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Publication numberUS1828108 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 20, 1931
Filing dateDec 14, 1929
Priority dateDec 14, 1929
Publication numberUS 1828108 A, US 1828108A, US-A-1828108, US1828108 A, US1828108A
InventorsFlowers Thomas E
Original AssigneeFlowers Thomas E
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Magazine gun
US 1828108 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


14, 1929 9 Sheets-Sheet l um nu QN w um Oct. zo, 1931. T E. FLOWERS MAGAZINE GUN Filed Deo. 14. 1929 9 Sheets-Sheet 2 MAGAZINE yCIUN Filed Dec. 14, 1929 9 Sheets-Sheet 5 S Bw. RQ A f f Mm m um T. E. FLOWERS MAGAZINE GUN 06f. zo, 1931.

Filed Dec. 14. 1929y 9 Sheets-Sheet 4 EQ kk Get. 20, 1931. T; E. FLOWERS .MAGAZ INE GUN Filed Dec. 14', 1929 9 sheets-sheet f/ 0 m w 7fifa/mms IFM/#Ems fry/Wgr T. E. FLOWERS 1,828,108 MAGAZINE GUN 9 Sheets-Sheet 6 Oct. 20, 1931.

Filed Deo. 14, 1929 B w MMMN *MSNM Oct. 20, 1931. T. E. FLOWERS MAGAZINE GUN 9 sheets-sheet 'fr 'Filed Dec.

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#frag-mfr T. E. FLOWERS MAGAZTNE GUN 0d. m, mi.

Filed Dec'. 14. 1929 9 Sheets-Sheet 8 lvm wm Mm.

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0d. 20, 1931, T. E. FLOWERS MAGAZINE GUN Filed Dec. 14. 1929 9 Sheets-Sheet 9 o ,Q um

lira/74a E fbx/fig Patented ct. 20, 1931 iran STATES PATE-NT Orrick:

MAGAZINE GUN `Application filed December 14, 1929. Serial No. 414,054.

This invention relates to improvements in magazine firearms of the repeating, self load-l ing, and automatic types, and more particularly to that type of self loading or semiautomatic rifle which uses a portlon of the gases generated by the explosion of a cartridge to operate the mechanism, and that is adapted toI be carried by the user and fired from the' shoulder.

Rifles of the self loading and automatic types, andy particularly those using the most powerful ammunition. have heretofore had numerous faults and disadvantages. ATo

enumerate a few of these we have:

First, excessive length and bulkiness in the receiver, making the riie heavy, and clumsy to handle;

Second, large expensive magazines, which are detachable and therefore subject to loss;

Third, breech mechanisms which compel heavy masses of metal to change their motions abruptly when the riiie is firing, leading to severe impacts between these heavy parts and their carriages or frames, and con- 25 sequently causing ra-pid depreciation-in Vmany cases; and l Fourth, magazines which fail to ali the axis of the cartridge with that of the arrel before and duringl the insertion of the cartridge into the firing chamber, leading in some cases to the mutilation of the cartridge and destroying accuracy.

The principal objects of my invention are:

(a) To provide an improved magazine rifle of the repeating or self loading type, capable of using special cartridges, in which the bullets are pre-rified andhardened, (and consequently must be accurately fitted into the rifled portion of the barrel before the 9 cartridge is fired), while retaining the ability to use the usual type of cartridge;

^ (b) To provide an improved magazine riiie of the repeating or self loading type, which is compact, contains an integral or ynon-detachable magazine, ,is durable under hard and continuous use, and which aligns its cartridges accuratelywith the bore of the .barrel before andfduring the insertion of the y, cartridge'finto the firing Achamber;

0. (c) 'io provide an improved Jmagazine rifle of the repeating or self loadin t e, which has a very strong, rigid, and pogweiifill breech block, enabling the rifle to use cartridges of higher intensity than have heretofore been used;

(d) To provide an improved magazine riie of the repeatin or self loading type that is capable of delivering its bullets with greater accuracy, greater velocity, and much greater penetrating power into hard and tough materials than has heretofore been possible;

Further objects of my invention are:

(e) To provide a simplified and improved means for controlling pressures in the gas cylinder of the rifle;

(f) Tol provide animproved cartridge feeding mechanism, capable of positive and accurate handling of the cartridges, and especially adapted to handle thezimproved cartridges referred to above;

(g) To provide a link mechanism that loads cartridges into and extracts them from the firing chamber with a smooth, positive, and powerful action, and that also e'ects car- 75 tridges or spent shells from the rifle y a new and improved method;

(11,) To provide an improved and simplied firing mechanism that .functions in an absolutely positive manner; and

(z') To provide an improved and strength ened means for actuatmg the above mentioned parts and mechanisms in the proper relation'to each other, andin a smooth, posi. tive and powerful manner;

Additional objects are (j) To providev a breech block that opens` and 'closes the firing chamber with a substantiall vertical motion, and does not move rearwar ly,` except through a sli ht inclination of the iding grooves in t e receiver in which th: locking shoulders of the breech block t;

(lc) To provide a breech. block which is longer than the cartridge used in the rifie, and which is hollowed out, or slotted, in a vertical plane through its central portion, this vertical well or slot allowing the cartridges to pass right through the breech block when coming into or out of the magazine and also (Z) To provide a breech block which' carries a firing pin, or striker which is made very wide, and is slotted in the same manner work placed back of thebreech ing and extraction of any cartridge,

lcartridge feeding mechanism,

as the breech block, for the same reason;

(m) To provide a vertical magazine of the single column type and being an integral part of the assembledrifle (i. e. it is not detachable) that receive its cartridges from a, clip of several, or if desired singly, through the top of the receiver, and breech block;

(fn.) To provide a magazine which has projectig anges on its inner rear surfaces that fit into the extractor grooves of the cartridges, and, if these grooves are diametrically placed flat instead of circular grooves, prevent the cartridges from turning axially. rlhisl-novel feature, which does not interfere in the least with the use of the ordinary cartridge, allows the use of a special cartridge, using a' hardened, pre-ri-fied bullet, instead of the usual type' (o) To provide a magazine which has a comprising a movable iioor or lift, and means for raising and lowering this lift, so that it always moves in an accurate, predetermined manner;

