US 1824739 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
SePt- 22, 1931. l.. .1. JoHNsoN ET AL 1,824,739
OUTBOARD MOTOR ASSEMBLY Filed June 27. 1929 2 Sheets-Sheet l HARRY L. JoH/vs'oN.
SePt- 22, 1931- i l.. .1. JOHNSON ET AL 1,824,739
OUTBOARD MOTOR ASSEMBLY Filed June 27. 1929 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 III/ll .//v VEN T035: Lou/5 J JUH N50/v, Hf/frm/ L JOHNSON.
Patented Sept. 22, V1931 cUNITED. STATES PATENT OFFICE LOUIS J. JOHNSON, OF SOUTH BEND, INDIANA, AND HARRY L. JOHNSON, OF WAUKEGAN, ILLINOIS, ASSIGNORS TO JOHNSON BROTHERS ENGINEERING CORPORATION, OF SOUTH BEND, INDIANA, A CORPORATION OF INDIANA Application mea June 27,
l' motor type of device as shown in our c0- pending applications Serial No. 335,447 and 337,244, and in Louis J. Johnson application Serial No. 380,730, itis to be understood l that it is also applic-able to similar construcl' tions of the inboard motor type.
In the present outboard motor art, the propulsion of the water vehicle at high speeds is very desirable. The object of our present' invention is to provide an outboard or in- 90 board motor type of device which will produce relatively high rates of propulsiony of the water vehicle through the water and which will eliminate the objectionable noises y, and odors incident to the discharge of the V cylinder exhaust gases while not interfering with the facile starting of the motor and its running at comparatively low speeds while at the same time not interfering Vwith the ,y proper turning of the lower unit of the device for steering and/or for reversing.
Other objects of our invention are to provide a simple, unitary construction of outboard or inboard type of motor which utilizes l the tubular housing surrounding. the vertical- 37* ly depending drive shaft running to the propeller as a means for conducting the cylinder exhaust gases from the engine cylinders downwardly and discharging them below normal water level whereby to leliminate 4" noise and smell and also for utilizing this tubular casing as a means for conducting cooling water from the body of water iny which the propeller carryingwcasing is imj mersed, upwardly to the water jacket of the engine and thence downwardly again through oUmBoARD Moron AssEMBL'Y 1929. Serial N0. 374,110.
the tubular housing, discharging the same below normal water level and in a maner such that this cooling water assists in cooling Athe hot exhaust gases which are likewise con- Y drive shaft sothat the exhaust gases are discharged downwardly therethrough and through suitable passageways formed integrally in the lower casing and preferably in the anti-cavitation plate so as to discharge these exhaust gases underwater. A further object of this aspect of our invention resides in providing the expansion chamber `or muiier with a water jacket and in providing means for conducting cooling water upwardly through the hollow casing into the water jacket ofthe engine cylinder, thence into the Water jacket for the expansion chamber and thence downwardly through the hollowicasing to a point of discharge located below normal water level whereby during the propulsion of the device, water will not only cool the engine cylinders, the expansion chamber or muilier, but will also serve t0 cool the exhaust gases discharging downwardly through the hollow casing and will serve to prevent over-heating of the vertically depending drive shaft and the tubular casing.
Another object of our invention resides in the construction and arrangement of an underwater exhaust for the engine cylinders as an integral part of the anti-cavitation plate, preferably formed integral with the propeller carrying casing, and for constructing the same with integral passages connecting with the tubular casing surrounding the vertically depending drive shaft, and which in turn connects with the expansion chamber or muiier .leading to the engine cylinder exhaust whereby the hot gases are discharged at the rear of the propeller and without interfering with the proper propulsion of the device or its turning for steering or reversing.
Still another object of our invention resides in the provision of this type of device wherein the lower propeller carrying unit is of entire stream-like construction and wherein the anti-cavitation plate overlying the propeller is provided on its upper portion with an internal passage connecting with the tubular casing surrounding the engine drive shaft and in turn connected with the cylinder exhaust-gases so as to permit the proper turning movement of the stream-line structure for steering and/or reversing, while permitting the underwater discharge of the exhaust gases.
