US 1824799 A
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Sept. 29, 1931. c. F. ADAM ET AL A 1,824,799
APPARATUS FOR THE PERMANENT WAVING OF THE HAIR FiledDec. 17, 1928 v 3 Sheets-Sheet l g llli z lll ilm 0 A 6' v j 2 (,4 0. 91M 1 Sept. 29, 1931. 1. c. F. ADQAM ET AL 1,824,799
APPARATUS FOR. THE PERMANENT WAVING OF THE HAIR Filed Dec. 17, 1928 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 l. C. F. ADAM ET AL APPARATUS FOR THE PERMANENT WAVING OF THE HAIR Sept. 29, 1931.
Filed Dec. 17, 1928 ,3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Patented Sept. 29, 1931 PERMIT? FRAME, ASSIGNQRS 9 c e wmsjs -mw nm e mm m 0F PARIS, 'FRANCE', A LIMITED corirnNYgor FRANCE 1 reissues roe rse 'rmmmm wa vme or me me" Application med n'ee'mberm 1928; serial No 32 8',660;:andi11r Ixancebeceihbr22,1927;
The present invention has for object an apparatus whicha-llows of obtaining, ona head of hair of Variable length, an artificial waving of long duration, so-called;-perma nent waving, having the appearance-of a natural waving. This apparatus applies the known general principle according to which the waving of a lock of hair is obtained by rollin it up on a hair curler after having. previous yo spread it in the form; ofa sheet or layer of approximately uniform thicknessjandof variable width 'accordingas it is examined at the point orat the root of the hair, and byheating it after having impregnated-it with a suitable UM v n I section of thestoveyaccording to D.D of 7 7. Figural?) isalongitudinal sectionof theknown apparatus which applythe above prin H a U a a I 1 igur 14 iszatop plan 'viewof the lower 773; javvtpbf jthestovm solution;
The apparatus forming the subject-matter of the invention presents, relatively tohthe ciple, the main followingadvantag'es:Q
(1) The, tension of thehaii', from which depends the permanence,ofthe wavingflsjadf A W CIOSBdZpOSIt /IOII.
justable, at-the will of the operator and cannot get-out of adjustment independently of the will ofthe-latter. j a
(2) The tension of the-hair is as greatas may be desired by theoperatomthis tension not being exerted onthe root of the hair.
(3) It'constitutes-a practically fluid-tight I v v ,t10n,1- ,of wh ch is constituted bya solid, of
structure which cornmunicateszwith, theeilfterior only through an orifice situated in such a, placetha-t the vapour evolved may notburn the scalp"; it allowsalso to dispense with the auxiliary protecting means calico, flannel, paraflined papenete, the protection of which is of little efficiency and the use of which renders long and tedious-the preparation of the waving. a
-(4) Its'shape, its fluid tight-ness and the location of it'sheatingapparatu'sreduce' to the minimum the heat losses and, consequently the time nece's'saryior obtainingla satisfactory Waving.
The accompanying drawings illustrate, by way of example o'nly,two forms of construction of the apparatus forming: the subject matter of theinvention.
, Figures 1 to 9 relate to a struction andare; H c y I c v c Figure 1 a sectional' viewofa hair, curler.
sliapedznipples receivingthe obturating tubes 3 and 3 The end 2 is provided with aseries ,ot the rolling-up operation,
4' 2) As ove first am of conie [e r e-# Ye 1 o i s l ne CC ofFigA of a stove, of which ,Figs;
3 and} are respectively an elevation and section anda kplan view of a jaw, and Figs. 5 i and 6,acros s section anda partial horizontal J i F 1gure7 1s a View inelevat on of a preparatlon, slip.
Figures Bland 9, crass'se tions according to iiand.B,B of Fig. ,7, respectively. Figures 10 to 16 relatesto a second form V of construction. i Figures wand 11: show a hair curler, in elevation and in planview, respectively. 7 r
, Figure ;12;is,,on anenlarged scale, a cross stovein its entirety;
. ,rigare i's, is as elevation or the v dip t is a partial sideview; with cross section, of the clip and' of.;the hair curler 7 m a ed: i -lles p tt fq a I lnrthe ex'ampl'e of construction illustrated in Figs. 1 to 9, the apparatnscomprises 1 (1) a A-t-hair curler,(Fig. Ifthe central p01- andzthe e'nd parts Qand 2 by two cylinders of revolution terminated two .frustumof recesses 2 which constitute the female part of a retaining pawl and ratchet device tobe described later on, and aslot 4 for receiving a such as a bent screwdriver which allows'the'i hair curler to be rotated whenit-l is mounted in the stove.- The central portion c ot the 'haircurler is provided with a: spring 5 adaptedi to retain the hair at the beginning (Figs 2 to 6 )-*,felectrically heated and constituted by-two L jaws 6 and- 6' connected bya bolt? or anyother tightening device: and-compressing between their edges an obturati ng lpac king8. -On each of their faces adjacent to the scalp, these jaws are provided with plates 9 and 9 which are nonconductor of heat and adapted to protect the head against heat. Each jaw has two bearing portions 10 and 10' for the ends 2and 2 of thehair curler. One of the jaws receives the pawl of a pawl and ratchet device constituted byaball11(Figs.2and6) returnedby a spring 12 which presses on a threaded plug 13.. The." ratchet of the pawl and ratchet device, is
constituted by the part 2 having recesses 2 (Fig. 2). Within the stoves are placed electric resistances 14 (Figs. 5 and 6). The resistances-14 are in the shape of coils supported in a double trough 14 fastened by screws 6 upon internal bosses of the shell or jaw .6.
