Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS1838930 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 29, 1931
Filing dateSep 1, 1927
Priority dateSep 1, 1927
Publication numberUS 1838930 A, US 1838930A, US-A-1838930, US1838930 A, US1838930A
InventorsFisher Harmon F, Gassaway Stephen G, Loenen William F Van
Original AssigneePetroleum Rectifying Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electric treater having variable rate of flow with constant conditions in working field
US 1838930 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 29, 1931. H F, FlSHER T A 1,838,930

. ELECTRIC THEATER HAVING VARIABLE RATE OF FLOW WITH CONSTANT CONDITIONS IN WORKING FIELD Filed Sept. 1. 1927 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 iiwy G 2 1931- H. F.- FISHER ET AL 1, 3,

ELECTRIC THEATER HAVING VARIABLE RATE OF FLOW WITH CONSTANT CONDITIONS IN WORKING FIELD Filed Sept. 1.- 1927 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 wags: him/140ml iii/15% Jrffi/mfifmwg mu/xw/i l/wlomf/u By I H. F. FISHER ET AL 1,338,930 ELECTRIC THEATER HAVING VARIABLE RATE OF FLOW WITH CONSTANT CONDITIONS IN WORKING FIELD Filed Sept.'l, 192 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 J9 M's/7026..

MAL/AM F KM L 0151/5/14 Patented Dec. 29, 1931 UNITED STATES PATENT, OFFICE.

EARMON F. FISHER, OF LONG BEACH, STEPHEN G. GASSAWAY, OF LOS ANGELES, AND. WILLIAM F. TAN LOENEN, 0F BUENA IPARK, CALIFORNIA, ASSIGNORS TOlPETRO- LEUM REOTIFYING COMPANY OF CALIFORNIA, OF LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, A

coarona'rron or CALIFORNIA ELECTRIC TREATER HAVING VARIABLE RATE 0! FLOW WITH OONSTAN '1 CONDITIONS v IN WORKING FIELD Application filed September 1, 1927. Serial No. 216,884.

. ing the emulsion so that the water particles will readily precipitate from the oil.

When an electrical treater is in operation but for a short time, foreign matter such as mud, wax or scale collects on the electrodes. This coating or scale is ordinarily of high resistance and consequently detracts from the treating efficiency of the apparatus. In the ordinary treater it is necessary to completely drain the tank in order that the electrodes be cleaned. This takes considerable time and is expensive, and is found undesirable since it places the treater out of service for a period of time. The actual cleaning of the electrodes, when they are once made accessible, requires but a few minutes.

It is one of the objects of our invention to provide a treater in which an electrode may be readily removed from the tank of the treater without the necessity of draining the tank.

In treating certain emulsions, we find that an appreciable amount of flocculent emulsion remains in the treated oil. This flocculent emulsion is of a-specific gravity heavier than that of the oil and about the same as that of the heavy liquid (which in this case is water) constituting the mixture. This flocculent emulsion usually settles out with the heavier liquid and is lost since the expense and difficulty of collecting and separating it by present methods does not justify its recovery. We find that if this flocculent emulsion is passed through a suitable electrical field as it is produced and before it has been mixed with the mud, water, salts and other impurities of the mixture under treatment and before it has had an opportunity to settle and become less flocculent, then this flocculent emulsion will be treated and will break up into its constituent parts.

It is another object of this invention to provide a treater in which the flocculent emulsion is treated before it has had an opportunity. to mix with the foreign matter in the treater."

After an emulsion has been treated by an electric field, the oil will rise in the treater. The oil, however, often carries in finely divided form an untreated mixture which adulterates and decreases the commercial value of the oil.

One of the objects of this invention is to provide a treater in which the adulterating mixture is removed from the treated oil.

We find inpractice that an emulsion is best treated when subjected to a certain strength of field for a certain period of time. It follows therefore that fora particular emulsion a particular set of electrodes having a definite rate of treatment and a definite potential gradient 'is suitable for treating that particular type of emulsion. If the emulsion is fed through the electric field at a faster or slower rate, the efliciency of treatment is impaired.

It is an object of this invention to provide a treater in which the working conditions therein may be maintained constant even though the rate of flow of the fluid to be treated is varied.

Certain emulsions have a short-circuiting tendency; that is, the water particles or conductive particles have a marked tendency to chain up between the electrodes. In order to prevent this, it is necessary in the ordinary treater that the fluid be kept in motion at all times between electrodes during the We find that the speed of treatment of the emulsion from certain wells is slow and is effected only with difiiculty while the emulsion from other wells will be readily treated. If these two emulsions are mixed together, a mixture often still more difiicult to treat is obtained. We find in some emulsions that the free water settles out slowly after treatment while in other oils the settling rate is very rapid. These two emulsions, if mixed together before treatment, may form a mixture very difficult to treat, although if treated separately they are very readily treated and at a high quantity rate. If after treatment and before settling out of the free water these two treated emulsions are intermingled or mixed, we find that the mixture has a higher rate of settling than did the separate emulsions.