(p) To provide an extracting and loading slide forward end,l which head-is held and guided by flangesv projecting upwardly from the main body of the breech block. This slide partakes of Athe vertical movement of the breech block, sliding away from thecartridge head when the breech block moves up to close the ring chamber, and sliding on to and gripping the cartridge headvl by its extractor grooves when the breech block moves down to open said lirin chamber;

(q) To provlde an extracting and loadlng slide, which has a movement independent of the breech block, in a backward and forward direction, which motion is controlled byllnkblock and fastened to the frame of the riie;

(r) To provide link-work for such a slide that accomplishes a cycle comprising rearward extracting and forwardloading movement of the slide, which rearward movement is timed'to begin at the moment that the breech block is completely depressed, and whigh forward movement is timed to end at the moment the breech block abegins be elevated;

` (s) To provide op osed extractor jaws on the head of this sli e, which jaws are machined from one plecc of metal, and are rigid, and which firmly grip the extractor grooves on the cartridge head, insuring positive load an allowing the special cartridge with pre-rifled, hardened bullet, to be loaded in such a man-k ner that said bullet will be fitted accurately Y' 5, showing positioning of certain of theparts having a head rotatably mounted on its -sit'e sides showing fingers which grip and .The means by which the foregoing and' xother objects are accomplished and the manner of their accomplishment will readily be understood from the following specification on reference to the accompanyln'gA drawings, in which v Fig. 1 is a'sectional elevation taken on the longitudinal center line of my improved magazine riie showing the magazine and operating parts and fragmentary portions' of the stock vand barrel, and showing the working parts as they would appear when a clipv of cartridges isready to be inserted into the magazlne.

Figs.`2, 3, and 4 are fragmentary views 011 an enlarged scale, showingparticularly details of the magazine lift ratchet and intimately associated Aparts. Fig. 2 being a sec- 'tional plantaken as on the line. II-II of Fig. 3, which corresponds to the line II-II of 1, with the striker spring case remove i Fig. 3 is a sectional elevation taken 'as on the line III-III of Fig. 2, and Fig. 4 is a sectional plan taken on the line IV-IV of Fig. 3. 'Y

Figs. 5 and 6 are vertical sectional elevations on the longitudinal center line of the rifle showing the breech mechanism with fragmentary portions ofthe stock and barrel, with the clip of cartridges in the rifle, one 'of the cartridgesN being in the barrel ready for firing, and Fig. 6 showing the remainder bf the barrel with the gas operated mechanism and associated parts. Figs. -7 to 12 inclusive are transverse sections on an enlarged scale taken respectively on the lines VII-VII,VIIIVIII, IX-IX. X--X, XI-XI, `and XII-XII of Figs. 5 and 6, lookingiin the direction of the arrows.V

Fig. 10A is a 'sectionV taken on the line XA-XA of Figure 28, which'is 'identically positioned with the line X-X of Figure 5, the view however showing a diierent posi-1 tion of the cartridges in the riie, and particularly illustrating the action of the gripping ngers which temporarily retain a fired cartridge shell against ejection. Figs. 13, and 14 are elevations from oEpoold the empty shells just prior to ejection.

Fig. 15 is a section similar to Figures 1 and after a cartridge has been fired, and at the time when removal of the cartridge case from the firing chamber is about to begin.

Fig. 16 is an enlarged fragmentary detail, showing the magazine lift lever ratchets and fragmentary portions of the magazine cover and lift lever. and parts intimately associated with the ratchets.

Fig. 17 is a transverse section on the line XVII-XVII of Fig. 16, and Fig. 18, a similartransverse section on the line XVIII-XVIII of the same figure, both looking in the direction of the arrows.

Fig. 19 is a perspective view of the secondary or auxiliary ratchet pawl, which takes the place of the principal magazine lift lever ratchet pawl when the rifle is operated by hand.

Fig. 20 is an enlarged side view of the pawl caso pin.

Fig. 21 is a sectional elevation showing the fired cartridge being withdrawn from the barrel by the link mechanism and associated arts:

Figs. 22r to 27,\inclusive, are enlarged views of the breech block; Fig. 23 being -a plan;

Fig. 24 an end elevation of the right hand A end Fig. 25, an end elevation of the left hand yend, and Figs. 26 and 27. transverse sections on the lines XXVI-XXVI and XXVII-XXVII respectively of Fig. 22, which is a side elevation.

Fig. 28 is again a sectional elevation on the longitudinal vcenter line of the rifle, showing completed retraction of the fired cartridge. and elevation of a second cartridge into place for insertion into the barrel.

Figs. 29 to 35 inclusive are detail views of the action bars; Fig. 29 being a plan view of the two bars; Fig. 30 a side elevation of one of the bars; and Fig. 3l an inverted side elevation of the other bar, both views looking outward from the longitudinal center line.

Fig. 32 is an end elevation of the two bars.

Fig. 33 is a fragmentary sectional plan, taken on the line XXXIII-XXXIII of Fig. 30; and Figs. 34 and 35 are transverse sections on the lines XXXIV-XXXIV, and XXXV-XXXV of Figs. 29' to 31 inclusive.

Figs. 36 and 37 are sectional elevations on the longitudinal center line of the rie, with al1 the'working parts except the action bar and sections of the pins engaged with it removed, a portion of the frame being also removed to give a clearer view of these parts, and being thus shown in order to more clearlj.y show the way in which this bar acts.' The action bar in Fig. 36 is shownin its extreme forward position, and in Fig. 37 in its' ex'- treme retracted position. The other action bar, not shown in these iigures, has an identical action with the one shown, except for a few I ninor details.

Fig. 38 is again a sectional elevation of the Vforward into the barrel and the shell of the `previously fired cartridge being ejected from the receiver;

Figs. JQ/and 40 are respectively an elevation and pla of the striker.

Figs. 41 to 44 inclusive are views of the loading and extracting slide with its extractor head removed; Fig. 41 being aside elevation; Fig. 42 a plan; and Figs.V 43 and 44, end elevations thereof. l

Fig. 45 is a bracketed view showing a center elevation and section, and two end elevations vof the rear breech block pin with its associated parts. n

Figs. 46 to 49, inclusive, fare views of the striker cam; Fig. 46 being aside elevation; Fig. 47 an end elevation; and Figs.l 48 and 49, sections taken on the lines XLVHI- XLVIH and XLIX-XLIX respectively.

