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Publication numberUS1828381 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 20, 1931
Filing dateFeb 23, 1929
Priority dateFeb 23, 1929
Publication numberUS 1828381 A, US 1828381A, US-A-1828381, US1828381 A, US1828381A
InventorsSchuyler Robert J
Original AssigneeFrank Shipley
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Self adjusting and expanding plug for wells and the like
US 1828381 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

1931- R. J. SCHUYLER ,828,381




Application filed February 23, 1329. Serial No. 342,224.

My invention relates to self adjusting and expanding plugs for oil and. gas wells, and the like. a A

The objects of my inventionareto produce a device of this class which willbe new,

novel practical, useful and of utility; which maybe positioned at any point in. the well;

which does not require the well tobe filled up from the bottom to the point at which 4 the plugging is desired; which prevents, the

dissolution of cement in a well by the entering of outside liquid or gas; which will pi'event outside water from mixing with oil and gas therein and forming an emulsion ;,which may be detached and left within the well;

which will at times prevent the lossfof'an entire oil field; which;will help confine the product of. an oil field to that particular field which, when permanently, positioned, will be immovable without itsjdestruction; which may be temporarily positioned byair pressure; which will allow the cementing of the well at points withinjthe well where chemical action and liquids prevents' the 2 hardening of 'concrete; which will allow the cementing of a well at points within the well where gas pressure agitation usuallyqprevents the hardening of concretejwhichmay be used for locating breaksinthe casing of a well; which will be simple, strong and durable in operation which will prevent the loss of a well :which will be eflicient. inaccomplishing all of the purposes and uses for which it is intended. i 1.1. p

At the present time considerable di-fliculty is encountered in drilling oil and gas wells because of the fact that there :are'some structures encountered which contain chemicals adverse to the hardening or setting process of 'concrete. Many times a driller or drilling company finds a sa-nd containinga small amount of oil, and if he; were certain that he could successfully plug the wellhelow it, he would drill ondown in search "of may enter a I i in thatparticular well, and flow therethrough larger production, but not beingcertain, he

stops at the smaller production.

The breaking of the caslng often-o'ccurs in ona f the device.

.to some producing well in the locality. of course ruins theproduction in the other "welh and' at times several wells in the vicinity. {Notonly is considerable expense and time 7 There are many'instances where the strata upon which the bottom of the well 'casin'gis seated; cares away and fails to support the weight of the casing. If this happens directlyabove producing strata, the well below the bottom end of the casing 'cannot be cement'ed to make 'a seating because doing so would also cement ofi'the production.

My invention is so'constructed that it may be cemented in position at any point in the well. Chemical action or'gas pressure agitation cannot hinder the hardening of the cement. It gives the driller assurance that he is taking no change oflosing what pro- "duction he has, by drilling past itin search of some greater; production. He knows he can at anytime" return to the desired 'point "in the well andplug up'anduse the producingsand below which" he has drilled.

By taking outthe valves in my invention, T

and using air pressure instead of cement, my

invention may be used for locating the exact point in the well where a break in the easing has occurred. My plug may be'temporarily positioned at various depths in thewell, until it is discovered at what point the easing is leaking. When the casing seat ot a Well is lost my invention may be cemented in a position just below thecasing endwithout the danger of cementing ofi any producbecause the cement is confined within cementedfrom its bottomup to the bottom of the casing.v r i r Allfmetal parts of my invention except the. springfand bolts are preferably made of cast iron. This allows more easily its drilling outl'when it is desired. a

In. oil-and gas well drilling,salt water is one otthe hardest elements; to control. There have been instances where a whole section of .an oil field has been lost=because it was not possible to properly shutoflthe flow of salt water in one well. Salt water rising in a well strata which :is not producing This The well would not have'to be spent in trying to shut off salt Water, but there have been instances where the pressure was so great that adjacent wells have had to be drilled into the salt water bearing strata, expressly for the purpose of relieving the pressure to the extent that they might be plugged. Salt water has been known to reach through an oil well to the fresh water strata of alocality and ruin thewater wells for great distances around the oil Well. "In all" of the above mentioned instances the damage and expense could have been eliminated 111 a few hours by the use of my invention.

lVith these and other objects in View as will more fully appear my invention consists in the construction, novel features, and co1n bination of parts hereinafter more fully described, pointed out in the claims hereto-appended, and illustrated in the accompanying one-sheet of drawings, of which, 7

Figure 1 is an elevational view ofmy invention showingthe fabric casing collapsed about it ready for lowering into the well; Fig.2 is a sectional view through my invention showing itpositioned the lootto n of a well. 1