' In general, the objects of our invention are to maintain the substantially completed stream-line formation of this lower propeller carrying unit which is submerged in the Water while permitting the bodily turning" of thisy structure for steering and/or reversing, while at the same time utilizing this structure and particularly the anti-cavitation portion thereof and the tubular housing connected to the upper portion of this structure as a means for conducting the cylinder exhaust gases to a point below normal water level', thereby permitting high speeds and eliminating concomitant noises and objectionable exhaust gas odors.
These and other objects of our invention will be apparent from a perusal of the following specification when taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
Figure 1 is a sectional si`de,vie w of one form of our new invention;
Figure 2 is a section on line 2--2 thereof;
Figure 3 is a section on line 3 3 of-Figure 1; l
Figure 4 is an enlarged view of a portion' of the mechanism for controlling the opening and closing of the underwater exhaust relief Figure 5 is a perspective rear View of the structure shown in Figure 1 at right angles thereto with certain portions broken away to show the underwater exhaust relief;
Figure 6 is a ysection online 6-6 of Figure 1;
Figure 7 is avsection on line 7-7 of Fig- Iure 1;
'-` lease valve.
Figure 8 is a section on line 8'8 of Figure v1; and
Figure 9 is a sectional detail of the re- Referring now to the drawings in detailfas before explained, our invention is exemplified in connection with an outboard motor power plant or prime mover, the double opposed two-cycle internal combustion engine 2 having the usual vertically depending drive shaft 4 connected thereto and including a crank casing 6 upon the upper end of which is mounted an extension of the engine drive shaft so as to include the usual fly-wheel magneto 8, starter and other construction commonly present in voutboard motor construction, including also the usual advance and retarding handle 10 of the magneto.
In the present construction, instead of providing the engine cylinders 2 with the usual type of muffler, we form the crank casing 6 of the cylinders with a lateral extension 12 which as shown in Figure l, forms a relatively large expansion chamber 14. This eX- pansion chamber also acts as a muffler. This extension 12 is provided with internal passages surrounding the expansion chamber 14 which passages 16 provide a water jacket for this muller or expansion chamber. We prefer t0 form this extension 12 with an opening 18, normally closed by a plate 20, but other This tubular casing 22 is mounted for rotary movement in the usual stationary collar or bearing 24, which, in turn, is carried by the usual bracket 26 having means 28 by which the same may be attached to the usual outboard motor as is well known in the art, it being understod that the tubular housing 22 is rotatable within this sleeve 24 about the depending drive shaft 4 as an axis. The lower s end of the tubular housing 22 is rigidly and detachably connected to the propeller carryinghousing or lower unit. It will be understood that this lower unit is the portion that is normally submerged in the body of water in which the water vehicle or craft rests so that the propeller carried by this lower unit will propel the boat through the water.
In order tocarry out the obj ects of our invention, we have formed the lower unit or propeller carrying-casing of entire streamline contour. While this casing may be integrally made, we prefer to form it of a main portion 30 which extends vertically upwardly so as to be rigidly bolted as at 32 and 34 withl the lower portion of the tubular casing 22 and we provide the lower portion 36 of this -unit which carries the usual propeller shaft 38 and propeller/l0 and a skeg 42 as a separate casting, the same being rigidly secured by means of the bolts 32 and 34, if desired, to the portion 30 and tubularcasing 22.
construction which includes as a type of The casting 30 is provided with a central bore 130 44 through which passes an extension shaft 46 of the propeller drive shaft 4. This shaft 46 has on its lower end a bevel gear 48 meshing with another bevel gear 50 on the usual propeller drive shaft 38. The junction of the extension shaft 46 and the drive shaft 4 is effected by means of suitable coupling 51.
Referring to the tubular housing 22, it will be seen that the same includes a tubular wall 52`which concentrically surrounds the drive shaft 4 and two vertically extending passageways 54 and 56 formed by integrally cast walls, if desired. The passage 54 is adapted to conduct cooling water upwardly while the passage 56 is adapted to convey the cooling` water coming from the cylinder jacket and muflier downwardly. In addition, the tubular housing 22 provides relatively large vertically extending passageways 58 and 60, which almostentirely surround the passageways 52, 54 and 56. These passageways 58 and 60 are for the conduction of thecylinder exhaust gases downwardly through the tubular casing 22.