It is accordingly one of the objects of this invention to provide a method and apparatus whereby two fluids of different grades may be subjected to actions of electric fields and immediately thereafter mixed so that the water content may settle out.

The preferred form of treater of our invention has a primary treating field, a secondary treating field, and a tertiary treating field. The fluid to be treated is first passed through the primary treating field and thereafter through the secondary and tertiary treating fields.

It is one of the objects of our invention to provide a'treater in which there will be no short-circuiting in the partially treated emulsion in its travel from the primary treating field to the secondary treating field or tertiary treating field. This is accomplished by keeping the emulsion at the same electrical potential at all times in its passage from the primary to the secondary electrode, and providing means so that the fluid stream of the emulsion in its passage does not come into contact with treater parts of diflerent potential.

We have found that by injecting gas into an emulsion to be treated its velocity through the treater may be increased and the efliciency of the treater raised.

4 One of the objects of this invention is to provide a process of treating emulsion WhlCh involves the mixture of the emulsion with g In practice we find that the dielectric strength of an emulsion may be increased by introducing gas in proper quantities. By forming such a mixture it is possible to prevent short-circuiting or electrical break-down through the fluid when it passes through the electrical field.

It is an object of this invention to provide a method of increasing the dielectric strength of a fluid so that it may be more successfully treated.

The treater of the present invention is an improvement of a treating apparatus disclosed in an application filed by Harmon F. Fisher on September 16, 1926, Serial 135,804, in which application is disclosed and claimed a treater wherein a concentrated field is set up by a pair of concentric electrodes, the emulsion moving along the grounded electrode. In the present invention, the emulsion is in some cases moved along the grounded electrode and in other cases alon the surface of a small live electrode and from the free end thereof. So also, the present invention is an improvement over the treater shown in an application filed by Harmon F. Fisher on July 2, 1927, Serial 203,253, in which a dielectric medium is drawn in the less intense portion of an electric field exist ing in an annular treating space, this circulation of dielectric being effected by the incoming emulsion.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will be pointed out in the following description.

In the accompanying drawings we have shown a preferred form of our invention which will now be described.

We wish it to be understood that our invention is susceptible of various modifications without departing from the spirit and scope thereof and therefore we do not wish to be limited to the particular embodiment shown, but intend to cover in the appended claims all devices built on the principle of this invention.

Referring to the accompanying drawings,

Fig. 1 is .a vertical section through a treater.

Fig. 2 is a plan view of Fig. 1.

Figs. 8, 4, 5 and 6 are sections taken on the lines of Fig. 1 represented by corresponding numerals.

Fig. 7 is a section taken on the line 7-7 of Fig. 6.

Fig. 8 is a section taken on the line 8-8 of Fi 5.

Re erring to the drawings in detail, the numeral 11 represents a tank providing a chamber 12. Supported in the tank 11 is a plurality of treating units 14. Each of these treating units 14 is constructed the same as the others; therefore, we will describe only one unit, it being understood that the other units are identical. Each unit includes a top cover-plate member 16 which, when in operating position, closes an opening 17 in an upper head 18 of the tank. Each cover-plate 16 is provided with an eyebolt 15 so that the entire unit 14 may be lifted from the tank Without draining the'tank. Secured to the cover-plate member 16 is an insulator 19 from which a rod 20 depends. Secured to the lower end ofthe rod 20 is a shell 21 which provides a neutral space 22. Carried by the head 18 and provided for each unit 14 is an insulator 23 through which a rod 24 is extendan individual transformer 28. The secondary of each transformer is grounded by a conductor 29.

As illustrated in Figs. 1 and 5, the shell 21 has primary live electrodes 31 which project upward in the neutral space 22 from the lower end 32 of the shell 21. These primary live electrodes 31'are annular in form and near their lower ends are provided with throats 33. As shown in Figs. 1 and 3, secondary live electrodes 35 project upward into the chamber 12 from the upper end 36 of the shell 21. These secondary live electrodes 35 are also annular in form and have throats 37.