Figs. 50 to 53 inclusive are views of the extractor head; Fig. 50 being a side elevation; Fig. 51 a plan; Fig. 52 an end elevation of the right hand end;.and Fig. 53 a similar end elevation of the left hand end of the part.

Fig. 54 is-a sectional elevation on the longitudi nal center line of the gun,.showing modified forms of the link mechanism and magazine, with their associated parts.

Fig. 55 is a fragmentary sectional plan on an enlarged scale, taken as on the line LV of Fig. 54.

Figs? 56, 57 and 58 are respectively views of a modified form of loading and extracting slide with integral extractorA jaws; Fig. 56 being a plan; Fig. 57 a side elevation; and Fig. 58 an end elevation thereof.

Referring now to the drawings in which tliie various parts are designated by numera s 1 is the gun stock, which may be of any usual or approved design and which is atta-chedto a receiver 2, as vby a bolt 3. This re-x3 ceiver 2, comprises the transverse part at the rear end designated by that numeral, an inverted channel -or U shaped portion having vertically disposed sides 2B and a curved bridge'or top 2C connecting them, which por tion extends forward to the previously men 'tioned forward end thereof. A frame 4, is attached to the receiver 2, and lies generally therewithin as by a bolt 5 at the rea end and by a transverse through bolt 6 at the forward end 2A. The forward end 2A of the receiver is internally threaded to receive a complementary'thread onl the rear end of the gun barrel7. 8 is a take up nut anu 9 va lock therefor. 10 is the riling in the barrel.

Disposed below the barrel 7 is a gas cylinder 11, which is secured to the barrelby sleeves l2-and 13 (Fig. 6). 14 and 15 are screws which pass transversely through these sleeves respectively and which engage suit- .able notches in the barrel toprevent^10ngi whiclris` bored ontto form a, guide for the),l

- frame 34 pivots.

1 bore of the tudinal and rotative movement of the sleeves with reference to the barrel. The gas cylinder Valso is notched to receive the screw 14 to prevent rotative movement of the cylinder inthe sleeve. The cylinder at its forward end is threaded into the sleeve 13 and is there# mesmev endof the frame 4. Action bar 31 is shown in Fig. 36, in its extreme forward position and in Fig. 37 in its extreme rearward position. Bar 32 has an identicalmovement.

Disposed within the receiver and frame and lying between the 'action bars 31,132, is a magazine comprising oppositely disposed walls 37, 38, which extend from above the action bars 31 downward below the bottom ofthe frame. 39 is a magazine cover which forms the closure for the bottom of the magazine. This cover is hingedly pivoted at its forward end on the transverse bolt 6 and at ,its rear end isv pivotally connected by a pin gas port 16, and when retracted opens up and i regulates the amount of opening from this port into the gas cylinder. Preferably the plug is provided with a drill 19 which may be used to'clear the port 16' of any obstruction. An opening 20 preferably threaded is providedwin alignment with the port through' which the,l drill may be inserted into the port.

' A:if desired, :msnm-ged shank 21 on the drin may besimilarly threaded, so that the drill ymay be forcibly inserted in the port.

' Disposed in the cylinder 11, is a plunger 22, which has an extension 23 of reduced size extending rearwardly therefronrbeyond the rear end of the cylinder. The cylinder 11 is provided at the real end with a head -24 plungerextension and' which also serves as an' abutment for a short and heavy bu'er spring 25. 26 isa washer disposed against this spring which washer serves as an abutment for a long compression spring 27, against which the plunger 22 pbuts and act's.

clamped on the plunger extenslon to limit Vreturn movement. The -plunger extenslon beyond this collar is grooved circumferentially to form an annular shoulder 30 at its end. This shoulder engages oppositely disposed bars 31, 32 hereinafter designated as action bars. Depending from these bars are spurs 31A, 32A. (See Figs. 30, 31 and 32.)

Disposed in the lower portion of the sleeve- 12 is a transverse pin 33 onlwhich a forearm This frame swings downward about the pin 33as a'hinge and uncovers -the forward ends of the kaction bars and the rear ends of the gas cylinder. en swun down it also releases the barreland permits unscrewing the same from thereceiver.

The action bars 31,32 are horizontally dis'- posed and extend rearwardly from the plunger extension 23. They are slidablymounted in rectangular grooves formed in part inthe frame 4v and impart inthe sides 2B of the receiver. These groovesv are designated in' Figs. 'fand 8,a1d Fig. 36 by the 'numeral 35.

l They terminate substantially against the rear 40 to a finger lever 41. This lever is forked to embrace the rear end of the magazine cover 39 and the magazine walls 37 38, the ends 41A of the fork beingrounded, and is provided with outwardl projecting bosses 42 which engageopposite y disposed substantially horizontal grooves .43 inthe frame 4. 44 are vertical ribs which project inward from the magazine walls vand which are adapted to engage a groove 45 in the cartridge shell 46. (Fig. 3,8.)

Disposed in the magazine is a movable floor or cartridge lift 47 which is grooved on opposite sides to loosely engage the ribs 44 above mentioned. This lift is. raised and lowered in a substantially horizontal position by ya lift lever 48 and a bell crank lever 49. The lever 48 carries a pin 50 which engages oppositely disposed slots 51 in the lift, and the lever 49 carries a boss 52 which engages a slot 53 in one, side onlyy of the lift. The levers 48 and 49 are pivotally connected by sleeve 54 which j The mechanism by which the lift lever is operated, comprises a pawl case 56 which embracesthe 'lift lever and is pivoted on the pin 6. This case is bored out `to receive a pawl 57 'which is urged rearwardly` by a compression s ring 58. The under side of the rear end o th'epawl en ages successively steps 59, cut on the orward y projecting end of the lift lever` .60 is a transverse'pin carried .by the pawl. This pin projects through slots 61/in the pawl case and extends beyond such case,