Like characters of reference designate like parts in all the figures. i

It ,'s understood that various changes in the form, proportion, size, shape. weight and other details 'ofconstruction, within the scope of my invention may be resorted to without departing from the spirit or broad principle of-my invention and without sacrificing any of the advantages thereof; and it is also understood that the drawings-are to be'interpreted as being illustrative and not restrictivej, V i

In drilling, it frequently occurs after the surface casing has been set and beforethe permanent casing is set that a strata is drilled into that carries a high pressure of water or gas. In many cases of this kind when the surface is closed, the pressure below it is so great that the water or gas forces itself to the surface between the walls of the-well and the surface casing. This'particular form of breakage is extremely difficult to stop. In cases of this kind my device maybe positioned below the bottom end of the surface casingand above the pressure bearing strata. This will allow the reseating and the cementing of the casing so as to prevent the escape of oil and gas theresurrounding. The plug -may then be drilled through and the hole continued. v Y

A practical embodiment of'the invention as illustrated in the drawings includes j A vertical check valve 1 ofany standard or 1. known make, having left hand-threads 2 at its upper aperture and right hand threads 3 at its lower aperture- Said valve 1v is adapted to threadedly connect'with a like size tubing or drill st-em i-of an oil well drillmg outfit. Said tubing 1 bears left hand thereto gaudy canvas belting.

said valve 1, Iprovide a metal perforated disc 6. Said disc 6 has formed therethrough andadjacent its outer portion a plurality of holes 7 and 8. Around the outer surface of said nipple 5 but not threadedly connected provide a plurality of metal perforated discs 9, 10,11, 12 and 13 preferably made ofcast iron. The upper disc 9 of said discs 9, 10, 11,12 and 13 being the largest and each disc the'rebelow graduating in size, each smallerthan the one above it with said disc 13 being the smallest. Around the outside surface of said nipple 5 and positioned between andextending outwardly beyond said metal discs '9, 10, 11, 12 and 13, I provide a plurality .of fabric discs 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18. The upper disc 14 of said fabric discs bein the'largest and each disc therebelow being graduated in size each smaller than the one above ltQWlth saiddisc 18 being the smallest.

,Said discs 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 are of any suitable -material, but are preferably of Said disc 14 being positioned between said perforated metal disc 6 and said disc 9, said fabric disc 15 being between said metal discs 9 and 10, said fabric disc 16 being between said metal discs 10 and 11,. said fabric disc 17 being between said m'etal'discs '11 and 12 and said fabric 1 disc 18 being positioned between said metal.

dis'cslQ and 13. Through all of said metal .discs.9, 10, v11, 12 and 13 and through all of said fabric discs 14,15, 16, 17 and 18, and in vertical alignment below the said holes 7 and 81 in said' perforated disc 6, I provide a plu- 'ralit of perforations for receiving connecting' olts'19' and 20. Said bolts 19 and 20 are provided on their upper ends with nuts 21 and 22. 1 Depending from the lower portion of said bolts 19 and 20 and below said metal disc 13, I orovide metal housing 23. Said metal housing 23 is provided at its upper extremity with flange 24.. Said fi ange 241 having a plurality of perforations spaced to coincide with the perforations through said. disc 13. I through said flange 24 are for the purpose of Said perforations receiving said bolts 19 and 20. The body of said housing 23 istubular in shape, and has adjacent 1ts upper portion and made integra therewith a. lateral portion 25 dividing sa d drousing 23 into two compartments The upper compartment 26 being a valve chamber for a lateral valve. Upon the inside wall of said valve chamber 26 is formed a guiding lug 27 having a'cylindrical cavity'in theen'd thereof for receiving valve stem '28.

1 Through the side wall of said valvejchamber eral perforation 32 in said valve stem 28.

Within the lower chamber 31 of said housing 23 I provide a metal stem 32, having adjacent its upper endan enlarged cylindricalportion 33 which acts as a traveling vguide for said stem 32 within said chamber 31. Said enlarged portion 33 of'said stem'32 is adapted to closely fitwithin and to vertically 33 within said chamber 31. Threadedly at-.

slide within said chamber 31. ,Over thesupper end of said stem 32 and having its lower end resting against the upper end of said enlarged portion 33, and having its upper end resting against thelowerside of said part-ij tion 25, Threadedly connected over the lower end of provide compression spring 34.

said housing 23 and fitting'around the smaller portion of stem 32, I provide bushing cap 35. Said bushing cap being adapted to allow therethrough a vertical movement of said stem 32 and to retain said enlarged portion tached or made integral with the lower end of said stem 32, I provide'ja metal disc 36.