It is pointed out at this time that the primary and secondary live electrodes 31 and 35 are'in axial alignment. The cover-plate 16 is provided with openings 39 which are closed by plugs 40. These plugs 40 support secondary inner grounded electrodes 41. The electrodes 41 project downward through the secondary live electrode 35. Connected to the lower ends of the secondary grounded electrodes 41 are insulation bars 42, and-con nected to the lower ends of the insulation bars 42 are primary grounded electrodes 44 which extend through the primary live electrodes 31. as shown.

Emulsion or other fluid to be treated is supplied to the individual treating units 14 by separate inlet pipes 45, to the inner ends of each of which a flexible hose 46 is connected. Each flexible hose 46 is secured to a nipple 47 of a nozzle unit 48. The nozzle unit of each treating unit has a central fitting 50 from which radial arms 51 extend, there being a radial arm 51 for each primary grounded electrode 44. As illustrated best in Fig. 5, the outer end of each of the arms 51 is provided with a fitting 52. Extended upward from each fitting 52 is a nozzle 53 which projects into the lower end of each of the primary live electrodes 31. each primary grounded electrode 44 is provided with threads 55 and is' adapted to screw into a threaded opening 56 provided by each fitting 52. In this manner it is possible to support the nozzle unit 48 by the grounded electrode structure illustrated, and to ground the primary inner grounded electrode 44 through the hose 46.

Extending from the lower Wall 32 of the shell 21 is a nozzle 57 (see Fig. 6) and extending downward through the nozzle 57 is a tertiary live electrode 58, this live electrode 58 being rod-likein form and being supported by a suitable spider 59. The lower end of this electrode provides a terminal portion from which the fluid moving downward around the electrode 58 drops to the body of water which has already settled from the The lower end of emulsion previously treated, and which bod of water is present in the bottom of the tank 11. This fluid is thus acted upon by the field which is present below the terminal portion of the electrode 58. Supported around each tertiary live electrode 58 is a tertiary grounded electrode 60 having a throat 61. The electrode 60 is of substantially the same design as the electrodes 31 and 35. All of the electrodes 60 are permanently fixed in the tank 11 and are not removed therefrom with the units 14, as-this is not deemed necessary in our preferred form of treater. It is obvious, however, that these may be made removable. As illustrated in Fig. 1, the tertiary grounded electrodes 60 are supported on radial arms 63, these arms being carried by a standard 64 of the tank 11.

The transformer 28 of each treating unit 14 sets up a primary electrical field between the primary electrodes 31 and 44, a secondary electrical field between the secondary electrodes 35 and 41, and a tertiary electrical field between the tertiary electrodes 58 and 60, as well as auxiliary fields between the live electrode system and the tank or the} body of water therein.

When the treater is operating at a maximum capacity, emulsion to be treated or other fluid to be treated is delivered to each of the treating units 14 through the pipes 45 and the hose 46. The emulsion or other fluid passes through each of the treating units in identically the same manner; therefore, only one of the treating units will be considered in explaining the operation which takes place. The emulsion passes through the nozzle unit 48 and through the nozzles 53 into the lower ends of the primary treating spaces of the treating unit. The nozzles 53 are designed so as to direct the emulsion upward through the primary treating space in close adherence to the central grounded electrodes 44. This is desirable in view of the fact that the potential gradient of the field immediatespace 22. The neutral space 22 has no elec-', tric field therein and therefore there will be no danger of the water particles chaining up between parts of different-potential and thus short-circuiting the apparatus. Experience has taught us that the oil of the emulsion carries with it what we have termed untreated mixture. This untreated mixture carried by the oil, although very small in quantity,

nevertheless adulterates the oil and reduces its commercial value. We have further ly around the inner electrode 44 is the greatfound that if the oil is allowed to stand, this untreated mixture will not readily separate from it. On the other hand we have found that if the oil is immediately after its primary treatment subjected to a secondary treatment that the untreated emulsion will be acted upon so that the water particles thereof will readily precipitate from the oil. In our invention the light oil passes upward in the neutral space 22 and into the secondary treating spaces provided by the secondary live and grounded electrodes 35 and 41. The oil is at this time treated so that any untreated mixture carried thereby will'be acted upon so that the Water will gravitate therefrom. The oil passes into the upper part of the tank 11, whereas the Water of the untreated mixture will drop outside the treating units to the bottom of the tank 11 and form a body of conducting liquid therein. Dry oil is withdrawn through a pipe 65 at the top of the tank 11 and water and foreign matter are withdrawn from the tank 11 through a pipe 66 at the bottom of the tank.