so that it may be engaged by projecting cam .y

surfaces 62 on the forward ends of the magazine cover 39, so that when the cover is thrown downward the ca m surfaces force the pin 60 forward and disengage the pawl from the steps 59 to permit return, downward movelne-nt, of the cartridge lift. Mounted in the forward end Iof the pawl case 56 is a trans- ,block l80. Proj ectyin verse pin 63, preferably of the shape shown in Fig. 20. This pin extends laterally beyond ,the pawl casev and is held .against lateral movement by the spring 58, which spring abuts against the reduced diameter center portion of the pin. The projecting ends of the pin extend into slots 64 in the action bars 31, 32, so that rearward movement of the bars eventually on each stroke depresses the pin and with it the pawl case 56,thus causing the pawl to depress the forward end of the lift lever after engagement of the pawl and steps has been effected. Carried by the rear end of the pawl case and rotatably mounted therein is a pawl member 65, which passes through an arcuate slot 6 6 in the lift lever. The ends of this slot striking against this member limit f the relative movement of the pawl case and the lift lever. 67 are ratchet teeth, with which the pawl member may be engaged. 68 is an arm on the pawl member, which engages a surface 69 on the magazine cover 39 to hold the pawl member a-ndratchet teeth out of engagement when the magazine cover is closed as during normal operation. A spiral spring 70 (Fig.l1) urges the pawl member into engagement lwith the ratchet teeth. When the magazine cover is swung down-- ward the arm 68 can swing upward and a lug 71 on the arm can -come into an undercut notch 72 on the action 'bar' 31. Such movement permits the engagement of the pawl member and ratchet teeth.

Adjacent and rearward from the vertical ribs 44, the magazine is vertically drilled to receive a hollow-cylindrical step member 73, substantially one quarter of which is cut away (Fig. 4). Steps74 corresponding in number to the steps 59 are cut into one of the vertical edges thus formed. An integral latch 75 projects rearwardly from the cylindrical step member. The steps successively engage therear fof the cartridge' lift 47 as this lift is raised step by step during firing of the gun.

vCartridges 46 are carried for insertion in the gun" by `a clip 76. This clip'is inserted in notches orgrooves 77, Figs. 15 and 21, in the gun and pushed downward thereinto position shown in Fig. 1.

78 is a loading and extracting slide having arcuate" sides and which' i-s reciprocably mountedin guideways 79 of complementary cross section which .are formed ina breech axially from the forward endof this sli e is a shank 81, having -an enlarged collar, or head-82 thereon. En-

gaging overttyhis head and rotatable about the longitudinal axis ofthe slide is an extractor head 83 having ri-bs'which engage the extract.-

` ing grooves-ofthe cartridges. .Extending laterally from this head are lugs 84 which engagein grooves 85 cut in the guideways' of the breech block whereby reciprocating motion of the slide may'be`effected and in addip inclined slot 101.


tion rotative motion be imparted to the-head.

86 is atransverse pin extending laterally -beyond the slide 78 on the ends of which pin,

pin 88 extends laterallybeyond the link 87 into grooves or slots 90 i'n the sides of the frame 4. The small link 89- is connected by a pin 91 to a slotted link 92, which in turn is pivotally connected by apivot pin 93 to the frame' 4. Disposed in the slot of the link 92 is an action pin 94 which extends through .action pin slots 95 in the frame and has its ends disposed in the end slots of the action bars 31-32. Depending below the link 87 is a lug 87A which, when the link is in forward position as shown in Fig. 5, prevents accidental displacements such as might occur if the gun was inverted, of the cartridge 46 from vthe magazine.

96 is a striker, which carries at its forward end theusual firing point 97. The central portion 98. of this striker is cut away to permit passage of the magazine and the cartridges therethrough. Extending downward at the rear end of the striker are flanges 99 and 100 having similarly inclined rear and forward edges respectively, which define an The striker *is slidably mounted in horizontal slots 102 in the breechl block. t The breach two longitudinal bars 103 disposed parallel to-each other .and spaced apart to embrace the magazine before mentioned. At the rear end a bridge 104 holds these bars properly spaced. At the forward end a bridge 105 serves a similar purpose and in addition forms an abutment for the cartridge when fired. Shoulders 105A. cooperate with the rear walls 105B of grooves in the side walls of the receiver to take up end thrust ofthe breech block during firingand also serving ,guider vertical movement of the breech block. Through the abutment'105 is a central hole`\106 which permits passage of the firing point.` 97 to the cartridge primer. -Extending downward fronrthe bars103 at the forward end are lugs 107 and at'the rear end lugs 108, in which holes 109, 110 respectively are provided to receive pins 111, 112 which extend laterally,the first into grooves 113 in the actionbars and the second into grooves 114, 115 in the bars 31, 32 respectively Longitudinal movement of the action b ars block 80 comprises essentially acting 4through these pins lowers and raises inclined ywalls of the slot 101, between the striker flanges 99, 100, and changes vertical movement of the cam block into horizontal movement of the striker. 12,() isa lug extending from the rear side of the cam block near the lower end thereof, which lug is engaged by a sear 121 to hold the cam block down, i. e., in cocked position. The lower position of the lug has a centra-l rib 122 which is flanged by two undercut or inclined sides 123. The. sear is forkedtoallow passage of this rib so that on downward movement of the cam block the inclined surfaces of the sear will be engagedby the inclined sides 123 of the block to retract thesear. 124 is a spring urging the sear toward the cam block. 125 is the pin on which the sear is pivoted. 126 is' a latch which is pivoted to the Sear, o n a pin 127, at a point below the pin 125. This latch is engaged by the rib 122 as the cam block descends and is thereby swung forward to disengage the latch (126) fromthe underside of a lug 128 on a trigger 129. The upper f portion of the latch 126, has an arcuate groove 130 cut therein, which limits its forward'and rearward movement by impingement on the sear pin. l

The trigger 129 is mounted in an extension from therear end of the magazine on a pin 131 and bushing. The forward end is urged upward by the spring 124 and such upward movement is limited by a transverse plate y 132 forming part of the extension in the trigger is pivoted.

The center of the cam block is vertically slotted so that the pin 112 may pass therethrough. The lower end 133 of this slot is inclined transversely and the pin 112 carries a beveled lug 134, similarly inclined, which cooperate when the cam block is raised. The pin 112 comprises portions of different diameters. The end of the larger portion bewhich ing beveled. On the smaller portion is theA beveled lug 134 and a sleeve 135, preferably of the same outerdiameter as'the larger portion of the pin, the outer end of this sleeve also. being beveled. This pin as before stated is disposed in the grooves 114, 115, of the action bars. The rear end of the groove 114 is inclined inwardly i. e. the groove becomes very shallow and the groove 115 is correspondingl inclined outward, so that as the action bars gin a backward movement, the pin is moved sharply to one side and the cam block is correspondingly forced downward.

