US 1837620 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 22, 1931. H. KARL 1,837,620
RECIPROCATORY INTERNAL COMBUSTiON ENGINE Filed July 15 1925 INVENTOR Patented Dec. 2 2, 1931 I UNITED STATES HEINRICH KARL, or was CITY, new JERSEY RECIPROGATORY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Application filed July 15, 1925, Serial No. 43,737, and in Germany l larch 3, 1925.
ber valves carried by the inner shaft adapted to force the air and fuel through valve-controlled ante-chambers into the explosion chambers where the charge is ignited.
In said specification the charge passed from the explosion chambers through nozzles and reacted against'grooved parts of a fixed'stator casing whereby all the parts previously described were caused to rotate.
In the present invention, however, the said parts with the exception of the inner shaft and rotary chamber valves thereon do not r0- tate and the explosion chambers are replaced by ordinary cylinders in which operate reciprocating pistons actuating a crank or driving shaft.
Therefore the invention consists of a recip-- rocating internal combustion engine of the single or compound type having means for charging liquid, gaseous, powdered or granv ulated fuel and compressed air to the cylinder or cylinders, said means comprising a rotary hollow shaft, adapted to admit compressed air, a rotary chamber valve on said shaft, an ante-chamber and apertures in connection with the inner shaft adapted to allow compressed air in said shaft to flow into said ante-chamber'and also into said cylinder.
" The invention also comprises features of construction, arrangement and combination of parts as set forth in appended claims and hereinafter fully described.
An embodiment of the invention is illustrated in Fig. 1 of the accompanying drawings which show in section a six cylinder reciprocating engine and means for coupling it to or compounding it with a turbine. Fig. 2 is a part perspective and part diagrammatic revolve in unison when said shaft will be revolved by the gears 108 that will be described later. The chambers of said chamber valves communicate with the hollow of said shaft 1. Each chamber valve 2, together with a chamber valve 150, is arranged within a chamber 13 that 'has a cylindrical shape and which is of such diameter that theTchamber valves 2 and 150 can just move within it. While the chamber valve 150 'whose purpose will be described later is so designated that its circumferenceequals nearly that of the chamber 13, it is difierent with the chamber valve 2 which fills out only as much space as a segment that represents about one quarter of the space within which the chamber valve 2 has to' move. This particular shape of the revolvable chamber valve 2 has the purpose 0 al-- lowing combustibles to accumulate in the space that is left between the walls of chamber valve 2 and those walls of chamber 13 and chamber valve 150 that limit said space. The character of and the method of introduction of these combustibles into said chamber 13 will be described later. As best seen in Fig. 3, one wall of chamber valve 2 lies closely againstthe inner side of the circum-.
ferential wall of chamber 13. This last-men- 'the cylinders are held closed by valves 18 under the control of springs'19, said valves 5 exten ing so far inwardsthat the willengage the ribs ;4 of the rotary cham er valves 2 and willbeforced thereby against the pressurelof the springs 19 whereby the inlet ports 17 are opened sufficiently to permit comtoo 20 108 ofunifo'rm ratio being provided so that press ed air also admitted through hollow shaft 1 to pass throughthe apertures to blow the charge, previously forced partly through the revolving motion of the rotary chamber Salve 2 into the chambers 15, into the cyliners.
' At the moment when a valve 18 is so actedon by the rib 4 it will come in contact with two spark plugs designated by 20, 20,
etc. in Fig. 1 which extend inward through the wall of the cylinder and will thus prevent the formation of sparks between them so long as it so remains in contact; As soon however as the, rib 4 comes out of contact with the valve 18 its spring 19 forces the valve rapidly towards the shaft 1 and thus closes the inlet port 17.
The said cylinders 115 contain reciprocating pistons 1.15connected by' rods to a 'crank or driving shaft 109, transmission gearing the rotary chamber valves 2 on shaft 1 make a revolution at the same time as saidcrank shaft. l V
The rotary chamber valves 2 are so arranged that the'ribs 4 thereof will operate the gas inlet valve 18 at the moment at which the piston 115in the respective cylinder reaches the point at which it passes an ex haust port 111 in the wall of said cylinder,
or at least part of said port, so that the ex- 7 electrically engages the contact parts of the conductors only at the moment at which the piston reaches the said position farthest from the shaft. 7 v The inlet valve 18 willclose its port 17 shortly before the piston takes the mid-position in its cylinder.
In this contact device on a rod 131 are vmounted three circular commutators-130,
130", and 130" of non-electric conductivity except a specially arranged electric current conducting section 130 which is arranged preferably at the circumference of the commutator.
