Improvement in candle-lamps
US 183398 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
F. L. HOWARD. g l
CANDLE LAMP. Y
No.183,398. Patented ot.17,187e.
NPEEHS, FHOTO-LITHOGRPHER, WASHINGTON. D. C. 1
2 Sheets--Sheet Z;
F. .LyHoWARn cANDLE LAMP. No.1 83,398. Patented oct.17,1876.
.PETERS. PHoTo-umoempusn. wnsmnmou. u
UNITED STATES `l'AT'ENT FFrcE.
FRANK L. HOWARD, OF HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT, ASSIGNOR TO'J AMES L. HOWARD & CO., 0F SAME PLACE.
IMPROVEMENT IN CANDLELAMPS.
Specification 'forming part of Letters Patent No. 183,398, dated October 17, 1876 application filed September 14, 1876.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, FRANK L. HOWARD, of Hartford, in the county of Hartford and State of Connecticut, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Candle Lamps for Cars, which improvement is fully set forth in the following specification, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, in which- Figure l is a central section of my improved car-lamp. Fig. 2 is a horizontal section ofthe samev in the line w x of Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a sectional view of the top of the candle-holder as it appears when the candle is almost consumed. Fig. 4 is a top'view of the annular bearing which supports the body of the candle-lamp. Fig. 5 is an elevation of the lampbody. Fig. 6 is a vertical section of the lamp and its bearing in the line y y of Fig. 3, and
Y Fig. 7 is a horizontal section of the same inV without the danger of having melted candle splashed about by the motions of the car.
Another object secured by my invention is a car-lamp fastened to its bearings in such a way that by a very simple manipulation of the operator any movement or rattling, either in a vertical or horizontal direction, is avoided; and another object secured by my invention is a glass globe fastened to a car-lamp in such a manner that it cannot move or rattle between its bearings, and that its removal or reinsertion can be effected with very little labor and by simple constructions.
In the drawings, A represents arms or brackets fastened to the ceiling of a car, and having an annular lamp-seat, B, attached to them by means of sockets and screws in radial projections B1. The lower part of the said lampseat B has a number of horizontal ilanges, b1, Fig. 4, at equal distances from each other, one
; of which is, near its extremity, provided with a stopping-pin, b2, for a purpose hereafter explained. One of the projections, B1, is provided with a spring -bolt, C, the spring c of which is partly inserted into the adjoining bracket-arm A. The spring-bolt C is operated by a thumb-lever, C', pivoted at c1, and having a cylindrical head, c3, moving in a vertical notch, c4, of the said bolt C. The lamp-body D is, ati its top, provided with a number of wedge-shaped projections, d, around an annular rim, D', arranged in pairs, so that between each two of them a vertical space, d1, is formed as wide as the diameter of the bolt C, above described. The said projections d extend not quite down to the lamp-body, and thus form a groove, E, with the said lamp-body, of the thickness of the anges b1, above described. The thickness of the projections d is such that there is plenty of play between them and the annular lamp-seat B, but near the foot of each projection d a lap, d2, is added thereto, which bears against the inner side of the said lamp-seat, and thereby prevents diagonal movement. The number of the said projections d is double that of the iianges b1, and they are so constructed that they may be vertically passed up between the said iianges. One projection, d, of each pair described, is provided with a notch, d3, for the reception of the pin b2 when the lamp is in proper position. The lamp-body D is provided with a number of springs, F, which have a bend, f, near the end projecting through an opening, d4, in the lamp-body, whereby a pressure upon the lower sides of the iianges b1 is effected, and the projections d are pressed upon the. upper sides of the said flanges. The said construction prevents vertical movement, and consequent rattling, of the lamp-body D.`
The lampfbodyl) is provided with a central tube, G, which has a horizontal bottom flange, y, and may be closed at the bottom by a cap, g. Upon the flange g a spiral spring, H, is placed, which has a cap, I, attached to its top. The said cap I is of conical shape, with an annular gutter, t', at its base, which lits the bore of the tube G. The top of the said cap I ends in an annular knife-edge, i2, and a horizontal bottom, i3, near the top, serves to form a cap or socket for the foot of a candle, J,
'I'.he top fof the itube Gr 4is lprovided with :a
`cap, K, which *is `attached `thereto by means,
of a bayonet-fastening, or by other known means.
moved upto it by the spring H, as seen in Fig.
3. When the cap I is in :the said .position the annular knife-edge t2 rests against a shoulder,
kl, of the cap K. Above the shoulder k1 the` formation of the cap K is cylindrical, as shown at k2,with a small rounded step, 7c3, at the top.`
The said cylindrical part k2 is made of such size lthat the top of the candle may `easily bel' inserted into it. Above the step k3 is another smaller and shorter cylinder, k, with a broad horizontal top rim, k5, forming a chamber, K', with the solid 'topof Ithecandle J ,which chamber is, during the operation,iilledwith melted a similar socket, m, at ythe `lower termination of a vertically-movable tube, M,which `is `in ade `to slide within another tube, N, inthe center of the reflector 0. A short-stepped tube, M', is attached tothe tube M above the socket m, V which fits snugly in thetube N, and serves as `tllehousing and abutmentof the lower part elegant appearanceof the lamp.V The said spring P abuts with its upper end-against a 'horizontal flange, n, at the topof ythe `tube N.
'I heupper and greater `part of thespring Plis housed between the tubes M N.
