US 1824106 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
B. B. wooD STEAM TURBINE Sept 22, 1931.
Filed Feb. 14, 1930 5 Sheets-Sheet l Ema E'IWSEE ATTORNEYS.
B. B. WOOD Sept. 22, 1931.
- s'rmm TURBINE Filed Feb. 14, 1930 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG. 2.
8. B. WOOD STEAM TURBINE Filed Feb.
Sept. 22, 1931.
14, 1930 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 FIG FIG 6 ATTORNEYS.
B. B. WOOD STEAM TURBINE Sept. 22, 1931.
Filed Feb. 14, 1950 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 FIG. 10.
INVENTOR. EIET'L EWJBd ATTORNEYS B. B. WOOD STEAM TURBINE Sept. 22, 1931.
Filed Feb. 14. 1930 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR. EIEI'L ELWDud Patented Sept. 22, 1931 UNITED STATES BERT BENSON WOOD, F OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA STEAM TURBINE Application filed February 14, 1930. Serial No. 428,457.
This invention relates to improvements in turbines.
The primary object of this invention is the provision of an improved turbine, preferably using steam as the motive fluid, and which is very compact as to size, light in weight; and capable of producing great power at relatively high speeds.
A further object of this invention isthe provision of an improved steam turbine which is relatively simple in construction, so far as number of parts is concerned, which has an improved'bafie and blade c0nstruction arranged at the facing surfaces of the rotor and stator between which thepropellant fluid is adapted to pass, bymeans of which the steam mayexert its reactionary force constantly against the rotor over a rel ativcly long course, and through a series of steps, for the efficient utilization of the same, in developing greater power and speed. A further object of this invention is the provision of an improved steam turbine in which the expanding gas or steam enters between the cooperating faces of the rotor and stator at a location adjacent the axisof rotation of the rotor, and therefrom exerts its expanding and reactionary force upon the rotor over a multiple stepped arrangement of baffles during its passage radially outwardly with respect to the axis of rotation of the rotor.
ther objects and advantages of this in vention will-be apparent during the course of the following detailed description.
In the drawings, whereinfor the purpose of illustration is shown only a preferred embodiment of the invention,
Figure 1 is a vertical sectional view taken through the turbine diametrically intersecting the shaft of the rotor; a
Figure 2 is an inside view of an'end wall of the turbine stator. i 5 a Figure 3 is an end View of the turbine, showing the base in section. J 7 1 Figure 4 is a sectional view taken through the base of the turbine, looking upward in the direction of'the turbine.
Figure 5 is an end view of one of the stator frusto-conical shaped part's,showing the bafile arrangement at a face thereof, which cooperates with the rotor in receiving the motive fluid thereagainst, the view being arranged as an observer would see the parts looking axially along the turbine.
Figure 6 is a sector cut from the stator member of Figure 5, looking radially from tlie'axis of therotor in the direction of the bafile face of the part.
Figure 7 is a fragmentary perspectiveview, partly in section, showing the baflle arrangement-at the stator part at a receiving face of the part of Figures 5 and 6.
cut from the part of Figure 8, to better illustrate the stepped balfle means thereon.
Figure 11 is a sectional view longitudinally of the axis of the turbine from the inner face of one of the stator cones, showing in section the relative arrangement of baflles and blades of the rotor-and stator.
Figures 12 and 13 are respectively views taken substantially ontheir respective lines 12-12 and 13-13 of Figure 1 of the drawings.
In the drawings, wherein a preferred embodiment of the invention is shown, the letter A may generally designate the turbine, which may include a stator B mounted upon a base C and having therein a rotor D operatively connected with a shaft E.
The stator'B includes'a cylindrical casing portion 15, to which a pair of effective stator parts 16 and 17 are internally connected; the parts 16 and 17 being each of hollow frustoconical formation, with the smaller ends thereof in abutment against and connected with a narrow connecting and steam pressure cylinder 18 connected within the casingbody l5, diametrically thereacross. At the larger end of the stator parts 16 and 17, the stator casing includes end walls 19 and 20, furnish- 100 The rotor parts .25v and are independently formed and connected togeth- These rotor parts and 26 have the smaller ends thereof connectedtogether and axially keyed with the shaft E.
Referring more specifically to the path' of" motive fluid, which is preferably high pressure steam, and its cooperatlon'withln the turbine, the cylindrical body portion 15 is provided with a radial connection 27 i for the attachment of a suitable steam conduit or pipe therewith. The cylindrical portion 18 of the turbine comprises a pair of disc-shaped walls 29 and 30, which are spaced relatively close together, and provide wtherebetween a narrow. ring-shaped compartment surrounding the shaft E concentrically, designated at 31, wherein the high pressure steam is admitted to the turbine from the connection 27.