- through the medium of the'wire conve'ying the electricity. j
(3) A preparation clip (Fig.7) whichcarries two jaws 15 and'15j ointed a't one of their ends and'capable, att he other end, of being locked by a lever'16 pivoting about an axis rigid with the jaw 15. One of the jaws of the clip is provided with two arcuatedsupports 17 and 17 acting as springsand adapted to' receive, at the end of'the rolling up operation, the .ends of the hair-curlerf One of these supports has a projection 18 adapted to enter the recesses 2 vof the hair curler'for immobilizing the latter'when the rolling up operation is finished. I
The apparatus, in the form of construction following manner: I A lock of. hair is separated andgrasped near the. scalp withithepreparation clip; the latter is tightly closed and the hair 1s en- 'gagedunder thespring of the .hair curler, the lock of hair is rolled up by hand by spreading it in the form of a'layer of approximately uniform thickness and, at the end of the rolling up operatiomthe'hair curler is placed in the supports 17, with the projection18 fitted into one or the recesses 2 of the which has just been described, is used the hair curler. As many hair curlers as the head of hair has locks ofhair are prepared clamped between the edges of "the jaws 6 and 6, is stretched by causingthehair curler to rotate in the direction forcla'mping by means of the bent screwdriver or of any other tool. The ball 11 allows, if need be, to
turn the curler back, when the operator has stretched the hair too strongly.
I This operation is repeated for allthejstoves. Heating is effected by causing the current to pass during the required time, which varies according to the texture of. the hair.
The jaws are then withdrawnjthe hair curler is removed and the hair iswashed and combed V p In .the example of construction illustrated in Figs. 10 to 16, the hair curler (Figs. 10 "and-11 has a central portion 1' with a; spring 5 the shape and function of which are substantially those already} indicated with reference to the first form of construction. "But the cylindrical parts 2 and 2 which are centered in bearing portions of the-stove, are terminated by cylindrical bosses tand 4 the main function of which is indicated later on and which are axially slotted or prepared in any other manner for-being engaged' by a tool for stretching the lock of hair. Between the body "1 and the trunnions 2 and 2 are interposed flanges 3? which exactly determine the transverse position of the hair curler in the stove, as shown in Fig. 14.
The end 2 is provided, as in the preceding example, with'recesses 2 which, in combination with the pawl of the stove, allow to ensure and maintain the tension of the hair.
The stove (Figs. 12,13 and 14) has two jaws 6 and 6 connected by ascrew 7 the longitudinal displacement of which relatively to thejaw 6 is limited by a ring 7 or any otherequivalent stop devicei The screw 7 cannot, from this fact, abandon the aw 6 and be misled; It is screwed in a fixed nut 7 of the jaw 6' for ensuring the closing of the stove; a packing 8 is, as in the first example of construction, interposed .between the 'a'djacentedges of the jaws 6 and 6. An axis/7", screwed for instance in the nut 7, constiutes .a pivot for a shutter 7 prol portionof a lock of hair when it is desired to shelter from the heat the ever'm'ay be its length.
One of the jaws of the stove receives the stop pawl of the hair curler] This pawl said portion what- (Fig. 12) is'a sliding finger 1 returned by a spring 10 which bears on an obturator 12 held by a pin 13. Within the stoy e are a'rranged heating resistances l i One'ofthe jaws of the stove'has aperforated' screen or grid '15 adapted to pro- 1 tect the'hair against a too rough action of the source of heat. The jaws 6 and 6 are, moreover," provided, on a portion 1 of their outer faces, with coatings 6 and 6 which are' not conductors of heat and are adapted Ill) - sesame to render the manipulation of the same more easy and to reduce to the minimum the heat losses.