- As we have pointed out before, the heavier part of the treated emulsion which passes from the primary treating spaces consists partly of what we have termed a flocculent emulsion.* This flocculent emulsion may be more specifically designated as an emulsion which has been partially treated but not sufliciently treated so that the oil and Water particles Will separate. We have found that if the flocculent emulsion is allowed to mix with the mud and other foreign matter, or allowed to become more compact or tighter by settling, subsequent separation and treatment will be very difficult. We have discovered, however, that if the flocculent emulsion is subjected to the action of an electric. field before it has had an opportunity to mix with the foreign matter or settle, the flocculent emulsion will be easily treated so that the water and oil will separate. In our invention the flocculent emulsion passes downward in the neutral space 22 and through the tertiary treating space provided at the lower part of the unit. In the tertiary treating space the flocculent emulsion is subjected to the action of the tertiary electric. field and the oil and other particles will thereafter readily separate.

It is usually preferable to have the voltage gradients in the secondary and tertiary electric fields different from the gradient in the primary field in order to compensate for the difi'erence in conductivity and treatability of the fluids passing therethrough. The time of treatment in these secondary and tertiary fields is also usually diflerent from the time of treatment in the primary field in order that the most efiicient results may be obtained.

When it is desired to clean the electrodes it is not necessary to drain the tank 11. The primary and secondary grounded electrodes may be very easily cleaned by unscrewing them individually from the fittings 52. They are separately removed and scraped and then replaced. The primary and secondary grounded electrodes should not be all removed at once from the same unit because they are utilized to support the nozzle unit 48. We wish to point out at this time that it is not necessary to clean the outer electrodes because all of the treating action takes place around the central electrodes and it is these central electrodes that it is important to keep clean. The entire treating unit may be re moved by lifting the cover-plate 16. The nozzle unit 48 being connected to the pipes 45 by the flexible hose 46, may be raised through the opening 17 and at this time all of the parts of the treating unit may be cleaned.

As we have mentioned in the statement of the invention, settling action of the water from emulsion may sometimes be accelerated if two dissimilar emulsions are mixed immediately after treatment. The treater of our invention is adapted for accomplishing this method since different grades or different kinds of emulsions may be individually supplied to the different treating units. The treated emulsions pass from different units into the chamber 12 of the tank 11 and is mixed together.

As We have heretofore emphasized, emulsions of a certain character are treated more efficiently when subjected to the action of an electric field of a certain character. We have found by experiment that an emulsion treats best in an electric field of a certain potential gradient. Such an emulsion is not therefore treated as well in a field of a materially higher or lower potential gradient. In our in vention it is possible to apply difi'erent electrical potentials and currents from different sources to the several treating units and thus efiiciently treat emulsions of different characteristics which it is desired to mix together immediately after treatment.

In the treater of our invention it is pos sible to maintain constant treating conditions even though the amount of emulsion being treated is varied. When the treater is treating a maximum amount of emulsion all of the treating units are utilized. If the source of supply decreases and there is not enough emulsion to keep all of the units operating under proper conditions, one of the units may be shut down. This is. accomplished by closing the valve of one of the pipes 45 and at the same time shutting down the transformer 28 of this particular unit. The treating conditions in the other treating units remain the same and the emulsion is efiiciently treated. There will be no danger of any short-cir Jiting in the apparatus due to the absence of a circulation through the unutilized treating unit because of the fact that the transformer 4 the pipes 45.

28 thereof is de-energized and there are no electrical fields in the unutilized unit. This is a very important part of our invention since it makes it possible to treat emulsion with a maximum efliciency even though the quantities passed through the treater may vary.

As pointed out previously, it is possible to increase the rate of flow of the emulsion through the treating units by introducing gas into the emulsion. In our invention the gas is introduced into the emulsion by means of a'pipe 7 0 having a valve 71, this pipe being attached to the pipe 45. It is of course understood that there is a pipe 70 for each of In the foregoing description we have re-- ferred to the treatment of an emulsion and referred to the action of the treater as separatin the water from the oil of this emulsion. e do not intend to limit ourselves by this description-of a particular embodiment of the invention because our invention may be used to treat, as previously pointed out, mixtures of various natures. In the appended claims we use the term fluid for designating the material which passes through the treater. broadest sense and is intended to cover any mixtures of liquids or mixtures of liquids and solids.

We claim as our invention:

1. A treater comprising: a primary electrical treating means; means for passing therethrough a fluid to be treated; 'a secondary electrical treating means through which the lighter part of said fluid passes after passing through said primary electrical treating means; and a tertiary electrical treating means through which the heavier portion of said fluid passes after passing through said primary electrical treating means. a g

2. A treater comprising: a primary electrical treating means; means for passing therethrough a fluid to be treated; a secondary electrical treating means through which the lighter part of said fluid passes after passing through said primary electrical treating means; a tertiary electrical treating means through which the heavier portion of said fluid passes after passing through said primary electrical treating means; and means providing a "neutral space with which said primary, said secondary and said tertiary electrical treatin means communicate.