At its upper portion, this tubular casing 22 is provided with a preferably integral lateral extension 62 shown in cross-section in Figure 2, which extension detachably connects with a tubular neck 64, `which in turn connects with a flange 66- surrounding an opening 68 in the expansion chamber or muffler 14 so that cylinder exhaust gases will be discharged throu h this expansion chamber through the neck 6 into the hollow tubular casing 22. The upper portion of the tubular passage 54 registers with a passageway 70 in the lower portion of the crank `casing and this passage 70 is formed as a substantially hollow collar 72 which has an outlet connecting to a pipe 74 which in turn connects with the lower portion of the water jacket of each cylinder. There are two oi' more of these pipes 74 each connecting to thelower portion of the jacket of each cylinder.
Inv addition, the upper portion of each cylinder jacket connects with a pipe 76 which in turn empties into a neck 78 connecting dwith jacket 16. The upper portion of this jacket, as shown in Figure 1, is provided with a connection with a cross pipe 80 which passes substantially diametrically throughV the expansion chamber 14 and connects with a pipe 82 whichpasses around a tubular housing as at 84 and connects with internal passage 56 of the tubular housing so that the heated water after passing through the engine cylinder jacket and the expansion jackets 16, will be conducted outwardly and downwardly through this passage 56.
The lower portion of the tubular housing or casing 22 is provided with a lateral andintegrally projecting portion 82 which \forms an internal passage 84 communicating with the exhaust passages 58 and 60. c In like manner, the lower` housing section 3Q is provided hangs the nozzle at the point 94.
with an integrally cast anti-cavitation plate 86. The upper portion of this section 30 is formed integral with the anti-cavitation plate 86 as shown clearly in Figures 1, 3 and 5, the portion 88 of this section directly above the anti-cavitation plate being extended laterally or viewing Figure 1, rearwardly, and merging in stream-line contour into this anti-cavitation plate. This portion 88.is sub# stantially narrow and is more or less tubular to provide an internal passageway 90 which connects with the internalpassageway 84 of the portion 82 on the hollow tubular housing so as to receive the flow of the exhaust gases. This extension 88 depends below the plane of the anti-cavitation plate 86 at which point it is formed as a rearwardly extending nozzle 90 of substantially narrow dimensionsl being preferably of the shape shown in Figure 5, for discharging the exhaust gases underwater. The bottom portion of this noz- ,Lzle 90 is formed as a substantially horizontal plate or ledge 92 which assists in deflecting the vexhaust gases outwardly and rearwardly. The anti-cavitation plate over- It will be understood, of course, that the normal water line is well above the anticavitation plate, being substantially half-way between the uppermost part of the anti-cav1- tation plate 86 and the junction between the section 30 and the tubular housing 22 so that the exhaust nozzle 90 is submerged in water at all times during the propulsion of the boat. In addition, this -section 30 of the lower housing is provided with an internall passage 96 and an additional internal p assage 98. The former hasrnan upper opening registering with the passage 54 in the tubular housing and the latter has an opening registering with the passage 86 in the tubular housing. The internal passage 96 terminates in a water gathering mouth 100 which lies substantially adjacent to and directly in the rear of the path of travel of the propeller blades 102 as they are revolved by the source of power. Suitable bars 104 are placed across the mouth of this water intake 100 to prevent the ingress of debris. In a similar manner the section 30 is provided with a water discharge nozzle 106 which communicates with the passageway flowing around on all sides of the passageway 44 through which the extension drive shaft 46 passes. This discharge passage 106 lies closely adjacent to and directly in front of the path of travel of the propeller blades 102. It will be seen by this construction that the lower casing section 30 closely arches over the path of travel of the propeller blades so that the water gathering mouth and water discharge mouth are placed substantially close to this zone of travel.
