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Publication numberUS1825195 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 29, 1931
Filing dateApr 19, 1928
Priority dateApr 19, 1928
Publication numberUS 1825195 A, US 1825195A, US-A-1825195, US1825195 A, US1825195A
InventorsMcavoy Charles F, Mcavoy Daniel E
Original AssigneeMcavoy Charles F, Mcavoy Daniel E
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Unit-system building construction
US 1825195 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 2,9,.1931. c. 11 McAvoY 1-:T A1.

lUNIT SYSTEM BUILDING CONSTRUCTGN A FiledApril 19, 1928. 4 sheets-sheet 1 Sept. 29, l93l. c. F. McAvoY ET AL L UNIT SYSTEM BUILDING CQNSTRUCTION Filed April 19. 192e 4 sheets-sheet 2 Sqn. 29, 1931.

C. F. MAVOY ET AL UNI'1 SYSTEM BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed April 19, 1928 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 awoznupAv Sept 29, 1931- c. McAvoY ET AL 1,825,195

UNIT SYSTEM BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed April 19. 1928 4 Sheets-Sheet 4.


""d 9. E www@ Patented sept.. 29, 11931 -currar) STATI-:fs PATENT? oI-1=lcr=.`-

mms r. mayor im Dimmi. E. McAvoY, or LoNGAIsLANn errar, NEW vom:

UNIT-SYSTEM BUILDING (iOIN'S'IIR'II'GTIONl Application 'mea April 1s, 192s. serial mi. 271,340.

`1o tion; to reduce the time required for erection and dismantling ofthe building; to secure more complete insulation against transmission of heat; .andto eliminate minor parts 4such as springs, packing orsealing strips, and the like, which experience has shown to be unnecessary, and which are 11n; desirable vbecause involving needless expense, ,extra time and careln placing 1n positlon,-

and loss in shipping and'applying the same.-

A further object is to permit the construc- I tion of wider buildings employingunits of the same dimensions as heretofore.

Certain `features of the invention here illustrated and described, and pertaining more particularly to the roof structure of a demountable'building, are embraced in a divisional applicationfiled on the 17th day of January, 1930, Serial No. 421,548. The matters so specifically claimed in said divisional a plicatiom altho h described here in to a ord abetter un erstanding ofthe.

invention and structure as a whole, are reserved for and claimed in said ldivisional application. A y L l These and 'other features of improvement will be ex lained in -th'e following description, aided) by the accompanying drawings, in which: t A

Figure lis `a perspective view on a small scale of one lof the Wall and roof units, with a portion ofthe facing board or sheet broken away to show the interior construction;

' Flg. 2, a vertical sectional view of one `wall' andaportion of the roof', takenfon a plane transverseto said .wall and'roof, and

' showing more particularly the construction and the manner 0f anchoringpr securing the roof in place;

Fig. 3, a fragmentary face elevation of v the upperportion of two wall units, show- 'under side o -the metal strip or plate carried thereby to ing the anchoring irons which tie the roof thereto; f

Fig. 4, a horizontal sectional view of a portion of one side and one end wall of the structure;

Fig. 5, a similar section on a larger scale, illustrating certain details of the corners of the building;

Fig. 6, a view showing a means for and mode of anchoring the corner cover-plates;

Fig. 7, a fragmentary view, partly in section, illustrating the construction of the combined tie-rod seetionsand dowels used in binding together b'oth the wall and the roof Fig. 8, a perspective view of a special..

t pe of bolt, designed for use at points where t e continuity ofV the wall is interrupted, p

as at door openings and thelike;

Fig. 9, a perspective view showing the a section of a roof unitgand rest upon the upper edge or face of a wall, andf to form part of the -anchoringrof the roo Fig. 10, a perspective view showing the dowels applied to the @orner angle irons, and thegmortise provided in receive one of said dowels;