The clip for preparing, the locks of hair to be waved (Fig. 15) differs from that already described, particularly in that the jointing face of the jaws 15 and 15 has a shoulder at its central portion. The jaw 15' is provided, for that purpose, with a tenon or projection 15 which, when the clip is closed, fits in .a corresponding slit and tongue joint of the jaw 15. The lock of hair is spread in the form of a sheet in the slit and tongue joint and cannot, from this fact, disperse throughout the width of the clip. It is thus spread on a length which corresponds to that it must occupy on the hair curler. The clip is held closed by the pressure exerted, on one of its jaws, by a finger 19 arranged at the end of a spring or resilient blade 20 secured on the otherj aw, at the end opposite the hinge 21.
One of the jaws of the clip is provided with two preferably resilient supports 17 and 17 adapted to receive the ends 4 and 4 of the hair curler. These supports can have two small tenons 21 and 21 which lit in the grooves of the cylindrical portions 4 and 4 of the hair curler and prevent the rotation of the latter after it hasbeen placed in position on the clip and during the period of preparation. The face of the jaws 15 and 15, on the side opposite to the supports 17 and 17 of the hair curler, is conveniently lined with an insulating packing 22 and 22 composed of one or more thicknesses of material which are nonconductors of heat, permanently secured in position and adapted to protect the scalp against the heat evolved from the stove.
d The apparatus, in the form of construction which has just been described, is used as follows: A lock of hair isseparated and grasped near the scalp with the preparation clip, taking care to insert the lock of hair in the housing provided for receiving it on the clip. The latter is lockedand the lock of hair is moistened with a suitable liquid, or, on the rolled up hair, is placed a small bag of suitable composition, this operation taking place at the time the hair curler is inserted between the jaws of the stove. The hair curler is taken hold of by engaging the hair under the spring 5 at the place where it is desired the waving should begin. The lock of hair is then rolled up on itself by hand by giving to the layer of hair a nearly constant thickness and, at the end of the rolling up operation, the hair curler is placed in the resilient supports 17 and 17 of the clip, so that the tenons 21 and 22 of the said supports fit into the grooves of the ends of the hair curler.
The head curler isplaced in position on the jaw of the stove which has a port 7 1 2* 'ofthe hair I curler. I
and the 013116 1 3 WV is placed in position.- The 9 locking screw 7 tightenedafter ascertaining if thcpawlll' is reallyfitted into a recess The hair bein'g clamped between the edges 'of'thejaws, it is stretched-by causing the hair curler to turn in the direction for clam-ping by means of a screw-driver or of any other suitable tool The opcration is terminated as, already explained.
What I claim as my invention and desire to secure by Letters Patent is 1. In an apparatus for the permanent waving of hair of the character described, in combination: clips provided with means for supporting a hair curler, a heating stove formed by two shells which are superposed on' their edges so as to form between them a heating chamber, electric heating resistances in one of the shells, in the rear part thereof, semicylindricalbearings on the lateral edgesof the said shells for forming bearing supports of the curler in thefront part of the shells, means on the ends of the curler for ensuring the tightness of the stove and recesses in means for maintaining the shells relatively to each other. j
2. In an apparatus'for the permanent wav- I ing of hair, of the character described, in combination: clips having curved pieces of metal the curlers and a spring returned pawl on a the stove and having a spherical; end to engage spherical recesses in the curled and on one of their branches for supporting a curler, a heating stove formed by two shells whichare superposed on their edges, electric l heating resistances placed in one of the shells, in the rear part thereof, semi-cylindrical hearings on the lateral edges of the said shells for forming bearings for a curler, tightening means on the ends ofthe said curler, re-
cesses in the curler and a spring returned pawl in the interior of one of the semi-cylindrical bearings of the shells and having a spherical end for engaging spherical recesses in the curler, a grid fixed on one of the said shells between the seat of the curler and the heating resistances and means for maintaining the shells relatively to each other.
3. In an apparatus for the permanent waving of hair of the character described, in combinationclips having curved pieces of metal on'one of the branches of the clips for supporting a curler a heating stove formed by two shells which are superposed on their edges, electric heating resistances placed in one of the shells in the rear part thereof, semicylindrical hearings on the lateral edges of the said shells for forming supports for a curler, tightening means on the ends of the said curler, a spring returned pawl in one of the shells of the stove, and having a'sphericalend for engaging spherical recesses in the curler, a grid fixed on one of the said shells between the seatof the curler and the electric heating resistances, a screw and nut connection between the shells for maintaining same relatively to each other, a shutter pivoted to one of the shells for controlling an opening in the bottom of the said shell.
In testimony whereof We have signed our names to this specification.
- lsA'l'E CLEMENT FRANCOIS ADAM.
RENE ALEXIS RAGODY.