Said disc 36 is provided adjacent its outer portion with a plurality of; perforations,

(not numbered) ,1 for receiving clamping bolts 37 and 38. Said bolts 37jand 38 are Around t provided with clamping disc 39 which 'has perforations therethrough for receiving are further provided withnuts'40 and41 for tightenin said disc 39 toward said dise 36.

lie outside of saidhousing- 23 and said stem 32 andextending longitudinally from the upper end flanged portion of said housing 23 to the bottom surface of said disc 36, I provide a plurality of resilient envelopes or tubes 42and 43. Said tube 43 being slightly larger than and fitting over the outside surface of saidtube '42. Around the entire outside surface of said tube 43, I provide a fibrous envelope of tube 44. Said envelope 44 is made in two sections 45 and 46.

The upper section 45 being thickeradjacent points shown as 47 and48, near. its upper end. Said upper section 45 of said envelope 44 extends downwardlyinside of said lower section 46 to points shown at. 49 and 50. The lower section 46 ofenvelope 44 is thicker ad- 1' acent points shown .as v51 and 52 near its lower end. Said lower section 46 of saidlenvelope 44 extends upwardly on the outside of said upper section 4 5 to points'shown as 53 and 54. Said resilient tubes 42 and'43 are to be made of rubber or any suitable resilient material. Said envelope 45'to be made of canvas or 4 any suitable fibrous material. It: will be seenthat when saidlnuts 21 and 22 are tightened upon said bolts 19 and 20,

that all of said metal discs 6,9, 10, 11, 12 and 13, and all of said fibrous discs 14, 15,16,17 and 18,, and the upper ends of said resilient tubes 42 and 43 the upper end of said envelope 44, and'the flanged'end of said housing 23,

will-allbe clamped firmly andheld rigidly together. ,Itwill also be seen that when nuts 40and 41 are tightened, that thelowerends of said tubes 42 and43 and envelope 44, will be clamped tightly and held firmly between I said discs 36 and 39. s Y

Y For use when; my device is beinglowered into a well, I, provide a plurality of bands 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 and 62, better seen in Fig. 1, for holding said tubes 42 and 43 and envelope44collapsedflatly around said housing 23'a'nd said stein 32:[Said bands 55 '56, 57, 58. 59, 60, 61 and "62 are made of rubber or anysuitable'material, and'arebf such strength that'they 'w'ill'break under affew pounds pressure;

In operation my, device; is lowered on stem 4 to the desired point in the well. Cement or a cementitious substance is then forced under pre'ssurethrough said tubing 4, through said vertical valve 1,"throughsaidnipple 5-out through said lateral, valve chamber 26, and opening 29, intotheinterior of'said tube 42.

,Aslmbmie W'ithtlie ceinentit breaks the v "bands 55,56,157a58j59, 60, 61 and 62" on the outside ,of envelope 44," andfforcessaid envelope 44..outwardly against the sides offthe welll olef It wi'll readily be seenthatlifthere a 'cavity 'iiitheiisi'de of the well wall at the H jpoint wheretheplu'g isbeing installed, that said bolts 37 and 38. Sa1d'bolts37' and 38 the. outwardpre'ssure of tlie cement will force the said envelope44 into the saidcavity. It

will alsobe seen ,thatthe lsaid outward pressure will exert' an upward pull the bottom .ofzsaid stem 32,"which will trayelupwardly in said jhousing'2 3 and allow said envelope 44 tocompletelyfill the said cavity The thicker portions47 and 48 jofsaid envelope 44 will,

when internal pressure; is y applied thereto,

push upwardly againstthe fibrous discs above and against the well wall and -.fill any crack between saidfibro us discs and said well wall.

It will also be readilyseen that wh'en my deviceispositioned at'the conjunction of a well hole and a smallefrat-hole, that the fibrous discs will seat at the unction point. Stem 32 ifplaeedupo'n the bottomof the rat-hole Inaytravel upwardlyin said housing23 and allow said fibrous L-to descend andseat gas desired, After; my plug has been positioned atfany desired pointin a well, it may will be held within my device after it is disconnected by said lateral valve or said vertical valve 1, or both. It will further be seen when said envelopes are being filled with said cementitious substance, that the lower portion'thereof will, due to gravity, be filled first, and that as they .fill" to a point past the middle thereof that they are exerting a frictional hold on thecwell walls. It will also beseen that when a great pressure is exerted upon the flowing cementi tious substance that the hold would be so great that the entire plug would be immovable even though the well wall was practically smooth. Those familiar with the art know that well walls are never extremely smooth and that the well Wallis usually more or less rugged. In'considering this it will be seen what a tremendous friction hold my'plug will have, upon the well walls.