Fig. 11,'a sectional view illustrating 'the manner of applying a vmetal-binding to the sides and ends of the unit sections;

l F i 12,l a perspective View of the metallic memer employed to tie together the two sloping roof sections and the ridge pole, of a simple gable roof, or of a clearstory Aor monitor roof when such is used;

,Y Fig. 13, an end view showing the Icen'- roof where it-is desiredtoerect a structure of greater width and floor space than wouldpracticable with units of given struction of a clearstory ormonitor roof,to applied toor to form part of the. main a unit section to Fig. 15, an enlarged sectionalV view of l an vinternally and externally threaded nut or socket member employed to facilitate tyingA togethervthe roof membersand securing the roof to the wall members, and the4 wall members to sillsx or to short posts carried thereby. l

` The present construction follows gener- 5 ally the plan of that set forth in the earller patents noted, thek walls and roof r being formed of identical 'units or sections, tied together by sectional tie-rods, each a little longer than the width of a unitvwall or roof section. A

Each unit comprises a rectangular frame of wood; facing sheets or boards; and a bindingy strip or band of sheet metal, cut,- folded into trough-like form in cross section to cover the edge face of the unit frame on its sides and ends,.and having its free edges crimped or pressed slightly into the facing boards or sheets to bind together and protect the frame and its covering, and

give to said frame great strength, enabling it to support a remarkably heavy load and to withstand a quite heavy facewise pressure. The crimping serves also to carry the free edges of the metal into, and to bring .25 each flange ofthe metal strip flush with, the

surface of the covering or facing board or sheet of the unit, thus guarding against engagement of such edge with other bodies and the stripping of the metal from the facing sheet. These results are attained with the use of relatively light wooden pieces, which are inv practice made of material that is cornmonly treated as waste at the mills, and hence costs but little, particularly when purchased in considerable quantities.

Each unit frame 1 is preferabl composed of two main longitudinal mem rs 2 and threeJ main cross pieces 3; aseries of lighter. cross pieces 2'* parallel with the main cross members; and short spacing pieces 3aL arranged between the several transverse members, as shown in Fig. 1. These parts 'are standardized and carefully cut to exact dimensions, and are assembled by dropping them into forms, so that accurate alinement of the various pieces is assuredand the parts are assembled rapidly and without the need of skill or great care. When .thus positioned the parts are light-1y fastened together by nails or brads, and byso-called wiggle nails which are formed of thin corrugated steel 'cut or beveled at one end or margin to produce a sharp cutting edge which can readily be'driven into wood, with, p or across the grain. Upon the 'frame thus made up there is laid a sheet or board 4 of any good insulatingfmaterial, such as Ce1o. tex, vHomosote, beaver board, orother pulp or lfiber board,`Celotex `and Ho'moso'te being generally preferred because of. their high insulating value, their lightness, and the readiness with which they vreceivewand the tenacitywith which they hold plaster, stuc- A board with the face of the frame, to which it 'faclngs of strong1 frame, and this coated face is pressed lightly to ensure close Contact of the cement-coated readily adheres. The frame is then turned 7 over and a like insulating sheet or board, similarly coated on one face with a good Waterproof cement, is applied to the second face of said frame. Successive frames thus prepared are placed one upon another on a suitable bed, and the ent-ire pile or stack is subjected to pressure suicient to ensure perfect contact of the cement-coated sheets or boards with the frames, and the pressure is maintained until the cement sets or hardens. The insulating board or sheet possesses considerable strength, and adhering to the numerous longitudinal and transverse members of the frame,l ties its parts securely together and gives stiffness andstrength to said frame, which in turn supports the insulatinff sheets or boards, and enables them to withstand quite rough handling and heavy wind pressure, or in the case of roof lmits, tocarry heavy loads of snow, sleet or ail. v

Though it is preferred generally to employ pulp or ber boards for both faces of the panels or units, sheet metal may be used on one r both facesv where the building is intended to withstand eXce tionally hard usage, or is liable to be sub]ected to blows or impact. Such sheet metal may replace or may overlie the fiber board facing. The two but light and cellular material having a igh heat insulating capacity, together with the air confined within the hollow 'unit structure, give excellent protection against transmission of heat, and a n building-constructed of suchunitsis easily kept warm in Winter and cool in summer. Covered with plaster, stucco, or similar noncombustible'materi'als or preparations, and said units, and the structures 'built thereof, if aire practicall vfireproof, are waterproof, and are una ected by changes in weather conditions.