The walls 29 and 30 are connected at their outer peripheries by a cylindrical wall 32, integral with the walls 29 and 30, and outwardly hanged and riveted as at 33 to the cylindrical body15 of the stator, in the position shown ain Figu're 1, ma medial plane between the stator and rotor parts 16%25 and 17 526.
,These, walls 29 and 30 converge to restrict theflcompartn ent 81 in the vic n ty of the shaft E, and are connected together by means ofan annular web-like wall 38, having ports 39' therethrough for admission of steam from the chamber or chest compartment 31 a into an annular chamber 40 surrounding the connecting hubs'41and 42 of, the rotor parts and 26, f15om whence it passes along the stepped spaces between the rotor and stator parts 25 16 and 2617, as will be subsequently detailed. I
preferably er in the vicinity of the shaft E and therefrom they relatively diverge outwardly from the ,shaft and about the shaft to provi de an 161and l7 nest. The rotor parts 25'and- 26 are more specifically detailed in Figures 8,
9 and 10 ofjthe drawings, wherein-the rotor 3 part 25 is morespecificallydetailed. It in- .cludes, as above mentioned,;the hub portion .41., Each of the rotor parts 25 and 26 includes the outer tapered'peripheral surface thereof, provided With-Q series of concentrically arranged relatively stepped annular shoulders 44', 45,, and 46 of relativelyzincreasing diameter fromthe hub portion out- Wardly, whereon the baffle structures, normally constituting the rotor turbi'neyblade means, are 1disposed, i n identicalsefries. They or '17, as the case may be; this baflle means of the stator comprising diagonally positioned baffles 50, relatively spaced as shown in Figure 13, and to be subsequently described. The vertical riser shoulders adjacent --the shoulders 44, 45 and 46 have associated therewith directly upon and preferably connected With the baflles 48 above described, a plurality of arcuated battle blades 51,shown in Figure 12, and elsewhere in Figures 8, 9 and 10, the shaft facingedges ofwhich terminate short of the tread shoulders 44, 45 and 46 respectively adjacent thereto, so that Steam may pass through the spaces between the baffle blades 48, around the annular space 52 between the vertical riser surface53 ofthe rotor and the baffles 48, through vthe spaces between the arcuated baffle blades 51 andinto the spacesbetween the next outer series of diagonal bafiies of the stator, as
showninFigures 12and 13, and in arelation wh ch Wlll appear more fully hereinafter. Itis tobe' noted-that an annular series of these arcuate baffles 51 is disposed on the vertical. riser 60. of each of the rotor parts 25 .and'26, immed ately adjacent the hub of the respective rotor parts, and spaced at their inner peripheral edges from the hub to define the'annularspace 40 above mentioned,
through which steam circulates as it enters the turbine. I I
1 The inner peripheral faces of the frustoconical shaped stator parts 16 and 17 are of identical construction, and stepped in complementary relation with'the steps of the respectiverotor'parts 25 and 26, and provided with baffle means for cooperation therewith. i Thus,.ea'ch stator part 16 and 17 is "PI'OVlClGClWlilll an innermost annular surface j 61 adapted to immediately face the annular annular chamber inwhich the stator parts b aide-arrangement ofthe respective rotor part whereou the bafiles'51 are positioned at the riser shoulder 60. Inannular offset and stepped-.con'cent'ric relation therewith are channel-shaped groove or compartment 66 immediately facing the shoulder 46 of the adjacent rotor part cooperating therewith, and as shown in Figure 1. The annular relatively stepped shoulders 61, 63' and 64 are .each 'provided'with series of the relatively 3? tread shoulders 63. and 64, spaced in paralspaced diagonal baflles thereon, which are inclinedfrom their inner ends to their outer ends facingthe adjacent blade means of the rotor, in the general direction of rotation of the rotor, and the spaces therebetween receive the expanding steam, entrapping it therein and causing it to expand in the direction of the adjacent blade means of the rotor parts, sending it into the spaces between and against the baffles 48, as shown in Figure 13, to cooperate in rotating the rotor parts.
t is thought that the operation of the invention will best be understood by reference to the cycle of the motive fluid. As before mentioned the high pressure steam enters the chamber 31 and passes into the annular space 40 about the exterior of the hubs 41 and 42 of the rotor, which are bolted together at 68, as seen in Figure 1. The steam entering this annular space 40 passes in both directions radially outwardly through the spaces between the baffles 51 of the rotor, which are connected on the riser portions of the rotor parts immediately facing the same.