Means is provided directly in the tubular casing 22 for diverting the exhaust gases so that in starting or running at low speeds I these exhaust gases will not be discharged below normal water level, but will be discharged directly into the air, thereby preventing the creation of an exhaust back pressure in the cylinders. One embodiment of this means consists in providing the tubular neck 64 directly below the muffler 14 with an exhaust outlet 108 above and clear of the supporting bracket 26 and its sleeve 24 and permitting complete rotation of the motor for steering and for reversing the direction of movement of a boat to which it is attached. This outlet- 108 is normally closed by a valve 110 and by means of a coil spring 112. The valve is pivoted at 114 and is operated by means of a lever 116 and a/ pivoted rod 118. In order to provide for a suitable adjustment, there is a screw 120 passing through the stem of the valve between it and its pivot 114, which screw is engaged by the short lever 116. The rod 118 is adapted to be operated by any type of speed control operable from the outboard motor. In the presentinstance, it is operated by means of the magneto advance and retarding lever 10 shown and claimed in our prior'application, Serial No. 335,447 g briefly stated, there is a sector' 122 on the magneto plate provided with a raised cam surface 124 which operates upon a shiftable member 126 which controls the rod 118 so that when the magneto plate is shifted in one direction or the other, the rod 118 willbe correspondingly operated to open or closethe valve 110, the arrangement being that when the magneto is retarded for low speeds the valve will be opened to permit the direct discharge of the exhaust gases into the air, whereas when the magneto control is shifted for high speeds the valve will be closed and the exhaust gases will be discharged through the passages"90 and below the normal water level. It is obvious that instead of having a magneto control that this control may be operated independently or automatically from any other operated portion of the motor.
It will be apparent from the foregoing that in the operation of the motor, when the boat is being propelled by reason of the propeller 140, the pressure thereof will pump or force water into the water gathering mouth 100, thence upwardly through passage 96 y then through passage 54, thence through opening 70, thence through water pipe 74 into the water jacket of the engine, thence from'the top of the water jacket through pipe 76 into the water jacket of the expansion chamber or manifold from which the heated water Hows to the water where it is drawn directly therefrom downwardly through pipe 80 which pipe passes through the manifold and thence outwardly through pipe 82 acrossl to passage 56, thence downwardly through passage-way 98 to the water discharge mouth 106 at which point the rotation of the blades will serve to assist the circulation by sucking the same from the mouth 106. It will also be appreciated that during the forward travel of the boat, the rush of the water willalso serve to force water into the mouth 100 and will also serve to suck water from the mouth 106. At the same time, the exhaust gases from the cylinder will fill the expansion chamber and mufler and will then flow through opening 68 into the tubular housing where the exhaust gases will pass downwardy through the wide passages 58 and 60 to the bottom of the housing where they will pass into the rearwardly extending hollow portion 82 and pass through the conduit 84 thereof downwardly and will discharge rearwardly beneath the anti-cavitation plate 86 and to the rear of the propeller 40. At this point due to the propulsion ot the lower casing forwardly and due to the movement of water from the propeller, suction will be created in the mouth 94 so as to assist in the ejection of these exhaust gases. These gases will discharge rearwardly well within the stream-line of the underwater housing and will assist in preventing the possibility of air being drawn downwardly into the race of the propeller. This is especially so since the force of expulsion of the gases creates a more or less solid discharge mass of gases and particularly so due to the presence of the plate 92. It will be noted that the. exhaust mouth 90 is provided with laterally projecting wings 101 on each side thereof which serve to deflect the water into the water gathering mouth 100 and separate this zone from the exhaust gas zone. During the downward discharge of the exhaust gases through this underwater exhaust, it will be noted that the exhaust gases are `constantly being cooled. by the upwardly and downwardly flowing column of cooling water on their way'to and from the water jacket of the engine and the water jacket of the expansion chamber.