The cam bloclrlll is actuated by acom-` pression spring 136. This spring bearsl against the lower end of the cam block and is centered and guided by a pin 137 extending downward from the block.`` The lower endA of Q the spring is housed in a springcase 138, which is square outside and ,cylindrically bored. This case is slidably disposed in vertical slots 139 in'oppositewalls of the maga-- zine 37--38. Depending below rthe spring case is an integral cam 140, which projects v downward into a longitudinal groove 141 in a slidable member 142. This member is mounted for longitudinal movement in grooves 143V transversely across the slot 141 which roller,

rests directly on the top of the roller 144, and is held in such position by suitable vertical slots in the member 142 adjacent the longitudinal groove therein. Y Longitudinal movement ofthe member 142 is effectedk by the pin 40 coacting with the inclined walls of a slot 146 in the member 142. The pin 40 is of less diameter than the slot width, so that it moves the member yforward or backward as the case may be, until the roller 145 passes the point of the cam 140 after which the downward thrust of the spring 136 will complete the movement in eithercase.

147 is a lug projecting downward from the step member 73 into an arcuate slot 148 in the member 142.r The movement above mentioned of the member 142 effects a limited turning movement of the step member.

149 is a notch (see Fig. 31) in the lower inside edge of the action bar 32 with which the latch engages when turned to the dotted position 7 5A of Fig. 4.

150 are oppositely disposed fingers havlng pivot pins 151 in the receiver side walls. The lower ends 153 of these lingers extend below the pivot pins 151. 154 are grooves in the action .bars 31 and v32 into whic the finger ends 153 mayv swing when thejaction bars are forward, thus spreading the fingers apart but which slots terminate invsuch posltion that when the action bars are retracted, solid portions of the bars are presented to lock the lingers in closed position. f In Fig. 10 the fin- .gers are 'shown spread apart, in Fig. 10A

they are shown locked. 155 are springs which vactto hold the fingers `in closed position.

Preferablyathe fingers are made in two parts as shown in Fi s. 13 and 14. The secondary part 150A'is'd1sposed toward .the rea-r end, of the gun and is provided w1th a-r1b 156' the receiver walls which define a slot of; sufficient widthto permit passage ofthe reduced forward'end of the cartridge shell, but willnot permit passage of thel body-of the shell whereby single cartridges are prevented from being placed improperly in the gun.

158 is a spring-actuated plun er, mounted centrally in the sleeve 5'4. oft ev bell crank Vlever 49.-

*The operation of the 'rifie is as follows: Starting with' the magazine;l and firing chamber empty, the striker forward, the mag- Legame azine lift raised to the position shown in Fig. 1, and the finger lever closed, the parts will be seen substantially as shown in Fig. 5, except that inv this view the striker is retracted, the magazine and firing chamber are loaded, and the cartridge lift is depressed.

The finger lever 41, is pushed downward and forward manually, this action being continued until the lever reaches the position shown in Fig. 1. rlhe actions that take place during this movement `in their proper sequence are as follows:

The first opening movement of the linger lever causes the pivot pin 40, which joins the linger lever 41 to the magazine cover 39 to press forward the cam member 142, thereby. turning the step member 73, out of engagement with the cartridge lift 47. This forced movement of the cam member 142 continues until the upper roller 145, of the two antifriction rollers 145, 144, has passed considerably by the central part of the V-shaped cam 140 on the bottom of the striker spring case 138. Through the downward action of the striker spring 136 on this case, and the action of the V-shaped cam on the upper roller, the cam member will now move forward independently of the pivot pin 40,-still further turning the step member 73 and bringing the locking edge of the latch 75, which is an integral part of the step member, into contact with the inner side of the action bar 32, and into position on further movement of the action bar to engage a notch therein.

As the finger lever continues its opening movement the arcuate surfaces 41A on the forked end of this member, begin to move rearwardly, forcing back the actionbars 31,

32 by pressing against the spurs31A, 32A,

that project i downward therefrom. The forked end of the finger-lever has outwardly projecting bosses 42 which engage the grooves 43 inthe frame 4, thereby guiding these por-- tions of the linger lever, when in motion, in a substantially horizontal direction. Y

lThe magazine cover 39 swings downward about the transverse bolt 6, during the greater part of the opening movement of the finger lever, causing the cam surfaces 62 on the forward ends of the magazine cover to force the transverse pin'60 forward. The pin 60 carvries with it the pawl 57, disengaging the pawl from the steps 59.0n the lift lever 48.. The

opening movement of the magazine cover also releases thearm 68'of the pawl member 65, allowing the spiral spring 70 to press the.l

lug 71 on said -arm against the under surface of the action bar 31. v n

When the finger lever reachesy the position shown'in Fig. 1, the cartridge lift '47 will be unlocked fromfthe stepm'ember 73, the lift lever 48 will be disengaged fromthe pawl 57, c

and the pawl member 65 will still be disengaged fromthe'ratchet teethY in the arcuate slot 66. The` cartridge lift and its actuating mechanism will therefore be free to move downward to allow loading of the magazine. Accidental motion of the cartridge lift and associatedV parts is prevented by the frictional holding action of a spring actuated plunger 158, the rounded end of which sets preferably into an arcuate series of holes of smaller diameter `than this plunger, in the magazine side walll 38. Y

The finger lever during this opening movement forces back the action bars; these in turn depress the breech block 80 and its associated parts, and operate the link mechanism, which vwithdraws' the loading and extracting slide 78 with its lassociated parts, rearwardly from the firing chamber. (These and other actions will be more fully set forth in the description of the operation of the rifle during semi-automatic firing.) When the loading and extracting slide has completed its rearward motion, the latch 75 of the step member 73 drops into the notch 149 cut in the-lower inner surface ofthe action bar 32, and prevents the compression spr-ing 27 from returning the action bars to their closed position before desired.