cuated shoulders of these baffles 51, in the relation shown by the arrow in Figure 11 of the drawings, of course causes a rotary action of the rotor. I is to be noted that the riser surfaces of the rotor parts are beveled where they join the tread shoulders of the rotor parts, and the facing surfaces of the walls 7 6 to be subsequently mentioned are also beveled, as shown in Figure 1, so that the ports between the baflles 51 widen at their outer ends, to enable the steam to wedge its expanding pressure against the enlarged V- shaped shoulders of the baffles 51 of the rotor parts. passes into the spaces between'the inclined baflies 50 of the stator, upon the steps 61 of the stator parts 16 and 17, and the steam expanding in those spaces causes the same to outlet diagonally against the bight portions 49 through the spaces between the bafiies 48 upon the shoulders 44 of the rotor parts, and
' V which reaction impels the rotor, as can read- 'ily be understood. The steam therefrom passes into the annular spaces 52 surrounding the shoulders 44 to the rear of the bafiles 48, as shown in Figure 13, and therefrom the expanding steam passes outwardly through the spaces between the arcuate baffles 51 adjacent the shoulders 44, and which steam reacting thereagainst as shown by the arrows in Fig. ure 11, causes a further impelling of the rotor. The cycle of operation of the expanding motive fluid is repeated as it passes through the series of like bafile arrangements of the rotor and stator parts, with respect to the succession of steps 45 and 46. The expanding steam as it passes through the spaces between the outermost bafiies 51 of the rotor parts 25 and 26, impinges, as shown in Figure 11, against the concave sides of arcuate baflies The expanding steam acting on the inclined ar Therefrom the expanding steam,
which are carried in the channel-shaped space of the stator immediately facing the outermost shoulders 46 of the rotor parts. The steam passes between these bafiies 70, and outwardly beyond this series of baffles 70, the stator parts 16 and 17 have an annular chamber, relatively large, into which the dead steam passes, and exists therefrom through exhaust ports 71 into the exhaust chambers 72 located at each side of the steam cylinder 18, between the latter and the adjacent surfaces of the stator parts 16 and 17, as can be understood from Figure 1 of the drawings. Therefrom the exhaust steam passes through suitable ports 73 in the lower portion of the venting outlet of steam in that direction and insuring that the steam will pass through the ports between said bafiles. Annular spring urged packing rings 80, which are retained in suitable slots 81 of the stator parts 16 and 17, as shown in Figure 1, are urged against the inner sides of the wall portions 7 6. It is to be noted that the walls 76 successively increase in diameter for the various stepped series of bafiles between the rotor and stator parts, and that the innermost walls 76 do not obstruct the annular chamber or space 40 for passage of steam in the relation above described. 7
The casing of the turbine includes the disclike end walls 19 and 20, as above described, each of which includes a hollow tapered hub portion 82, wherein the tapered bearings 21 adjustably seat. The shaft E of course extends through these bearings 21 and the in ner ends of the hub portions 82 are provided with walls 83, against which compressible washers 84 seat, being urged into leak-proof connection with the adj acent shaft and housing parts. The bearings 21 are of any approved bearing material, and converge axially in the direction of the rotor hubs. At their outer ends another series of compressible washers 85 are disposed within the hubs 82 of the end plates of the rotor casing, and
these washers are compressed and the bear- I 89 provided in the extreme inner ends of the Suitable lubricant means 95 is carried on each of the end walls 19 and 20 of the turbine casing, for admission of lubricant to the ducts 94, and suitable valve control grain conduits 97 may be employed therewith for draining of lubricant from the passageways about the bearings 21.
The end plate 19 is preferably provided with a detachable and adjustable cap 100, holding a suitable anti-friction bearing 101 therein, against which the ends of the shaft E bear, as shownin Figure 1. The opposite end of the shaft E may receive suitable means 102 for connection ratus thereto.
In order to provide an eflicient connection of the parts, it is to be noted that'the stator parts 16 and 17, in addition to being connected to the body casing 15 as above described, may have a screw threaded connec tion at 105 with the opposite walls of the steam cylinder or casing 18. It is furthermore to be noted that the outer peripheral of a pulley or other appaedges of the rotor parts 25 and 26 have a rather close fitting joint connection at 10'? with the inner facing peripheral edge at the outer large diametered portion of the stator parts 16 and 17 respectively, as shown inFigure 1. Suitable packing 108 may prevent loss of motive fluid, wherever'desired.
In order to reinforce the end walls 19 and 20. the same may be provided withsuitable reinforcing webs 110,and access to the chambers between the end walls of the casing to the iuternal'parts of the turbine may be had through suitable openings 111, shown in Figure 2, which are normally closed by swivel man-hole covers 112, shown in Figure 3.