These commutators are shown in perspect1ve view, while the other parts are-shown diagrammatically. Two contacts 130', 130
are suitably held against the circumference of each commutator and one 130 is in electric connection with the positive side of the battery 26 while theother130 has electric connection with the respective spark-plug 20.
The other spark-plug 20 in the same cylinder is in electric connection with the negative side of the battery. The section 130 is so arranged on the commutator 130 that at the turnin of same which is in the same ratio as that 0 the crank shaft 109, this section 130 two contacts 130 130 and close the circuit when the piston 1150f the upper left hand cylinder is nearest the spark-plugs in that cylinder as shown also in the drawings. It is apparent that the circuit which serves for igniting the fuel-charge in the cylinder next will come into electric connection with'the to said first mentioned cylinder must be closedat a different predeterminedmoment and for achieving this, a secondcommutator, viz., one designated 130', is arranged and a special circuit isnecessary in which similarly to the scheme already mentioned in,connec-. tion with the first mentioned circuit the spark-plugs but only those of the upper central cylinder are included and it is also apparent that the section 130 of the commutator 130 must come into contact with the contacts 130, 130 of this commutator 130 at a different moment to the section: 130'. of the 1 commutator 130 coming into contact with the contacts 130, 130 of the commutator 130.
The commutator 130" which serves for closing the circuit in. connection with the upper right hand cylinder spark-plugs 1s so arranged as to bring its section 130 into contact with the tworespective contacts 130), 130 at a still different moment, namely, when the respective piston off the upper right cylinder is nearest to the spark-plugs 'of thatcylinder.-
For the lower cylinders a simllar arrange ment for closing the circuits at the correct time is made'and the sections 130 on the respective commutators must be'so arrangedon them that the circuit will be closed in which vthose twospark-plugs are included which are approached nearest by the .respective piston in the same cylinder.
In Fig. 1 118 designates thefuel tank, 119 an air pump, and 119 a compressed air reservoir, the latter being connected by pipe 120 and revolvable branches 121 with the hollow shafts 1 leading to the rotary chamber valves 2. The pump is driven by belt and pulley gear 122, 123 from the shafts 1 and the ignitiontiming contact devices 130 are mounted on shafts 131 driven by belt and pulley gears 132, 133 driven from certain of the gear wheels 108.
- In order to prevent a premature explosion of the fuel or explosives blown into the cylinders when there are still some explosion gases left in the explosion chamber, which explosion gases as known are of a ver high temperature, itis necessary to provi e means for scavenging the cylinder quickly just before the piston. 115 completely covers the exhaust port 111 and before the'valve 18 is pushed by the rib 4. I v
' body 2 is arranged To this efiect' an annular hollow part 150 whose hollow communicates with that of the for revolvin movement in the casing 13. It and therefore is moved simultaneously with this part. There are two holes 151, 152 arranged on the periphery of the-annular part 150 and these communicate at certain times with an aperture 153 of a pipe 154, so that when the hole 151 comes in alignment with the aperture 153 the hole 152 is then closed by the wall of the chamber 13 and vice versa. The pipe 154 is in communication with the interior of the cylinder 16.
Whenever one of these holes 151, 152 communicate with the pipe 154 compressed air will rush through said hole and the pi e 154 and will drive out from the cylin er 16 through the still open exhaust port 111 the remainder of the explosion gases so that the combustibles that at the next moment will be blown into the cylinder 16'wil1 not be ignited before the piston reaches its outermost position (that is nearest to the valve 18). After the combustibles are blown into the cylinder the rib 4 releases the valve 18 and this valve closes the inlet port 17. Simultaneously with this function the other of the two holes 151, 152 comes into communication with the pipe 154 and again compressed air will be blown into this pipe but the charge already contained in the cylinder being still more compressed by the outward going piston will set up such counter-pressure to the compressed air that comes out of said other hole 151 or 152 that there will not be any other. effect than that of an encountered strong resistance. The purpose of arranging two holes 151, 152 is that, to have the cylinder 16 'engine, this device embodying also then scavenged when the shaft 109 rotates in the inverse direction.
There is also provided a device for detachably connecting the shaft a of a turbine as previously mentioned with the crank shaft 109 of the reciprocating internal combustion for example a coupling 116 and a clutch 11 of any appropriate construction.
The powdered or granulated explosives are confined in the tank 160' and are dosed by means of automatically opening and closing valves 161, 162. When the valve 161 that is nearest to the tank is open, the valve 162 is closed and powdered or granulated combustibles fall into the space in the pipe 163 that is situated between these two valves. At the moment in which the valve 161 is closed again the valve 164 of a pipe that communicates with the compressed air reservoir 119' and 7 also the valve 162 will be opened and compressed air blows or entrains the combustibles into the pipes 163, and into the upper chambers 13; they also enter into the pipe 167 wherefrom they will be blown into the lower shaftl and chambers 13 and into the chamis united wit 1 the part 2 'sives contained in explosives out of the apertures dered or granulated bles can be shut off by means of the valve 168.