The parts are now in position for loading the magazine, the cartridges being inserted through the opening in the1 top of the receiver, either singly or in clipsof 6 or less, as

,shown in Fig. 1. If clips are use-d, the clip is first inserted for a short distance into the clip guiding grooves 77 of the receiver and is the similar jaws or ribs, 44, on the magazine 'sidewalls' 37, 38, except for the last or upper cartridge, which vis left, in the grip` of the jaws on, the extractor head. A

If the cartridges are loaded singly, each cartridge is' placed with its groove (or grooves) in position to 4be engaged by the guiding ribs ofthe secondary fingers 150A, and pressed downward therein by the user. In being pressed into the receiver the' cartridgel will force aside the locking fingers 150 butas these members can move independ- A ently of the fingers 5'0A such single cartridges will always be gripped 'and guided by the latter.- If desired, each cartridge may be ressed past these lingers into the extracin' the manner r'st described', pushing the top or last cartridge only,completely off' of the guiding fingers and' into the grip of the extractor'jaws. l

'The magazine having beenloaded, ythe fin'- ger lever is closed, which action first allows the pawl 57 to be pressed rearwardly by'- its tracting slide with, its extractor head andl loaded cartridge forward, until the Cartridge is insertedI inpthe firing chamber. The link 87 ej ects the empty clip from the rifle 'during this action. During the .forward or loading movement of the extractor head and its associated parts, the frusto-conical bosses 84 of .this extractor head which project into partly helical grooves cut into ythe guideways 79 of the breech block, cause the extractor head to iirst turn through a small angle in the opposite direction lvto the twist of the rifling of the gun barrel, and ust before the completion ofthe forward motion, to turn through the same angle, inthe sam'e direction, and with the same twist as the rii'ling of the gun barrel. The helicalV`V portions of the grooves in the guideways arev preferably separated by a straight portion of considerable length, asl

shown in Fig. 1.

The purpose of this construction is to allow this rifle to use a special cartridge which has hardened and pregrooved or rifled bullets, this grooving or rifling being complementary to that in the gun barrel. The shells of theseV cartridges grip the lands or grooves of-the bullets, always holdingthem in a definite position as regards axial rotation in relation to diametrically opposed fiat grooves formed adjacent to the rear end or` head ofthe cartridge shell, these flat grooves taking the place of the usual circular extractor groove. lAs the rifling in the barrel is made so as to have a definite relation as to rotative position in relation to the extractor jaws, and the extractor jaws grip the flat grooves in the cartridge heads and prevent the cartridges from having rotary motion in vrelation to said jaws, the, bullets can be made to enter the riflin'gv accurately, andbe perfectly .fitted for a short distance into said ritled. portion of the barrel. It will be seenl that this construction in'no wise interferes vwith the use of the ordinary cartridges in this riiie. v j

' The loading of the cartridge into the firing cli-amber being substantially completed, the

forward motion' of the action bars and their associated parts continues until the breech blockv hasbeen raised into locked positlon.

grooves in the cartridge shell and substitutes similar jaws cut on the breech block in their place. Theram block 116l is held in cocked position by the sear 121, the beveled lug 134 is pushed back out of the way of said cam block, and the striker 96 is forced back and brought upward with the breech block into firing position. f

' The parts will' now be in the position shown in Figs. 5 and 6, these views showing the rifle ready for firing.

yIf the user desires to unload the rifle without firing, the finger lever is operated as before, except that instead of stopping the opening movement of this part inthe position shown in Fig. 1, it is continued until the action bars have been fully retracted. When the action bars are forced rearward past the positionshown in Fig. 1,.the undercutjnotch 72 ixflthe action bar 31, allows the spiral spring to swing the lug on the arm of the pawl member 65 upward bringing the pawl member into. engagement with one of the ratchet Tteeth 67. `The continued rearward motion of the action bars now actuates the cartridge feeding mechanism, forcing the lloaded cartridge in the grip of the extractor jaws upward onto the guiding ribs ofthe,

'fingers 150A, and pushing the cartridge im-4 mediately below into'. the; extractor jaws. The uscr now closes the finger lever, allowing the compression spring 27 to close the action in they usual manner, during which movement the upper cartridge will be ejected from ythe rifle and the' one in the grip of the extractor jaws be loaded into thegbarrel. This action is then repeated until the rifie is completely unloaded.

lReturning to the rifle as` shown in Figs. 5 and 6, the semi-automatic functioning 1s as follows:

First, the trigger 129 is pulled by the user, 'forcing down the sear latch 126, and turning the sear 121 about the sear pin125, releasing the cam block 116, which is\-forced upward by the compression spring 136. The striker 96 is thrown forward by the cam block 116, firing the cartridge 46.

As soon as the bullet passes the port 16, near the muzzle of the rifle, gas under high pressure p asses through said port intojthe cylinder 11, forcing back the piston 22, andaction bars 31, 2 attached thereto.l As the 'Lpiston is force back, it compressesthe piston'spring 27. As the piston asses theport 28 the gas pressure is release allowing the momentum 'of the movingparts to completev the opening movement.

lThe action bars moving rearwardly first `force the rear breech block pin 112, for la.'

short 'distance transversely, or in the direction of the pins` axis, causing the inclined surface of the lug 134, to depress the camlao j block 116, which in turn draws back the striker until it is clear of the explodedv cartridge. The curved grooves inhthe action bars then act on the protruding ends of theu front and rear breech block pins 111, 112depressing the breech block 80 and with 'it the striker 96, the cam block 116 and the loading and extractin slide 78, with its rotatable head 83, causlng said head to slide its jaw into the roove or grooves in the head of the ex lodedgcartridg uring this downward movement of the breech block, the connecting link 87, which is pivotall connected to the loading and extracting slide 78, near its forward end, swings downward around the pin 88, as a pivot, causing a slight net motion to the rear, of the extractor head, the cartridge held by the extractor head, and the loading and extracting slide. This motion is extremel powerful, and will start even a tightly suck cartrid shell so that its further extraction 1s ma e easy. To, compensate for this slight rearward motion of the extractor head and its associated parts, the breech block does not move in a direction exactly at right angles to the barrel, but moves instead in iding ways inclined slightly to the rear, sald inclination beingenough to cause the breech block to move backward from the breech durin thedownward movement of the breech bloc the same distance as the net rearward motion of the extractor head and its associated parts. Just before the downward motion of the breech block is completed, the under surface of the rib 122 on the cam block engages the forward projecting portion of the atcb 126, iirst s winging this latch out'of enga ement with the trigger 129.- Immediately a er the latch 126 has been disenga ger, its motion relative to t e sear 121 is halted by impingement of the rear end of the arcuate groove 130 of said latch, on the sear pin 125. The sear and latch 'then acting as a solid member swing together throu h a small angle about the sear pin, unti the catch on the sear has been forced into position to hold down the cam block.

