachings of our invention the arms are upset from a region under the spring pads to the outer ends thus strengthening and stiffening the axles where the maximum bending movement occurs.
As, compared with an axle of the same strength, an'axle made in accordance with the teachings of our invention is much lighter than an axle of either the solid forged type or prior known tubular axles, for example, the particular embodiment herein shown is at least twelve pounds lighter than a corresponding size of forgedaxle. This saving in unsprung weight is, of course, a great advantage as is well known to those skilled in the art.
In carrying out our invention, we upset application filed May 10, 1980.
knuckle piece against movement longitudinally of the axle and also against movement about the axis of the axle.
The axle is then formed to shape and spring pads are welded in place on it. The spring pads are preferably made of sheet metal stampings although for certain pur-' poses forgings may be used.
Now inorder to acquaint those skilled in the art with the manner of constructing an axle in accordance with the teachings of our invention,,we shall describe in conjunction with the accompanying drawings a specific embodiment of the invention.
In the drawings:
Figure l is a cross-sectional view of the blank from which the axle is made;
Figure 2 is a cross-sectional view of the blank after it hasbeen upset by endwise forging;
Figure 3 is a similar view showing the protuberances upset into the walls of the blank and showing the knuckle piece inserted in it;
' Figure 4 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 4-4 of Figure 3 showing the position of the protuberances on the blank;
Figure 5 is a cross-sectional view similar to Figure 3 showing the blank after the protuberances ,have been forged into the slots in the knuckle piece;
Figure 6 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 66 of Figure 5;
Figure 7 is a cross-sectional view through a similar axle showing a slightly different method of attaching the knuckle piece to the blank; and
Figure 8 is a cross sectional View through a completed axle.
Referring now to thedrawings in more detail, the blank 1 from which the axle is made comprises a piece of seamless or welded steel tubing having an Outside diameter and a wall thickness dependent upon the size of the particular axle being made. In
one embodiment,- the tube 1 has an outside,
diameter of 2 inches and a wall thickness of inch, the length of the tube being approximately 60 inches. The lengthwise dimension of the tube will of course vary with the particular type of axle being made.
In fabricating an axle from the blank 1 the end of the tubeis first swaged down as by rolling to taper the outer end 2 as indicated in Figure 1. This results in a slight elongation of the blank and a slight thickening of the walls of the outer ends wltich later form the arms of the axle. This rolling down is preferably accomplished at each end either simultaneously or individually and is preferably done hot. The tube is then brought to a proper forging heat and is upset endwise to thicken the walls about the entire periphery of the part which is upset, at a point 3 within the space where a spring seat is later attached.
At the same time or by subsequent operation, the upsetting of the outer end to form a socket 5 is accomplished, the inside diameter of the socket being held to a definite shape by a mandrel and the maximum wall thickness of the tubular blank being produced just back of the socket as indicated at 6 in Figure 2.
Simultaneously with the forming of the socket 5 and thickening of the walls at the end of the tube, we form external protuberances 7 in the top and bottom surfaces of the blank, these protuberances'being crescent shaped and formed from metal upset during the endwise forging and consequent shortening of the blank.
The socket 5 is then reamed out to an accurate diameter to receive the shank of the knuckle piece of the axle.
The knuckle piece 10, illustrated as a knuckle piece of a reverse Elliott type axle,
contains a circular shank 11 which is provided with transversely disposed round bot tom slots 13 machined or forged into its top and bottom surfaces. The external surface of the shank 11 is machined to accurately fit into the socket 5 in the end of the blank. A shoulder 12' formed at the junction of the shank 11 and the knuckle piece 10 serves as an abutment for the end of the axle 1 thereby insuring that the knuckle piece will be properly inserted into the socket 5.