By'opening the 3. The supply ofpowthe tank 118 are admitted to the upper chambers 13, pipe 167 and lower chambers 13 and the forechambers 15. If only gaseous explosives will be employed simply the valves 168 and 169 must be closed and i the valve 170 opened whereby the gaseous exexplosi-ves or combustibers 15 wherefrom they will be blown into the cylinders by the compressed air that comes valve 169 the liquid exploplosive that is under pressure in the tank 171 will flow into all the chambers 13 and, 15,
wherefrom it will be blown into the cylinders 16 by the compressed air rushing out through the apertures 3. By opening the valves 168,
169, 170 and'173, which latter when closed shuts off the compressed air preventing it from passing into the pipes chambers 13 and 15, admitted to the chambers 13 and 15 and so compounded will be blown into the cylinders and a strong explosion is thereby obtained; If it is desired, however, that only gaseous and such of powdered form are introduced into the cylinders, then only the valve 169 is to be placed into closed position. By opening certain-valves and closing certain others either only liquid, or powdered or granulated or only gaseous combustibles will be used for the operation of the motor or a compound between certain of these combus tibles. a
It is to be noted that whenever liquid or gaseous fuels are employed, no compresse air is necessary for blowingor entrain'ing them to chambers 13, 15. The-volume of compressed air used for blowing or entraining the powdered or granulated fuels to chambers 13 and 15, however, is relatively small due to the alternate closing of the valves 1 61.
162 and 164 and therefore it is prevented that a pressure is created in pipes 163, 167 and in those leading to the fuelcontainers 169 and 171 and in the chamber 13 that would prevent the liquid and gaseous fuels from flowing into chamber 13 and chamber 15. On the other hand, there must be the full pressure of the compressed and the pipes leading thereto as soon as the 2 uncovers in its rotary moverotary valve 163, 167 and the all explosives will be air in the chambers of the i rotary chamber valves 2 and 150 for blowing ment the apertures of the antechamber 15 4 andthereby. establishes communication between this chamber and chamber 13. The air thus entering chamber 13 and the pipe 167 I and those leadi-n to the fuel containers is of municate fi quantity and will ascend leads to and enter. the containers and will settle on top tlng of the fuelcontained. in them when the valves 11 tarvchamber valve on said shaft, an'antearelatively. sma
169, 170 are open.
Vents or leaks may be used as is known the art, but theyv should be in connection withthe chambers 13 and 15 for allowing the escape of the compressed air-from these chambers. These vents shouldbe operated automatically and opened at the moment in which the valve 18 closes the inlet port 17, but they should be closed a few moments'later. that is when the chamber -valve 2 makes the first quarter of a rotation after the operation of the valve 18. In construction. these vents may be similar to the valve 18 and must have also a spring similar to spring-'19 and they may be operated as well by the rib 4 of the rotary chamber valve 2 with the exception, however,
that no compressed air will be blown through the apertures 3 because the wall of chamber 13 will keep them closed. A venting conduit should be so arranged as to communicate with antechamber15 and the space in which the outlet port of said venting .valve is located.
The-fuel accumulated in chamber 13 will then encounter no counterpressure in antechamengine of the type having means for charging I fuel and compressed air to the cylinder or cvlinders comprising' a rotary inner hollow shaft adapted to. admit compressed air, a rochamber and apertures in connection with the inner shaft adapted to allow compressed air in said shaft to flow into said ante-chamber I and also'into the cylinder.
2. A reclprocatmg internal combustion en:-
- gine having means for conveying- "explosive uel to a chamber, and means in said chamber and then through the latter into the cylinderor forcing said fuel-into anj antechamber I ofthe engine.
3. A reciprocating internal combustion I engine-having an inlet port communicating I with an ante-chamber, a valv'e, a spring tendmg to cause'said valve to close the inlet port and a rib on 'arota'ry chamber valve adapted V to act on the valve to open said inlet port durmg the rotations of the inner shaft. g 4; In a reciprocating internal combustion engine, a hollow cylindrical body, a rotatable hollow body arranged within said gylindrical body, \a rotatable device ,containing compressed air and holes in said device that com: a
mg pu pq aticertain moments with a pipe that the working cylinder thereby admitcompressed air to the cylinder o HEINR ICH. KARL. w-
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