Each unit orpanel is provided with a sheet metal binding -encompassing the four edge faces of the frame. As seen in Figs. 10

and l11 this binding is formed of sheet metal, preferablyfolded upon itself along its longitudinal 'edges and lthen bent to trough form to snugly fi t the frame and overlap the facing sheets or boards 4;"a short distance, the binding strip being miter jointed at' the corners an bentorcrimped to force its free edges 1nto the facing board-a sli ht distance. The flanges of the binding are'tus brought 7 Y element, sti

lor otherv pac flush or into plane with the facing boards or sheets, and form a strong and permanent fastening of thefacing boards and of the binding strips, rendering nails, tacks, and the like, unnecessary. It will be noted that two trough-like or channel bars laid back to back and drawn and held firmly in contact, produce a li ht but strong and rigid vertical ened and prevented from buckling by the several bends and crimping of the metal.

As under the prior construction, the alined units or panels are connected, drawn and firmly held t igether, and kept in alinement by, sectional tie-rods 6, one section of each rod extending through a hole bored longitudinally through the. transverse members 3 of each unit, there being a tie-rod for each series of alined transverse members. The improved construction of these rods will presently be explained. As the transverse members 3 have their grain running in the direction of the sectional rods and these membersare practically in end contact, there is no material or appreciable longitudinal expansion or contraction of. a` wall, roof ,or floor composed of such panels, and hence there is no need for springs or other yielding devices or contraction. All such contrivances are hence omitted in the presentr construction, and the metal-covered edges of proximate panels are brought into immediate' contact1 and so firmly pressed together that the felt king previously employed is found wholly unnecessary and undesirable, and is likewise omitted. As a consequence there is a material saving in cost, the sprin consil erable expense, Moreover, special provision had to `be made for seating the proper placing required I sure'and maintain alinementeofzthe panels f course understoo or unit sections, but these are now; edispei'ised with and the sectional tie-rods'are'sowfashioned that their heads serve as dowels. and

also as nuts, each to receive the threaded end of `asucceeding rod section. c e

The construction of the individual tierods 6 will now be explained in connection with Figs. 4, 7, 8, 9 and 10. Each rodcom of sections of the form illustrated in F1 s. 4 and 7, ity being of that leach section i's continuous from its socket end, or internally threaded dowel end, 6, to its externally screw-threaded end 6*. The dowel end of each 'section is made of polygonal andpreferably square form in cross section, to fit a corresponding seat or socket 7 with which v 'dowel 6a e nend. As a consequence, the screw-threaded to compensatefor expansion` 'be turned until spring s and packing strips being 'items of one end of eachtransverse member 3 of each panel or unit is provided. This formation of the dowel causes it, when seated in the socket 7, to be held against rotation, se that the threaded end 6b of the next rod section 6 can be readily screwed into the dowel 6 without diiliculty. To facilitate the ready entrance and centering of the threaded end in the dowel end, each threaded end 6b is provided with a conical extremity and each is furnished with a conical outer end of one tie-rod can `be instantly centered in and promptly screwed into, the socketed end of the next tie-rod Without any waste of time in securing axial alinement of the tie-rod sections. Each dowel end 6EL Afrom the edge of the panel or unit through which the rod passes, into the socket 7 of the alined transverse member 3 of the succeeding panel or unit, as shown in Fig. 4, and the sections of the three tie-rods passing through successive panels can be introduced and tightened with great rapidity. The protruding dowel portion 6a of each rod serves to receive a Wrench or other implement by .which to screw the rod sections home, and as the b'ase ,of each dowel bears against thc fiat face of themetal binding strip 5, it may ressure is exerted against the'edge face o the unit or panel being secured in place, without danger of embedding itself in the Wood of the transverse member 3 or mutilating the same.