It is to be particularly borne in mind that our construction is especially and peculiarly adapted for our construction of Outboards motor wherein the lower unit is turnable about the drive shaftas an axis for steering purposes and in addition it is also highly desirable and peculiarly adaptable in construction wherein 'this lower unit is not only partially turnable for steering but is completely rotatable for steering and for reversing. This is due to the fact that this entire lower unit is stream-line so as to cut down to the minimum the frictional resist-ance as it passes through the water. At the same time, the cooling water is withdrawn from the body of water in which the housing is immersed and taken up to the water jacket and is also brought downwardly again and discharged into the streamline construction. Furthermore, it will be noticed that by reason of our manner of discharging the exhaust from the cylinders beneath the water and well within the stream-line contour of this lower structure and beneath the anti-cavitation plate,
we have cut down frictional resistance to the minimum. This is brought about by the utilization of the round tubular housing 22 which encloses the drive shaft 4 and which tubular housing is adapted to turn in shifting the lower unit for steering, and vfor reversing where the device is completely turnable. Thus, we utilize this round tubular casing not only as a means for conducting the cylinder exhausts from the engine cylinders to a point below normal water level, but we also utilize it as a means for likewise conducting the cooling water and the arrangement provides a means for utilizing this cooling water also for holding down the temperature of these hot exhaust gases so that they will not affect the drive shaft 4 and further, so that their cooling will slightly condense these exhaust gases and assist in` expelling them from the expaunsion chamber.
It will also be apparent that our construciion makes possible the provision of a relatively large expansion chamber and muier whereby these exhaust gases coming from the cylinder may expand thereinto before discharging underwater, and in addition we have provided means for waterjacketing this expansion chamber and in coupling up the water circulating system so that the water first passes through the: cylinder and then through the expansion chamber jacket where it is drawn from the hottest part of the jacket and conducted straight through the expan- 'sion chamber itself1 and discharged into the passage formed in the hollow housing, which in turn discharges below normal water level.
This application`is a continuation in part of our copending application Serial Number 337 ,244, filed February 4, 1929.
1. An outboard motor having a water jacketed gas engine with a vertically depend- 45 ing drive shaft and casing surrounding the shaft, the casing having separate passages for j the cooling water and the engine exhaust connected at the upper end to the engine and terminating at the lower end below the normal water level, supporting means for hinging the casing about a horizontal axis and permitting rotation of the casing about a'vertical axis for steering and reversing, and closable means in the exhaust passage above the supporting means for discharging the exhaust gases above the water level without interfering with the horizontal o r vertical rotation of the casing therein. I
2. A marine motor having a water jacketed gas engine, a propeller operated thereby, a water j acketed expansion chamber connected to the engine exhaust, water passage means connecting the ackets, means operated by the propeller cgi/.using Water from the body of water in which the motor is operated to flow through the engine jacket and through the expansion chamber jacket for cooling them.
3. An outboard motor having a water jacketed gas engine, a water jacketed muffler,
a water pipe connecting the jacket of the engine with that ofthe muiiler, a propeller operated by the engine, and means associated with the propeller foriinducing a flow of cooling water through the water jackets in series.
4. An outboard motor having a water jacketed gas engine and a water j acketed expansion chamber for the engine exhaust, an engine driveshaft and a propeller with an enclosing case, the casing being provided with separate passage ways, one connected to the expansion chamber and two connected to the water jackets, the lower ends of the passages terminating below normal water level, and means for causing a circulation of cooling water up one of the water passages, through the jackets and down through the other water passa e 5. n outboard motor having a gas engine and a connected muiher with water jackets connected in series, an extended engine shaft and a propeller operated thereby, casing` means enclosing the shaft and supporting the propeller having passages terminating below Water level and connected at the upper end to the muffler and to the water jackets of the engine and the muffler, the lower ends ofthe passages terminating close to the propeller to force cooling water up one of the passages reversing movement when applied toa boat. j
7. An outboard motor according to claim 5 in which the shaft enclosing portion of the casing means lis free and unobstructed for a portion of its length, an exhaust relief valve in the exhaust passage below the muflier above the unobstructed portion of the casing and jacket, water circulating passages formed 1n the hollovvr casing f surrounding the drive shaft, a propeller carrying casing rigidly mounted on the lower end of said drive shaft and having an internal passafre registering with the water passages in the tu ular housing, the passage in said lower casing discharging below normal water level, and means for causing water to ow from the body of water in which the housing is submerged upwardly to the water jacket of the engine, thence to the Water jacket of the eX- pansion chamber, thence downwardly through 10 the hollow housing and discharging into the same body of water.
In witness whereof, We have hereunder subscribed our names. ry y LOUIS J. J OI-INSON.` HARRY L'. JOHNSON. v