The protuberances 7 are forged into the transverse slots 13 in the shank 11 of the knuckle. piece, this operation restoring the circular contour of the outside of the axle and securely locking the shank 11 into the axle against both endwise and rotary movement. The disposalof the metal from the protuberances-on the top and bottom sides of the axle places it in a position where it has maximum, value for increasing the moment of,inertia in bending.
- The operation of forcing the metal infrusto-conical or frusto-pyramidal recesses 20 disposed about the periphery of the shank, as shown in Figure 7. Protuberances similar to the protuberances 7 of Figure are formed in the walls of the blank by an endwise upsettin operation, and these protuberances are subsequently forged into the recesl'ses 20 to lock the shank in place in the ax e. v
The end of the axle blank 1 and the shoulder 12 of the knuckle piece 10 may be welded if desired but if properly for ed this welding is not necessary. The we ded joint has the advantage that the inside of the axle is completely closed off from the outside and moisture cannot get into it and corrode the axle. Y
The same operations as herein described are performed on the other end of the axle, which is then heated and formed ,to the desired shape in any preferredmanner such as welding at the point 3 where the wall thickness of the tube has been increased as hereinbefore described.
Although the knuckle piece 10 is shown as for the reverse Elliott type axle, obviously knuckle pieces for an Elliott type axle or any other desired type of axle may be attached to the tubular member by the process herein pointed out withinthe teachings of our invention. v
Tests made upon this axle indicate its superiority inperformance as against axles of the prior art. The tubular shape ,of the body of the-axle is highly desirable because of the maximum strength against bending in any direction and also because of its high torsional strength.
What we claim is:
- 1. In a method of forming a tubular axle, the following steps, viz., taperirg the end portions of the tubular blank, upsetting said end portions to increase'the wall thickness thereof and to form a tapered socket, upset- I the following steps, viz., upsetting the end of a tubular blank to'form a conical socket,
projecting the metal of the socket outwardly to form protuberances, forming a knuckle piece with a conical tapered shank and forming recesses in said shank, inserting the shank into the socket with the recesses in alignment with the protuberances and pressing said protuberances inwardly to throw metal into the recesses in the shank'.
.3. The method of joining a plug andsocket which comprises upsetting the socket to draw metal outwardly, forming recesses in the plug, inserting the plug in the socket and pressing the metal of the socket inwardly to cause the same to flow into the recesses.
4. In a method of forming'a tubular axle, the following steps, viz., tapering the end portions of the tubular blank, upsetting said end portions to increase the wall thickness thereof and to form a tapered socket, upsetting said socket to throw metal outwardly while maintaining the ta cred form of the socket, reaming the tapere socket, forming a knuckle piece with a tapered shank, forming recesses in the shank, inserting the shank into thesocket with the recesses in alignment with the outwardly projected metal of the socket and then pressing the outwardly projected metal of the socket in-,
wardly to fill said recesses in the shank.
5. In a method of forming a tubular axle, the following steps, viz., upsetting the walls of a tubular blank to thicken them in the region of a spring seat, upsetting the end of the blank to, thicken them and to form a tapered socket, projecting the metal of the socket outwardly by' endwise upsetting to form protubernnces on the top and bottom sides of the blank, forming a knuckle piece with a tapered shank, forming recesses in the top and bottom sides of the shank, inserting the shank into the socket with the recesses in alignment with the protuberances, pressing said protuberances inwardly to throw metal into the recesses in the shank, clamping the blank intermediate its ends and repeating the steps on its other end,
6. In a method of forming a tubular axle,
the following steps, viz., rolling a taper in end of the blank, upsetting the walls endwise of the blank to thicken them adjacent said taper and about theirentire periphery, upsetting the tapered end of the blank to form a tapered socket projecting the metal -of the'socket outwardly by endwise upsetting to form protuberances on the top and bottom sides of the blank, forming a knuckle piece with a tapered shank, forming recesses to throw metal into the recesses in the shank,
clamping the blank intermediate its ends and repeating the steps on its other end.