This rod construction is used throughout the side and end Walls and roof, special provision being made, however, for anchoring and tighteningthe rods yat the corners of the building, and at door openings or other interruptions in the walls or roof. y

AAt the corners of the building or structure thereis employed as a corner post or support anangle iron or steel member. 8, shown in Fig. 4 and on asomewhat larger scale in Fig. 5'. Each such corner post 8 is-*placed `with lone face abutting directly againstianendwall andthe other against a sidewallyin 90 lrelation, and each mortise orwsocketf of the proximate or abutting panelszor sectionsl is furnished with-a nut 9 of the sameforin as the dowel end 6 of the .tie-rods. At other points this dowel is made integral withthe rod section 6, but is here 'made separate from the rod and hasA projects the threaded end ofthe proximate rod section 6, and at its outer end an attaching bolt v10 passing through a perforation in the web or wing of angle post 8 in alinement with the proximate tie-rod section 6.. This construction is shown in Fig. 4 applied both Ito a tierod of an end wall and. to a tie-rod of a side Wall, and is shown on a larger scale in Fig. 10.

To cover up and preventv withdrawal .of the bolts 10, and to give a pleasing appearance and added strength to the corner posts, there is rovided a cover-'plate or member 11, heres own curved to a 90 arc, and having its free edges lfolded back upon the body and then bent outward at a rightv angle, as

best seen in Fig. 5. This construction affords bearings throughout the length of the cover-plate, both on the face and on the edge .of the angle iron post from end to en'd, covering the joints or meeting lines of the wall 9 secured to one of the corner posts S'by a' bolt 10, `as above described. The bolt 16 is of appropriate length to pass through a single panel or unit and screw' at its forward end into a dowel sufficiently Yto afford a firm hold for the bolt, and short enough to cause a head 16" to take a firm bearin against the outer edge of the metal-bonn panel or unit, and thus to draw and hold sections and corner posts, and giving-a neat finish to thecornerand considerable strength to v-the coverlates.

curing or holding the cover-plates lil in place may be adopted. However, ras expedition in the erection of buildings of this sort is highly desirable, especially where the structures are used for the housing of troops or expeditionary forces, and of necessity are apt to be s bled, I pre er the holding device shown in Figs. 4, 5 and 6. This consists of one or more 'metal straps or bars 12 riveted or otherwise-secured to the two wings or leaves of the`cornerv post, as best shown in Fig. 5, to be engaged by a hook 13 form'ed on an angle plate 14 welded, riveted, bolted or otherwise secured to the inner face of the and convenient mode of seedily assembled and disassem` the panel firmly against the post. If two or morel units are interposed between the post and the door or window frame, bolts having the Adowel integral therewith will be employed for all such units except the one against which the frame is placed. At that` point a bolt 16 of the form shown in Figs.

-8 and 10 will be employed. The bolt may cover-plate 11. -The hook 13. and strap or bar 12A are so positioned that said hook may Ybe readily passed over the .bar and moved downward relatively thereto until its 'slightl inclined rnner face bears firmly against the opposed face of said bar, Vand thereby draws thel folded edges of the coverlate 11 forcibly against the outer 'edges and aces of the angle iron posts8, as indicated in Figs. 4 and 5. One, two, or more bars 12 and hooks 13 may be employed for each post as desired. r It is deemed advisable ordinarily to employ at least vtwo such fastenings, one near the upper and the other near the lower end of the post and corner, to en'- sure and' maintain close contact of the cover and post throughout their length. A metal pass through the door or Window frame, and such frame secured in place by the bolts of the three tie-rods extending thereto, each bolt being in such case of the form shown in said Figs. 8 and 10. Countersinks may be provided for the heads 16a of the bolts 16, if desired, and as hinged steelwindow frames and sash frames are usually employed in connection with buildings of the type here illustrated and described and the bolt heads will not interfere with their proper opening and closing, the slight projection of the head 168L is unim ortant. s above stated, the roof is composed of unit members placed edge to@ edge and drawn, pressed and firmly held together by ciselyvas are the lwalls. Gable sections each .of the form and dimensions corresponding wall plate 15 (see Fig. 9), rstiattached to the underside ofthe roof members, extends from the corner posts 8, and prevents lifting of the covers-11 of said posts.

