US 1825817 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 6, 1931. .1. PATTERSON 1,825,817
STRATIFYING ARRANGEMENT FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed Nov. 15, 1926 IN V EN TOR.
BY ZMA r W ATTORNEYS.
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OAKLAND, QfALIFORNIA, ASSEGNOB OF ONE-FQUBTH TO BROOKS WALKER AND ONE-FOURTH TO CLINTON L. WALKER, 013 PIEDMONT, CALIFURNIA STRATIFYTNG ARRANGEMENT FOB, INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Application filed November 5, 1826. Serial No. 148,352.
This invention relates to internal combustion engines and especially to a stratifying arrangement therefor whereby a high compression ratio may be obtained and the general efficiency increase.
It is well-known that the-more highly the ca'rbureted mixture in an engine is com-- pressed prior to the time of ignition, the greater fuel and engine efliciency. It would, accordingly, appear that it would only be necessary to increase the compression ratio in the average engine to obtain a desired eliiciency. This is not the case, however, as there are factors such as detonation, preignition, etc., which limit the compression ratio, in fact, the average engine manufactured today rarely exceeds a compression ratio of five to one. 7
It is also knownithat' detonation may be controlled to a large extent, for instance, by eliminating pockets in the compression space by centralizing the spark plug with relation to the compressed charge, by selection of the type of fuel employed, etc., and also by mixing the charge with inert or burnt gases or by leaning or'richening the charge. Cerfactors have been taken advantage of in the design and construction'ofconventional types of engines, but other fac} tors are impracticaL.
The object of the present provide an internal combustion engine constrnc ted on the Otto or explosive cycle which will operate under a comparatively high compression ratio and thereby more efliciently, this being accomplished by providing a construction which entirely eliminates pockets in the compression space, which permits centralizing of the spark plug with relation to the compressed charge, which permits Stratification of the explosive mixture with respect to a body of air; which permits the use of an over-rich charge; which permits constant compression under all throttle and speed conditions, and which permits a considerable increase in the compression ratio without danger of detonation,
One form which the invention may assume is shown by way of illustration in the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 is a central vertical section of the engine,
Figure 2 is a cross section taken on the line IL-ll of Figure 1.
Referring to the drawings, patricularly to Figure 1, A indicates the cylinder of an engine, inlet and exhaust valves, respectively, l a spark plug, 5 an overhead cam shaft, 6 rocker arms whereby the valves are actuated, 7 an inlet manifold connected with the inlet valve 2, 8 a suitable type of carburetor, and 9 a throttle valve. lleciprocally mounted in the cylinder in the usual manner is a piston 10 which is connected with a crank shaft 11 thr ough means of a connecting rod 12. The engine so far described is identical in design and construction with a conventional type of engine, the only difference being that a case in the manner of a two-cycle type of en 1 g n-e for purposes invention is to to be hereinafter described. The only other difierences in the construction is the design and timing of the cam which controls the inlet valve, as this valve should preferably be closed prior to the opening or uncyovoring of the tangential inlet ports 14- the piston.
In actual. operation, the carburetor is preferably set to deliver a rich or over-rich explosive mixture. This mixture is admitted through the inlet valve 2 which. is open during the downward or suction stroke of the piston, the volume of gas admitted being regulated by the position of the throttle valve .3 in the usual manner. The inlet'valve closes when the ports 14 are uncovered by the piston or prior theretoand as a slightly evacuated condition exists at this time, air will enter through the ports 14 to relieve the in detail, and T B the head, 2 and 3 the cylinv during the lowermost stroke of gentially arranged, air will enter in a swirling condition and will hug the inner surface of the cylinder and as such will rise and surround the explosive charge with an-annular column of air. The explosive charge is indicated at 20 and the annular column of air at 21. This column of air swirls at high velocity and maintains a swirling motion during the return or compression stroke of the which is the expansion or firing stroke, the
exhaust valve opens in the usualmanner and the spent or burnt gases are exhausted during the return or scavenging stroke of the pistons.
