US 1823238 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept; 15, 1931. J. B. CAMPBELL 1,823,233
' PROCESS OF MAKING FLOORING AND PRODUCT THEREQF I Filed Sept. '7, 1926 INVEN TOR.
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Patented Sept. 15, 1931 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE JOHN B. CAMPBELL, OF SALEM, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR, BY MESNE ASSIGNMENTS, TO CABTI-IAGE MILLS INCORPORATED, OF CINCINNATI, OHIO, A CORPORATION OF OHIO PROCESS OF MAKING FLOORING AND IPIRJODU'CEI. THEREOF Application filed September 7, 1926. Serial No. 133,790.
My invention relates .to the, formation of cork or vegetable powder surfaced bodies, particularly where employed as flooring elements. I I
In its essence, my process consists in applying to a suitable base, such as felted fabric or other acceptable flooring bases which will preferably be flexible in nature, a wear coat of cork or vegetable matter. For example I may employ an asphalt saturated felt, which has qualities of considerable advantage in that it is moisture resistant, flexible, of fairly thick body, and has been proven as highly satisfactory for use on floors, having a tendency due to its weight and flexibility to lie smoothly without warping or curling on the floor surface.
By the addition of the cork facing or facings to my material, I very greatly increase its strength, and in my preferred structure I do not in any Way interfere with the flexibility of the base, but instead of this, by cutting down to a minimum the chances of the splitting or cracking or checking of the body, I add to the flexibility.
To describe my process using asphalt saturated felt as the basic fabric, for the purposes of a preferred example, and not as a required limitation of my invention, I first prepare the felt, in roll form or another convenient form for continuous application of the cork. I then impart movement to the felt while at the same time spreading thereon a thin layer of an adhesive, preferably a quick drying substance. As a"preferred substance I prefer some one of the cellulose lacquers, which comprise cellulose dissolved in a satisfactory vehiclel The vehicle used with asphalt saturated felt as a single example, may be ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol, in which the acetate is not more than 35 of the solution.
Before the adhesive has an opportunity to dry, I pass the body beneath a stream of very finely ground cork, which may be mixed with adulterant powders in cheaper structures, or else wood flour or other vegetable matter would serve, and remove the excess cork and cause proper smoothness and adherence by passing the sheet next beneath revolving brushes, and then may apply a sand roller or calender rolls to the surface.
With the cellulose lacquer used as an adhesive, the drying is very rapid, and the cork layerwhich is quite a thin one can be applied quite rapidly and smoothed, finished, and the excess cork removed by an exhaust or suction nozzle, or swept off in any way desired whereupon the body is ready for the next coating.
The next coating is the same as the first and applied preferably in the same way, and further coatings to the desired number are applied, in each instance preferably smoothing, cleaning and sanding or calendering the coats as soon as applied.
The both faces of the base fabric may be treated in the same manner and thus as heavy a cork facing built up in laminae on the fabric, as may be desired.
When using the lacquer noted, the strength and flexibility of the body is very greatly improved, and it is not necessary to apply the cork to build up a layer nearly as thick as is the practice in oxidized oil and cork mastic flooring pieces.
Should wear occur on one cork layer, the only result is to expose the next, and since the preferred lacquers are very high in penetration, i. e. very hard and imperforate in structure, the resulting body will be, with only say three thin layers on the base fabric, many times stronger and more lasting than present linoleums. I
It hasbeen proposed in the past, but never actively practiced because of th'e expensiveness of the materials, to make av mastic 'by mixing ground cork with a plastic of cellulose and certain solvents and oils. So far as I have been advised, it would not be possible or practical to build a cork body in this manner, and the mechanical and chemical problems have not been solved. 7
.With my flooring body prepared as noted, it is often desirable to apply a top coat of the cellulose lacquer, so as to fill the top cork layer, and give a smooth finish to the body which is of great wearing value.
Any of the cork layers may be made of dyed cork powder, or a top coating of oil paints or varnishes of known characters in the flooring industry can .be applied, and designs may be imprinted in any desired way, such as with floor covering paints, which painted designs or solid colors may in turn be protected by a transparent glaze of varnish orcellulose lacquer, in whatever manner may be desired.
In thickness, my flooring bodies are as thick as'linoleum and in every way as excellent in lasting quality and as satisfactory in appearance as battleship linoleum, due to the great strength imparted by the lacquer used or whatever adhesive is employed in binding the layers of cork in place. I
In seeking a substitute for the particular adhesive element referred to, the qualities to be sought are strength of the film, adhesiveness, quick drying, preferably colorlessness, flexibility, waterproofness, and resistance to v acids, soapsand other reagents which might be brought into contact with the flooring bodies. 1
If desired, onesurface of the body may be built up as a cork faced flooring and the other as a paint faced flooring, and various methods of employing the process of my invention can readily be worked out since the bodies formed can be made inthe continuous piece, and are flexible at all ordinary temperatures, thus satisfying requirement for any kind of floor- 1ng.
The product may be used as a self supporting rug structure without showing tendency to curl, and without warping because of methods of use, temperature and humidity changes and the like. I
In the drawing the product is shown in a section which is exaggerated to show the base fabric 1, which in this example is asphalt saturated felt or other waterproofed felted body, and to show the layers of cork powder imbedded in adhesive lacquer at 2. Among other things the showing gives a more laminated appearance than is the fact as thebody has almost a single composite cork and lacquer surface. 1
Having thus described my invention what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is 1. A-floor covering material formed of a flexible base with a body of floor covering built up thereon, as distinguished from a coating thereof, said body formed of successivebuilt up films of powdered vegetable matter held in place by an adhesive, formed of a cellulose ester.
2. A floor covering material formed of a base of felt'material saturated with a bitumen, with a body of floor covering built up thereon, as distinguished from a coating thereof, said body formed of successive built up films of powdered vegetable matter held in place by an adhesive, formed of a cellulose ester,