` At door, window, and other-openings, if j i such be provided, it is of course undesirable to have the dowels 6* protrude beyond the face of the door "or window frames, -or `beyond the edges of the panelsv abutting against such frames. At such points, therefore, I emplo in connection with either the dowel of i'gs. 4 and 7, or the nut 9 v.of Fig. 10, a bolt 16 having a polygonal head 16* slotted or rovided with a nick to receive a screw river. Such a bolt is shown in Fig. 8 and partially broken awayin Fig. 10, arranged to` screw into'a nut or dowel to oneof the unit sections, cut through from one to the diagonally oppositek corner, will be employed as in the structure set forth in Patent No. 1,37 5,402 before referred to. These gable sections being properly placed upon and supported by the end walls, in

turnv afford su ports for'theends of two r'oof sections 1 and 18, each composed of avseries of units` which may be assembled before raising to position, or assembled in position, as ound .expedient in any given case and depending primarily on the length ofthe roof., i

In order to permit proper t 'ng together .of the roof members, one tov t e other, and

both tothe Walls of the building, eachunit or panel 1 is provided at opposite ends with one or more nuts or socket plugs 19 of the form shown in Fig. 2 and on a larger scale 'in Fig.l 15. These plugs ,are of circular form 1n cross section, flanged 4at thegfop'en" endlafter the-manner of a wood sc'rew'head, i

externally threaded to enter a hole orf's'ocket bored 1n the transverse members 3 at opposite` ends ofthe units or panels, and internal-l -v ly threaded to receive' the ends of bolts 20,

said bolts passing through oppositelyr tending arms of a tie-piece 21 best shownin Fig. 12 but appearing also in Figs. 2 and 13. The socket plugs 19 can be rapidly and required for their placement and 'dispensing with the plates previously used, and each secured in place by screws. f

The connecting tie-piece \21 has at its midlength as best seen in Fig. 12, a triangular projection with its top and longest face in a horizontal plane. It is provided with a vertical hole to permit a fastening bolt 22 to pass through it andenter a socket plug or nut 19 seated in thelower side of a substantially T-shaped ridge-pole 23, the lateral arms of which overlap Vthe proximate ends of the roof sections 17, 18, and the stem or central rib of which-is beveled or tapered to fitsnugly between the opposed ends of said roof sections. This ridge pole is preferably covered with galvanized iron, as indicated in Fig. 2. It is deemed advisable to have. at least one tie-piece for each two roo'f panels or units, andpreferably two, as

considerable stress. Yis broughtv upon them when theroof is or sleet.

To secure the outer and lower portions of .l-he' slanting roof sections to the vertical walls, fastening members 24 of inverted L-shape as shown in Figs; 2 and 3, are employed, and these are arranged to overhang and hold down the wall plate 15 above re- "ferred to. As shown in Figs. 2 and 9, the

plate 15 has three flat faces or portions 15", 15h and 15, the intermediate portion ,15" being of a width to rest u on and extend from the inner to the outer' 'ace of the vertical wall of the building, the outer portion 15 being at a slight angle to the portion 15? so that it shall lie flat against the under face of the roof section while said intermediate L' the wall.