It is within the contemplation of this invention to provioe any approved number or series of steps between the rotor and stator parts, for accommodating the baffles, as desired. Furthermore, it is to be noted that a preferred arrangement of the steps is that the inner steps will be narrower than the outermost steps; the steps successively increasing in width outwardly as the diameter of the steps increases. It is furthermore contemplated that the bafiles 51 of the rotor parts 25 and 26, do not need to be of the height shown. but may be cut shorter to increase the radial height of the steam circulating passageways 52. It is also contemplated by me to utilize different means for and providi.
d efinin admission of the high pressure steam to the central portion of the rotor, if desired, and instead of using the stator and rotor parts in duplicate, as shown, I may use merely one ro or and one stator part in the broadest re lation described.
The stator parts 16 and 17 are screw threaded 20 with the end plates 19 and 20.
Various changes in the shape, size, and arran gement of parts may be made to the form of invention, herein shown and described, without departing from the spirit of the in vention or the scope of the claims.
1. A s an article of manufacture a steam engine stator comprising a plurality of relatively concentric steps each having a face thereof parallel to the axis of the concentric steps provided with a plurality of rigidly mounted diagonally sloping ribs defining diagonal am expanding passageways therebetwec-n he stator at its outermost portion annula rlv beyond the step of greatest diamprovided with a channel facing f the concentric steps, said channel having battles therein arcuated with concave baffle faces facing said axis, saidlast mentioned being relatively spaced and located at the'entrance of said channel to provide an annular passageway in the channel communicating with said spaces between the baffles, said sta having transverse ports .0 said channel passageway for exhaust of mo tive fluid.
2. As an article of manufacture a motive fiuid operated turbine rotor comprising a hub portion and having a series of relativel r stepped concentric shoulders of successively increasing diameter concentric with the axis of the rotation of the rotor, said shoulders of the surfaces facing away from the axis of rotation of the rotor having bafiies 'at the outermost marginal portions of the shoulders relatively spaced from each other concave bailie edges facing in the normal direction of a cooperating stator part, said being spaced from the adjacentriscr portions of the adjacent steps and I annular passageways about the stepped shoulders therebehind, said bafl'les f less radial. height than the height of portions of said stops, and a series nco spaced baffles outwardly beyond mentioned baffles on each of said tions. having inclined bafile surmg the annular passageway above iedi outermost ends of each series 1 last mentioned terminating flush -he next outermost annular shoulder.
turbine the combination of a stan ng, a shaft axially therein, stator 7 ts operatively associated within d with said shaft, the casing including end plates having tapered bearing passageways therein, adjustable tapered bearings in said tapered passageways, said bearings having passageways therethrough for receiving the ends of the shaft, and means for adjusting said tapered bearings longitudinally in the tapered passageways.
4. In a turbine the combination of a stator casing, a shaft, a rotor keyed with the shaft including oppositely extending tapered hub extensions, end supporting plates on the stator casing having passageways therethrough for receiving the ends of the shaft, adjustable bearings in said passageways for directly receiving the ends of the shaft in bearing relation therein, and ground washers fixed in the plates surrounding the ends of the shaft and again-st which the hub portions of the rotor engage.
5. In a turbine the combination of a stator casing, a shaft, a rotor keyed with the shaft including oppositely extending tapered hub extensions, end supporting plates on the stator casing having passageways therethrough forreceivingthe ends of the shaft, adjustable bearings in said passageways for directly receiving the ends of the shaft in bearing relation therein, ground washers fixed in the plates surrounding the ends of the shaft and against which the hub portions of the rotor engage, and means for admission and drain age of lubricant with respect to the bearings of the ends of said shaft.
6. In a turbine the combination of a stator having a series of continuous circular concentric steps formed upon a face thereof, said steps having spaced baflies diagonally disposed thereon defining inclined channels therebetween, a rotor provided with a series of continuous circular concentric steps adapted to interfit in a complementary relation with the respective positioned steps of the stator, said rotor in the riser sides of the stepped portions facing axially of the rotor having steam admission ports which extend into the walls through the stepped portions of the rotor, said ports outletting upon the annular tread portions of said steps in facing proximity with the diagonal channel ways of the stator, said ports through the walls of the stepped portions of the rotor being shaped so that the expanding force of the motive fluid will impel the rotor about its axis, said rotor at each of the stepped portions thereof, at the juncture where the ports meet which outlet on the riser and tread porportions of each of said steps, having a continuous circular chamber therein into which the expanding steam enters as it passes between said ports, and means for exhausting the motive fluid with respect to the stator and rotor parts.
BERT BENSON WOOD. I