7. In a method of forming a tubular axle, the following steps, viz., tapering the end portions ofthe tubular blank, upsetting said end portions to increase the wall thickness thereof and to form a tapered socket, upsetting said socket to throw metal outwardly while maintaining the tapered form of the socket, reaming the tapered socket, forming a knuckle piece with a tapered shank, forming recesses in the shank, inserting the shank into the socket with the recesses in alignment with the outwardly projected metal of the socket and then pressing the outwardly projected metal of the socket inwardly to fill said recesses in the-shank and welding the ends of the tubular blank to the knuckle piece.
8. A tubular axle comprising a thin walled cylindrical central portion, thickened walled spring seat portions on opposite ends thereof, arms extending beyond said seat portions, said arms containing sockets, knuckle pieces, shanks on said knuckle pieces fittin into said sockets, said shanks having slots isposedtransversely of their 'axes and into WhlCll the" walls of the sockets are forged to lock the knuckle pieces onto the axle.
9. A tubular axle comprising a thin walled cylindrical central portion, thickened walled spring seat portions on opposite ends thereof, arms extending beyond said seat portions, said arms containing sockets,
knuckle pieces, shanks on said knuckle pieces fitting into said sockets, said shanks having slots disposed transversely of their axes and intofwhich the walls of the sockets are forged to" lock the knuckle pieces onto the axle, against rotation about said axes and movement longitudinally. of them.
11. A. tubular axle comprising a thin walled cylindrical central portion, thickened walled spring seat portions on opposite ends thereof, arms extendin beyond said seat portions, said arms having thickened walls and containing 'ta er'ed sockets, knuckle 1 pieces, shanks on said knuckle pieces fitting into said sockets, said shanks having slots disposed transversely of their axes and into 5 which .the walls of .the sockets are forged to lock the knuckle pieces onto the axle.
12. A tubular axle comprising a thin walled cylindrical central portion,'-thickened walled spring seat portions on opposite ends thereof, arms extending beyond said seat 7 portions, said arms containing sockets,
knuckle pieces comprising cylindrical heads and frusto-conicalshanks, said shanks fitting into said sockets and containing slots into which the walls of the sockets are forged to lock the knuckle pieces onto the axle.
13. A tubular axle comprising 'ra thin walled cylindrical central portion, thickened 20 walled spring seat portions on opposite ends therof, arms extending beyond said seat portions, said arms' containing sockets, knuckle pieces comprising cylindrical heads "and frusto-conical shanks projected with- 25 their axes intersecting at an angle of less than 90, .said shanks fitting into said socketsand containing slots into which the walls of the sockets are forged to lock the knuckle pieces onto the axle. X o 14. A tubular axle comprising a thin walled cylindrical central portion, thickened walled spring seat'portions on opposite ends thereof, arms extending beyond said seat p" 'ons, said arms containing sockets,
' 3 knucklggpices comprising cylindrical knuck-' 1% which are longer than the diameter of said cylindrical axle portion, frusto-conical shanks formed integral with said knuckles and disposed in said sockets, said shanks L 0 containing recesses into whichihe walls ofthe sockets are forged to'lock the knuckle pieces onto the axle.
15. A tubular axle comprising a thin walled cylindrical central portion, thickened 1 5 walled spring seat portions on opposite ends thereof, arms extending .beyond said seat 7 portions, said arms containing sockets,-
. knuckle pieces comprising cylindrical knuckles, integral frusto-conical. shanks, 'and 50 shoulders at the junctions of the knuckles and shanks, said shanks fitting into said sockets and containing, recesses into which the walls of th sgckets are forged to llOCk the knuckle ieci L011 the a'xle, said walls '55 abutting sai ;shouldersi' aud being welded thereto to seal interior-of the axle.
In witness whereofiye hereunto subscribe our names this- 6th day .of-May, 1930.
' EDMUND ."C. MOGFORD,
' no a 1 ORG -spank-
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