Obviously,the invention is susceptible of embodiment in forms other than that which is illustrated in the accompanying drawings and described herein, and applicable for the uses and purposes other than as detailed, and I therefore consider as my own all such modifications and adaptations and other uses of the form of the device herein described as fairly fall within the scope of my invention. Having thus described my invention what is claimed anddesired to be secured by Letters Patent, is:

1. A plug, as described, for plugging a well, adapted ateits top for removably connectingthe lower end of a tubing or a drill stem thereabove, meansfor anchoring same ,insaid well, resilient means adapted for connecting said anchoring means and for being laterally inflated within said well and for receiving; a cementitious element, means for automatically vertically adjustably positioning said resilient means, and means for protecting said resilientmeans. 7 2. A plug, as described, for plugging a well, adapted at its top for removably con- ;uecting the lower end of a tubing or a drill stem thereabove, means for anchoring same in said well, resilient means adapted for connecting said anchoring means and for being laterally inflated within said well and for receiving a cementitious element, means for vertically adjustably positioning said resilient means, outside means for protecting said resilient means having thinner lapping ends adjacent its center for spreading and for producing a friction grip.

3. A plug, as described, for plugging a well, adapted at its topfor removably connecting the lower end of atubing or a drill stem, its upper end adapted to snugly fit in a rat-hole and against t e side walls in said well, a metallic slidable stem adjacent its lower end, a flanged housing for said stem adapted to depend from said upperend, said jslidable stem having an enlarged upper porsuitable material forencasing said resilient envelope, said resilient envelope and said encasing outer envelope adapted for automatic vertical adjustment and for lateral expansion within said well, means for introducing a cementitious element within said" resilient envelopes, saidresilientenvelopes with said cementitiouselement therein and said encasing envelope adapted tofill and hermetically seal said well ata, desired position.

4. A well plug embodying a normally deflated resil-icntbag adapted at its upper end forremovably connectingto the lower end of a tubing, means foranchoring said bag in a well, a hollow cylinder within said. bag and attached at its upper end to the upper end of said has, flqp ston mountedslidahly within said cylinder, ,the lower end of the piston'rod connected to the lower end of d bag. a spring within said cylinder for normally holdingsaid piston in the lswci end of the cylincler and means for introducing a cementitious substance within said bag.

5. ,A well plug-embodying a normally de flated resilient bag adapted at its upper end for removably connecting to the lower end of a tubing, means for anchoring said bag in a well, a hollowcylinder within saidbag and attached at its upper end tothe upper end of said bag. a piston mounted slidably with in said cylinder, the lower end'of the piston rod connected to the lower end of said bag, a spring within said cylinder for normally holding said piston in the lower end of the cylinder, means for introducing a ccmcuti tious substance within said ba and cncas ing means-for protecting the exterior of said 6. Organization as described in claim 5, in which said encasmg means comprises a pair of fibrous envelopes, one encasing the "of a tubing, means for anchoring said ba in a well, a hollow cylind'er within said bag and attached at its'upper end to the upper end of said bag, a piston mounted 'slidably within said cylinder, the lower end of the piston rod connected to the lower end of said bag, a spring within said cylinder for normally holding said piston in the lower end of the cylinder, mean'sfor introducingla cementitious substance within said bag, encasing means for protecting the exterior of said bag, and breakable means for holding said bag and said encasing means closely around said cylinder and piston rod when said bag is empty.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2583316 *Dec 9, 1947Jan 22, 1952Bannister Clyde EMethod and apparatus for setting a casing structure in a well hole or the like
US2811985 *Nov 6, 1953Nov 5, 1957Wells Jewell WPipe line stoppers
US2848052 *Nov 19, 1954Aug 19, 1958Phillips Petroleum CoProcess for vertical fracturing
US3066739 *Dec 10, 1958Dec 4, 1962Schlumberger Well Surv CorpBorehole apparatus
US3085628 *Feb 18, 1959Apr 16, 1963Lynes IncInflatable well tool
US4614346 *Mar 12, 1982Sep 30, 1986The Gates Rubber CompanyInflatable unitary packer element having elastic recovery
US5205358 *Jul 16, 1991Apr 27, 1993Mitzlaff Darald DPipe plugging system
CN103352674A *Aug 1, 2013Oct 16, 2013中国石油化工股份有限公司Upper-layer adjustable plugging device
U.S. Classification166/187, 166/195
International ClassificationE21B33/12
Cooperative ClassificationE21B33/12
European ClassificationE21B33/12