The action bars 81, 82 car with them in their motion, the action pin which however is free to move a limited amount in a vertical direction in relation to these bars. This pin is held at both ends by vertical slots in the action bars. Starting at one end of the action pin 94, it asses through one action bar, throu h one si e of the frame f1, through the slotte link 92, through the other side of the frame 4, and through the other action bar.

In the frame are slots 95, 95, that direct the 4 motion of the action in relation to the slotted link 92, and the action bars 81, 32,. It will be seen that these slots are straight, through a distance necessary for the action bars to completely de rese thebreech block, and are' directed radia ly toward the axis ofthe pm d from the trig- P `feet of the actlon pin when in saidstraight ing.

As soon however as the action bars'carry the action pin into the curved portions of yslots being to lock the slotted linkfrcm turnthe slots in the frame, the slotted link is forced to begin turning about the pin 93, this motion being transmitted through the small s, link 89, to the pin 88, and from the pin 88 to the connecting link 87. The connecting link in turn draws the loading and` extracting slide, with the extractor head and exploded cartridge backward from the firing chamber.

The pin 88 which joins the small link 89 to the connecting link 87 and which projects at both its ends into the slots 90, in the frame, is :forced by these guiding slots to move in a definite pre-determined manner, the shape of these slots bein the direction cfg the force applied to this pin 88, by the small link 89, andthe direction in whic motion can take lace never exceeds 48 degrees. Thus the lin age withdraws the empty shell from the ring chamber in a smooth and eiiicient manner.

When the empty shell has been withdrawn nearly to its rearmost position b the extracting and loading mechanism, t is motion is rapidly but smoothly brought to a stop, the stop occurring when the jaws of the extractor head, the corresponding guiding flanges 44 on the rear interlor surfaces of the magazine walls, and the guiding flanges on the two guiding fingers 150A, form one continuous athway from the bottom of the` magazlne to the tcp of the receiver.

The two action bars, and\the action pin 94 continue to move to the rear, though the link action has come to an end. This continued rearward motion brings the curved portions such that the angle between.


of the slots 64 in the forward end of eachthe slot 66, but for all cartridges after the t first, this motion is forced by he action of i .It will be seen that when the magazine lift the pawl 57, on the steps 59 of the lift lever is forced upward, the emtyf shell will be forced from the extractor ead jawsv by the loaded cartridge immediategl below, this A cartrid e taking its place in grip of the jaws o said extractor head, and the exploded cartridge moving upward into the grip of the ribs of the guiding fingers 150A-150A. The exploded cartridge cannot move further upward when the action is in this position, being prevented by the curved horns of the two fingers 150150, said fingers being locked during upward movement of the cartridge lift. The loaded cartridge .is thus brought accurately into line with the bore of the rifle, and cannot move past this position.

As soon as this lifting action has been completed, the piston spring 27 which is now completely compressed acts like a solid member, bringing the remaining force of inertia left in the movin parts directly against the powerful bu er spring 25. This buHer spring brings the rearward motion of the action bars and associated parts to a rapid halt and immediately impels them in the opposite direction.

As the forward motion starts, the slots 64 in the forward portion of the action bars, push the frontend of the pawl case 56, upward, causing the pawl to slide across the end of one of the steps of the lift lever, until it clicks backward into place on the top of said step.

The link actlon now comes into play in the reverse direction, forcing a loaded cartridge intosthe firing chamber and at the same time ejecting thel empty shell through the top of the receiver by the action of the inclined upper surface of the connecting link 87 on the under rear end of said empty cartridge.

When the link movement is completed, the action bars force the breech block upward into locked position, removing the extractor head jaws from the cartridge and substituting the similar jaws of the breech block.

As the cam,` block is held in the depressed position, by the sear during this movement, and the striker moves upward with the breech block the striker is forced still further to the rear by the action of said cam block on the rear -surface of the s'lot 101. This action takes place whether the trigger is held back or released, the trigger being entirely disengaged from the latch 126 as long as the breech block is fully depressed. The last closing movement of t he action bars force the rear breech block pin 112 and associated parts to move axially for a short distance, or into tlie\sa`me,pos1tion as before, keepingK the beveled luglS/:l` from interfering with the again' fired.

. `f -and extracting slide. j.

6W, ,The forward portionv of Fig. 54 shows a Ymotion -of thecamv block when the rifle is f In Figures 5411958, inclusive, I show modied lforms of the cartridge feedin mechanism, the link mechanism, and the oading spring actuated cartridge feeding mechanism'. The cartridge lift 160 remains as f before, except. that its top-rear'end hasbeen partly'cut away to/allow a modified step mem-v ber161 to lock this cartridge' lift against upward movement. The modified step member 161 has its steps set inthe opposite manner to the original step member, that is, it holds 4the lift down, whereas inthe previous form it supported the lift, 4and isno'w turned into locked vposition by a torsion spring 162. This torsion spring is held in place by aI screw 163. A slot 164 is cut through the cylindrical wall of the member 161 to accommodate a transverse pin'165, (Fig. 55) -which is also mounted in the hole 166 through the magazine. One end of this pinrests against the rounded end 167 of the slot 164, the other end of the pin against the bottom'of the groove 168, (shown dotted), 1n the action bar 31'.' The groove 168 is inclined inwardly, or made shallower near its forward end. j

The lift lever 169 carries the bellcrank lever as before, but the steps 59, arcuate slot 66, and ratchet teeth 67 vare omitted. The spring plunger and spring are'als'o omitted. The lift lever 169 is urged to raise the cartridge lift by a torsion spring 17 0, (shown dotted). This spring has one of its ends secured against the forward portion ofthe lift lever, it coils about the transverse bolt 6, and has its other end secured against the lower side of a lever arm 171. vThe lever' lengages slots 64 in the action bars as before.