` wall panels or units.

sectionV 15" lies flat upon the upper face of The section 15c is bent downward at a right angle to the intermediate portion 15'J'so as to overhang, the top face or -edge of the vertical wall and bear against the vinner side face thereof, as seen in Figs. 2 and 3. The fastening members or irons 24 are'secured to the side walls Iby bolts 25 entering nuts or socket plugs 19 seated in the upper transverse member 3 .of the respective In regions where the :will be heavily. laden with snowY 4preferably be 'ad .Y A production and cheapness of output are im l.

subject to severe winds or gales it is desirable that they be suitably anchored. In any case it is desirable that they be supported on substantialsills or foundations as 26, Fig. 2. These sills may be beams of wood, or may be of brick, stone or cement, though the walls can be carried upon piers of any suit.

able construction, the rigidity and strength of the walls constructed as here described rendering continuous support unnecessary. Made fast to or .anchored in any suitable way in each sill 26, is either a continuous upstanding member 26a, or a series of such upstanding members of relatively small easurement in the direction of the length di the sill. These upstanding members are v provided opposite the socket plugs 19 of the panels or unitsr 1, with openings for the passage of fastening bolts 20 by which any op all of the wall sections may be made fast go' the upstanding members 26a, as seen in t will be noted that the internally and externally threaded socket plugs 19 areemployed throughout the entire building structure, serving to permit, through the use of tap bolts, strong and rigid connection ofthe wall panels with the upstanding basemember 26a; of the -roof members or panels with said upstanding walls; ofV the roof panels through the aid of the connecting tieiece 21; and finally, the tying totgether o the ridge-pole 23, roof panels an tie-piece 21.

By employing tap bolts, as 20, 22, 25, of ap propriate lengths, this simple and secure connectioucan be used with great advantage without the employment 'of separate screws or other fastenings, and in the time required to introduce one such fastening screw. The

flan .e at the outer end of the plug 19 serves `to hmit the depth `of its insertion linto the member to which it is applied, and vby bearing upon the cover-boards ofthe panels, serves additionally to secure them firmly to the fr of said panels. Y

on Athe general plan above setl forth but of greater width than has heretofore been prac- S110 Itis often esirable to construct buildings' ticable with units of the preferred dimen sions, which dimensions have been vadopted for general purposeswith aview to to best advantage the space of box` cars :in

other vehicles, which are standardized.

parting from the spirit of the invention, or

lthe scope of the claims made in the prior patent or in the present instance, but will lThese dimensions may be varied without deim simple and eicient manner and with improved structure, by providing in addition to what has been above described a' clear-- story or monitor roof 27, as by Figs. 13 and 14,' the roofsections 17 and 18 there shown being constructed as in Fig. 2

e of the clearstory may be built up of rectangular frames or panels 28-of suitable lengt preferably equal to the width of the panels 1, and provided,with longitudinal sills or bottom members and socketsor mortises to receive the sectional tie-rods and dowelsabove described. They' will referably be covered, at least on `the outer fiice, with galvanized sheet metaly having an outwardly turned llange 29 along its outer lower edge to lap across and protect ya ainst the entrance of moisture, where the ower and beveled edge of theframe bears upon the proximate` roof section, as in Fig. 13.

The roof of theclearstory 27 will advisably be constructed in essentially the same `manner as the main roof of the building,

the roof units being tied together in the saine way as said main roof sections and of like dimensions, orshorter in their major dimension than the regular units, as found expedient. If shorter, -it is advisable that 4.they be one-half or one-third the length of the wall and main'roofunits, in 'order that they maybe stored snugly in like space, two or three of the shorter'units occupying thesa'me s ace as one'of the longer panels.

Tie ars 30 secured b Vbolts 31 enterin socket plugs 19 such as s own in 4Fi L 2 an above described, serve to tie toget er the proximate endsv of the main roof sections VY-17L,and 18, and angular tie-pieces 32 riveted or otherwise made fast' to ethe tie'bars 30 'serve to hold inplace the lower ends or vedges of the upstanding side melbers-of frames 28. The roof members 33-may be conveniently tied to the u standing members of 'frame 28 by-metal ttings 34'analogous to the ttings 24 of Fig. 2, and their proxi, mate ends will be connected by a tiepiece 21'* and covered'by a-fridge-pole23 in all respects the same as' .those of the main roof vsections 17 and 18 in'Fig. 2. p