The volume of gas admitted during each suction stroke of the piston will, of course, be regulated by the position of the throttle valve 9 in the usual manner and any load or speed condition may thus be obtained. It should, however, be noted that the compression at the end of the compression stroke will remain constant regardless of the position of the throttle valve 9 as the uncovering bf the ports 14 at the end of each suction stroke permits filling of the cylinder and surrounding of the charge with a column of air at substantially atmospheric pressure regardless of the evacuated condition obtained by the position of the throttle valve, hence, constant compression is retained under all load and speed conditions.
In some instances, it may be desirable to admit the'air through the ports 14 under a slight pressure for instance, a pound or more above ordinary atmospheric pressure. In that instance, the port 16 is connected with a super-charger or with the crankcase of the engine. This is an advantage, in some instances, as it permits super-charging of the cylinder and it also insures a better scavenging action during the exhaust stroke as a small body of air under pressure would then be admitted during each exhaust stroke, thereby expelling the burnt gases and proportionately increasing the volumetric capacity of the cylinder during the next suction stroke.
'The closing of the inlet valve prior to the opening or uncovering of the air ports 14 is not of material consequence when the air is merely admitted under atmospheric pressure, but it is more or less essential when a supercharger is employed, as there might be a back surge of gases through the inlet valve, due to the pressure of the incoming air when supercharging is employed and this is the main reason for changing the timing of the inlet valve. Otherwise conventional timing and construction may be employed.
From the foregoing it should be more or less apparent first that constant compression is obtained during all load and speed variations. Secondly, that a much higher compression ratio may be obtained as an overrich charge may be employed due to the stratifying condition obtained in the cylinder. Third, a higher compression ratio is also favored due to the centralized position of the spark plug with relation to the compressed charge and further due to the fact that extended or auxiliary pockets are entirely eliminated in the compression space, and fourth. a maximum turbulence is obtained at the time of firing.
The method of obtaining stratification is the important feature of the present invention as through the stratification of a rich mixture and a body of air, a higher compression ratio may be obtained and constant compression during all loads.
'I/Vhile certain features of the present in vention are more or less specifically described,
I wish it understood that various changes may be resorted to within the scope of the appended claims. Similarly that the materials and finishes of the several parts employed may be such as the manufacturer may decide or varying conditions or uses may demand.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is 1. In an internal combustion engine of the character described, a cylinder, a piston reciprocally mounted therein, a head on the cylinder, a substantially symmetrically shaped combustion chamber formed between the head and the cylinder, means whereby an explosive charge is admitted to the cylinder during the suction stroke of the piston, means whereby air is admitted to the cylinder through a port which is arranged on an angle with relation to a radial line of the cylinder so that the explosive charge will be partially enclosed by a rotating body of air prior to compression and ignition of the charge, and an ignition device positioned substantially in the center of the combustion chamber.
, 2. In an internal combustion engine of the character described, a cylinder, 8. piston reciprocally mounted therein, a head on the cylinder, a substantially symmetrically shaped combustion chamber formed between the head and the cylinder, means whereby an explosive charge is admitted to the cylinder during the suction stroke of the piston, and means whereby air under pressure is admitted to the cylinder through a port which is arranged on an angle with relation to a radial line of the cylinder so that the charge will be partially enclosed by a rotating body of air I character described, a cylinder,
prior to compression and ignition of the charge, and an ignition device positioned substantially in the center of the combustion chamber.
3. In an internal combustion engine of the ciprocally mounted therein, a head on the cylinder, at substantially symmetrically shaped combustion chamber formed between the head and the cylinder, an inlet valve in the combustion chamber whereby a combustible charge is admitted to the cylinder during the suction stroke of the whereby air under pressure is admitted to the cylinder through a port which is arranged on an angle with relation to a radial line of the cylinder so that the charge Will be partially enclosed by a rotating body of air prior to compression of the charge, an ignition device positioned substantially in the center of the combustion chamber to fire the charge, and an exhaust valve in the combustion chamber to insure scavenging of the burnt charge.
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