To prevent the Itube Mfrom leaving its bearing, lits-down `movement :may be limited Nby a bead, m', or any suitable means. The globe L is, Abyjthe forceoi' the spring l?, held tightlybetween the sockets m and B2.
Operation The cap K isrexnovedfrom nthe 'tube G, the `candle .I is put upon the Vbottom `iof the cap I, and thecap Kis pu't uponthe candle, so that its ltopenters the part 'k2 and touches theshoulder 7c3. rIhe cap Kis now` `pressed down and "fastened Ito fits place upon the tube G, wherebythe candle J andfthe cap I are also fmoved'down, and the spring H is com- `presned,as seen in Fig. "1. The lamp `isthen `from `below moved 4into its lamp-seat B by `slipping the projections d between-the iianges *b1 luntil the lamp `'touches `the said lamp-seat,
and then turning the-lamp toward `the pin b2. The slope'of the projection dnext to the bolt v C `pushes the sameiback untilth'e `notch d3 arrives at the pin '112, when the bolt `enters the space lbetween the said projections, and the flamp` isllockedbetween the pin band the bolt *C soitcannot turn. VAtthesame time'the said 'operation goes ron, the springs F are pushed vdown by the ilanges b1 entering `the `groove The said cap K has a conical bearing, 1c, which forms a joint with the conical ,part `oi' the cap I when the Said `cap is isuccessful.
`sumption of tallow by the dame.
when .in working order, and when judiciously operated, lis `suicient for preventing the lamp from turning; but when the lamp is inserted and turned for the purpose of havingitlocked by the said bolt, it is often turned so quickly that the bolt has not Vtime to enter the 4space d1, and the operation has to berrepeateduntil This isavoided by the pin b2 and notch d3, which positively arrest the farther turning of the lamp at the very moment the boltG isopposite the space d1, and thereby allow it to enter the said space and lock the lamp. Ii' the lamp is to be removed, the bolt Gis `withdrawn from ithespace-dlby means of the lever C', the lamp is then turned `until the llaps d2 on the projections d are Adisengaged from the flanges b1 of the lamp-seat, and the lamp is finally slipped down and `out "of its seat. `viously to placing the llalnp in its seat. 1'lfhe space between the top of the candleaud the top `rixn 705 `ot" the cap K beingemptyathe hot gases therein heat thelmetal to such a degree thatthe part ot' theicandle near `thefstep lcsis melted. When the melted `:talloW rises tothe top rim h5 it deprives the heated Ametal of a partei' its heat, so thatino more of thecandleis melted; but las thelmelted tallow burns away,
and the rim 765 is more exposedto the heat; of
the candle dame,the metal `is. again suiiciently heated to `melt another part of the candle. Themelted tallow neverrises above ithe rim h5, because Vas it rises it interferes with the communication of heat betweenthe ilameand `the-toppart of the lcap K, and because the pressureof the spring Hupon l-the candleeffects a turning over in an inwarddirection, and a crowding away of thehalf-melted ltallow in the corner 7c3, where the metal `isconstantly cooled ldown by the `lt'resb itallow moved up `from' below, andso the operation of elevating the -candle is always in proportiontothe con- Theilluminating properties of `the candle flame fare `developed at a `certain distance above `.the `melted tallow, `and by having the surfacewof -themelted tallow even withlthe `topof the cap K the light is 'shed `from a lhighereleva -tion above `the opaque cap K, Wliichlthus-createsless shadow below the lamp incompari` son withother candledamps in awhich thesurface of the melted tallowiis `generally muchV belowfthe top of theecap. j This last lstated Aadvantage is enhanced lby the reduced `diameter of the upper flange h5, whereby gthe shadow below the llamp `is considerably 1 reduced.
If byany accident melted tallow shouldlenter the tube G, it is caught andcollectediby l the `groove on `the `cap I. It" meltedtallow Thewick j of the candle `J is lit prel from the lower socket B2 and taken o sidewise. To replace the globe, the tube M is pushed up until the globe will enter between the upper and lower sockets, and the tube M is allowed to come down with its socket m upon the rim Z of the globe, while the rim Z settles in the socket B2. The globe so held between the two sockets above described cannot move in any direction, and consequently is free from rattling, and still it is confined between yielding instead of rigid fastenings, which save it from being broken in many instances.
The described improvements for fastening candle lamps and globes tov their seats are also applicable to lamps which have oil-reservoirs in place of candle-holders.
Having thus described my invention, I claim the following:
1. In a candle-lamp, a cap, K, having a horizontal annular flange or rim, h5, and av shoulder, k3, which, together with the top end of the candle, form a chamber, k1, for the melted tallow, the said chamber being of smaller diameter than the candle, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
2. The combination ofthe tube G, having a ange, g, the spring H, and the conical cap I, and a circular knife-edge, i2, and the cap K, having a conical bearing, k, and a step, k1, all constructed and operating substantially as set forth.
3. The combination of the notches d3 and the stopping-pin b2, constructed and operating substantially as set forth.
4. The combination of the projections d, spaces d1, laps d2, the pin b2, and the springbolt G, all constructed and operating substantially as set forth.
5. The combination of the body D, the springs F, the anges b1, and the projections d, all constructed and operating substantially as set forth.
6. In a bracket or center car-lamp, the combination of tubes M M', spring P, socket m, socket B2, and lamp-globe L, substantially as described.
7. The combination of the reector 0, the v FRANK L. HOWARD. Witnesses:
ALBERT L. BURKE, GEORGE C. BARNES.