:As the main roof sections 17 and 18 by reason of their longitudinal tie-rodsl 6 are very strong and rigid, and are supported at their ends on the gable meinbersof the structure and anchored thereto, the clearstory, constructed as ldescribed and rml attached to said main roof members,'fwi1l also be ri id and safe against the weight of `snow or s eet and the pressure of winds.

manifest that t roof with its ridge', pole and'issociated tie `mexiib'ersior f From the foregping description it will be. e` clearstory or monitor ning's, or such ridgepole 4and-tie members alone, may be ,interchanges ably employed without anyway modifyiand 18' shown in both res, the sections 33 being raised above sai sections4 17 and 18 and the same ridge pole and tie members being employed in both cases. The.y structure including the clearstory is deemed the best and most complete embodiment of the invention since it' affords additional light and adequate ventilation, both at the highest point inthe building where unobstructed light is -'best obtainable, and where ventilati'on may be secured without producing un'- desirable cross drafts or currents in the main body of the building.

Where the buildings are designed to remain standing and in use as permanent or as/seasonal homes, the metal tie members 21, 24,. and the like, may be covered by any suitable molding, wood or qther, as seen in Fig. 2, where a molding strip-35 eirtending parallel with the side wall and running from end wall to end wall with its upper edge preferably in contact with the under face 'of the roof menibers, is shown.

Any type of floor may bel employed the choice depending largel upon the intended 'wooden oors are subject toA injury by eertainclasses'of ants andother insects. As-

the invention here setforth is in no way restricted to one or another floor construction, none is shown. It will, however, be found convenient to use sections of the same outside dimensions 'as the wall and roof umts,

faced on the lower side' with any suitable j u" terial, and on the upper side with matchedV board, metal or other impervious sheet maspace so' left o en. As before stated, steel framesfo'r'bot the Qutside frame and the glass-holding frame, are preferably ein-l ployed, the outer frame being made of size andform to' it and fill the'spaces left open frame being preferably frame. While this `is t e preferred construction t is notan arbitra or nnva since any suitable-type of windo lass-holding if tothe @uur usel ofthe structure; t` us cement m ay advantageously usedwwliere the building is, to house automobiles or'the hke, or where iis in Patent No, 1,375,402 noted herein, or inauy other suitable form and manner.

It 1s found advantageous 1n some lnstances to use one type of board or covering for the outer or Weather surface of the panels or units, and another for the inner surface or the surface constituting the walls of the room, the morev open or porous type of covering for the outer surfaces, and particu- 'larly Where stucco or pebble-dash is to be employed, and the harder-surfaced materials where designs are to be painted, printed or stenciled on the exposed faces ofthe walls of the room.

Buildings designed to be erected by prop- 2 erly assembling standardized units and capable of being readily dismantled after erection, are commonly andY interchangeably designated as sectional buildings, demountable buildings, and where the unit system is employed, as unit construction buildings. These terms are tobe understood as interchangeably used in the foregoing description and in the claims. r As stated, it is preferred to fold the .lon-

3.0 -gitudinal edges of the metal binding ofthel panels upons the facing sheet preparatory to making the right angle bend which produces the trough shape in the binding. This construction gives greater stiffness to the binding, and adds to the strength of the vertical member produced through the clamping together of two similar .binding strips. It is to be understood, however, that the initial fold isnot essential, and that the 0 claim directed to the binding is not restrictedto such initial fold. What is claimed is 1. In a sectional. building structure, a

l series of unit panels each-having an .outer 5 wooden frameand intermediate stifening A members, at least one of which members extends transversely to the side members of said frame and is longitudinall bored to receive an individual section o a. sectional tie-rod, each bored hole having at one end a polygonal mortise to receive a dowel head or member of a tie-'rod section;