When the rifle {ires'the action bars moving rearwardly, first lock the fingers 150 and 150A from moving, then the action bar-3l pushes the pin 165 inward, turning the step member 161 out of engagement with the cartridge lift', and allowing the torsion spring 170 to lift a cartridge into position.,

for insertion into the firing chamber. On the return,movement the'torsion spring 162 turns the stepl member 161 back into position for engaging the cartridge lift, and in doing so pushes the pin 165` back into the deeper portion of the groove 168', after which the fingers 15G-150A are unlocked. When the last cartridge in the riie has been fired, the cartridge lift pushes the 4'empty shell from the extractor jaws into the fingers 150A, and.,

must be depressed out ofthe way of the extractor beforethe action can close and eject this shell. In this position the tooth 172 will be in contact with the block 173 'and the lever arm and lift lever will act as 'a solid.y

member. Therefore theI forcedv upward motion of the lever arm as the action bars move forward, `will' turn' the -lift lever' enough to remove the ycartridge rlift from 'in front of the extractor, before theextractor 'begins to move forward.

As the latch 75 is now omitted from the modified step member, a simple spring latch, (which is not shown) must be introduced to hold back the action bars in position for loading the magazine.

The rear ortion of Fig. 54 shows a modified forni of3 the link mechanism for act-nating the loading and extracting slide. (The action bars are shown partly retracted in both portions of Fig. 54.)

The action bars 174-174A (a portion of 174 is shown dotted), diiier from the action bars 31-32 in being longer, and having slots 175 that curve downward and forward from their rear upper ends until these curves become tangent to the direction taken by the action bars when in motion. The slots then become straight for the remainder of their length. The slotted link 176 has a slot 177 that extends longitudinally7 for a short distance near the pivot pin 93, and then curves slightly and again becomes straight for a longer distance. When the action .is in closed position, this longer straight portion lies parallel with the direction taken by the action bars when in motion, as shown in Fig, 54. The frame 4 has slot-s 178 which are straight in their forward portions, and in their most forward portions, coincide in longitudinal and vertical position and direction with th longer straighti portion of the slot 177 when the action is closed. Then extend straight rearwardly until approximately above the pivot pin 93 where they begin to curve downward, and continue to curve until substantially a quarter circle has been described. The centers of the rounded ends of these curved portions, coincide in vertical position with the centers of the straight portions of the slots 175 in the action .bars-` The slotted link 176 is ivotally connected to two small links 179 w ich take the place of the small link 89, and serve the saine purpose.

The action pin 94 passes transversely through all these slots. When the action bars move rearwardly, the pin is carried back until it reaches the ends of the slots in the frame, when it stops and allows the action bars to move further to therear for a dis- Vvtance equal to the straight portions of the slots. in these members. The action pin actuates the'linkage from the position shown in Fig. 54, untilit reaches the rear ends of. the

slots Yinthe frame. j- :When the action bars return, theseA actions arexrepeated in reverse p 180, -which take the place of the arcuate sides i of theori lnal slide 78 for guiding urposes. A'-Ihe' gui eways in the breech bloc in this case are made to fit the sectional shape of this modiiied slide.

The modified slide will nothandle cartridges with bullets that must be fitted a considerable distance into the riiiing of the gun barrel.

I claim: l

1. In a un having a riiled barrel, a reciprocatab e slide, a head rotatably mounted on the forward end of said slide, said head having oppositely disposed jaws, ribs projecting inwardly from said jaws and adapted to engage the groove or grooves of a cartridge, o positely dis osed guides carrying said hea said guides aving complementary grooves therein, and said head having lugs projecting therefrom into said grooves, said grooves each having their rear portion spiraled reversely to said riding, a central longitudinal portion leading therefrom and a forward with said ri ing. v

2. In a gun having a ritled barrel, a reciprocatable slide, a head rotatably mounted on the forward end of said slide, said head having oppositely disposed jaws,- ribs projecting inwardly from said jaws and adapted to engage the groove or grooves of a cartridge; oppositely dis csed guides carrying said head, said guides aving complementary grooves therein and said head having lugs projecting therefrom into said grooves, said lgrooves each having their rear portion spiraled i-eversely to said riiiing, and the forward portion spiraled in conformity with said i'ifling. 3. In a gun, a receiver, a breech block vertically slidable in said receiver, said breech block having longitudinal guideways therein, means for aligning the axis of said guideways with the barrel of said un, a cartridge engaging head reciprocate ly mounted in said uideways and means for reciprocating said ead to place or remove a cartridge from said barrel.

4. In a gun having a rifled barrel, a receiver, a breech block vertically reciprocatable in said receiver, said brooch bloeit having a longitudinal bore, means for aligning said bore with the barrel of said un, a cartridge en aging head reciprocatab y mounted in said gore, means for reciprocating said head to plaeear remove a cartridge from said barrel, and means for imparting a rotary motion to said head during such reciprocation,

5. In a gun. having a ried barrel, a re` ceiver, a breech block mounted therein, said breech block having a longitudinal bore and grooves extending into the Walls of said bore,

said rooves, each havin' its rear portion spirald reversely to sai riflin a longitudinally` disposed central port on and a .forward 'portion spiraled to conform to said riling, a cartridge receiving ,head reciproortion spiraled in vconformity

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2780146 *Jan 18, 1954Feb 5, 1957Illinois Tool WorksGear shaving
US6886286Aug 10, 2001May 3, 2005Samuel F. DowdingMethod of attaching the stock of a firearm to a frame
US7941958 *Oct 3, 2008May 17, 2011Fabbrica D'armi Pietro Beretta S.P.A.Firearm with a simplified disassembly
U.S. Classification89/144, 89/191.1, 42/75.2, 42/75.3, 89/189, 89/186
International ClassificationF41A9/00, F41A5/00, F41A3/10, F41A9/41, F41A19/30, F41A19/00, F41A3/00, F41A5/18, F41A15/08, F41A15/00
Cooperative ClassificationF41A9/41, F41A3/10, F41A5/18, F41A19/30, F41A15/08
European ClassificationF41A5/18, F41A9/41, F41A15/08, F41A19/30, F41A3/10