and a tie-rod composed of sections each! having one end provided with a polygonal 33 head or dowel member of form and dimensions to lit a mortise of the panel abutting that through which such tie-rod section is Y `carried, the head or dowel portion`of'such rod section being internally threaded to re- L'O ceive and hold thethreaded end of an ad-` f j joining tie-rod section, the several'sections of each tie-rod serving to produce acontinuous tie-rod, vand reach. section servingv when ,screwed to the next, and by` reason hold in close 'and firm edge contact the successive lpanels connected by the rods. 2. A panel for unit building structures having a frame comprising two logitudinal side members and at least two transverse members, suitably united to one another, said transverse members being suitably bored to receive and having screwed into such borings, flanged socket plugs of vcircular cross section, having an external thread to engage the Walls of the borings and an internal thread toreceive each a tap bolt or screw,

3. In a demountable building structure,

an upright metal corner post of angle form in cross' section; internally-threaded polygonal metal dowels each abutting at one end against one or the other outer face rof the Dost; tap-bolts passing through the Walls of said post and screwed into the dowels; unit wall panels each provided with mortises of size and form to receive the dowels; land tie-rod sections each of a length to pass through a wall panel from, one longitudinal edge to the other, threaded at one Aend to enter the threaded socket of adowel carried by the corner post, and having at its opposite end a head ofthe same form and construction assaid dowel, and serving as a 'dowel to enter and fill a mortise of a succeeding panel.

y 4. In a demountable., building structure, the .combination of a wall element having a projecting dowel provided with an internally threaded socket; a anel provided with a mortise of size' and orm'to receive nal edge to the other, threaded at one end to enter a threaded-socket in said-dowel and having at its opposite end a polygonal head adapted to recelve a wrench, and provided with a cross slot or nick in its outer face'to receive the bit-of a screw driver; whereby said tie-rod is adapted to pass through and hold in place a panel, and av -jamb 'or stile of a door br window frame, and is capable of being screwed home by a wrench or by a :screw driverl in positions where one or the other but not both of said implements can be manipulated.

5. In a demountable building having upright walls, the combination with two such walls of an angle iron corner post; a coverplate therefor having its longitudinal edges fashioned to .bear against the -proiizimate faces ofjsaid post and to overlap the edges thereof; ,and a holding device wholl with-k in the space enclosed by the post an cover-I plate for #securing the cover-plate in position.

6. Ina demountable building having up- 'i right walls,- the combination with two such walls of an angle iron corner post; a coverplate therefor having its longitudinal edges vfashioned to bear against the v*proximate faces of said post and to overlap the edges g a projecting doWel provided with an inter-l tlereof; means Within the space enclosed by the post and cover-plate for securing the cover to the post; and a Wall plate overlying the top of the post and cover, and serving to prevent removal of the -cover While the Wall plate is in position.

7. In combination v.With an angle iron corner post and with meeting Walls of a demountable building, a metal cover-plate havingvits longitudinal edge portions fashioned to bear against the proximate faces of the post and to overlapthe longitudinal edges thereof; a hook carried by one-of said members and having an inclined face; and a bar carried by the other of said members, over which said hookis enga ed by longitudinal 'movement of one rofv sai members relatively to the other, the inclined face serving to draw'and hold the covel` firmly against the post asthe relative longitudinal movement takes place.

8, A Wall element or panel for use in a unit building structure, said panel having nally threaded socket; a second panel or Wall element provided with a mortiser of size and form to receive and snugly enclose said dovvel; and a tie-rod section of a length to pass through said second panel from one longitudinal edge to the other, threaded at one end to enter a threaded socket in said dowel, and having at its opposite end a llike dowel containing a threaded socket to receive the threaded end of rod member.

In testimonyv whereof we have signed our names to this specification.


a succeeding tie-

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U.S. Classification52/127.12, 52/127.11, 52/275, 52/282.4, 52/223.7
International ClassificationE04B7/20, E04B7/00, E04B1/02, E04B1/14, E04B1/343
Cooperative ClassificationE04B7/20, E04B1/14, E04B1/34315
European ClassificationE04B1/14, E04B1/343C, E04B7/20