3. Aprocesso treating afluid comprising: passing the fluid through an electrical field; and immediately thereafter passing the lighter part of said fluid through an electrical field and the heavier part of said fluid through an electrical field.

4. A treater comprising: primary and secondary live electrodes; primary and secondary grounded electrodes cooperating This term fluid is used in its with said live electrodes to provide primary and secondary treating spaces; means for establishing electrical fields in said treating spaces; means for introducing into said primary treating space a fluid to be treated; and means providing a neutral space for conveying fluid from said primary to said secondary treating space.

5. A treater comprising: a tank; primary and secondary live electrodes in said tank; primary and secondary grounded electrodes in said tank cooperating with said live electrodes to provide primary and secondary treatin spaces; means for establishing electrical elds in said treating spaces; means for introducing into said primary treating space a fluid to be treated; and a live shell providing a neutral space for conveying fluid from said primary to said secondary treating space.

6. A treater comprising: a tank; a live shell supported in said tank, said shell providing a neutral space; a primary live electrode carried by said shell in communication with said neutral space; a secondary live electrode supported by said shell in communication with said neutral space; a primary grounded electrode extending adjacent said primary live electrode; a secondar grounded electrode extending adjacent sai secondary live electrode; means for establishing electrical fields in the spaces between said primary and secondary electrodes; and means for introducing a fluid to be treated into the space between said primary electrodes at least a portion of said fluid thereafter passing through said neutral space into the space between said secondary electrodes.

7. A treater comprising: a tank; a live shell supported in said tank, said shell providing a neutral space; a primary live electrode carried by said shell inside said neutral space; a secondary live electrode supported by said shell in communication with said neutral space; a primary grounded electrode ex-" tending through said primary live electrode; a secondary grounded electrode extending through said secondary live electrode; means for establishing electrical fields in the spaces between said primary and secondary electrodes; and means for introducing a fluid to be treated into the space between said primary electrodes, at least a portion of said space; a primary grounded electrode extend-.

mg through said primary live electrode; a

the space between said secondary electrodes;

a tertiary live electrode supported at the lower part of said shell; and a tertiary grounded electrode extending adjacent said tertiary live electrode, there being an electric field set up between said tertiary electrodes, the heavier part of said fluid passing from said neutral space through said tertiary elec- .trodes.

9. A process of treating fluid comprising: subjecting one grade of fluid to the action of an electrical field; subjecting another grade of fluid to the action of an electrical field; and immediately mixing said fluids after treatment.

10. A-treater comprising: a tank; a live shell supported in said tank, said shell providing a neutral space; means for support ing said shell in said tank so that said shell may be removed from said tank; a primary live electrode carried by said shell in communication with said neutral space; a secondary live electrode supported by said shell in communication with said neutral space; a primary grounded electrode extending adjacent said primary live electrode; a secondary grounded electrode extending adjacent said secondary live electrode; means for establishing electrical fields in the spaces between said primary and secondary electrodes; and means for introducing a fluid to be treated into the space between said primary electrodes, at least a portion of said fluid thereafter passing through said neutral space into the space between said secondary electrodes.

11. A treater comprisin shell supported in said tani, viding a neutral space; means for supporting said shell in said tank so that said shell may be removed from said tank; a primary live electrode carried by said shell inside said neutral space; a secondary live electrode supported by said shell in communication with said neutral space; a primary grounded eleca tank; a live trode extending through said primary live electrode; a secondary grounded electrode extending through said secondary live electrode; means for establishing electrical fields in the spaces between said primary and secondary electrodes; and means for intr0- ducing a fluid to be treated into the space between said primary electrodes, at least a portion of said fluid thereafter passing through said neutral space into the space between said secondary electrodes.

12. A treater comprising: a tank; a live said shell pro shell supported in said tank, said shell providing a neutral space; means for supportmg said shell in said tank so that said shell may be removed from said tank; a primary live electrode carried by said shell in communication with said neutral space; a secondary live electrode supported at the upper part of said shell in communication with said neutral space; a primary grounded electrode extending through said primary live electrode; a secondary grounded electrode extending through said secondary live electrode; means for establishing electrical fields in the spaces between said primary and secondary electrodes' means for introducing a fluid to be treated into the space between said primary electrodes, the lighter part of said fluid thereafter passing through said neutral space into the space between said secondary electrodes; a tertiary live electrode supported at the lower part of said shell; and a tertiary grounded electrodes extending around said tertiary live electrode, there being an electric field set up between said tertiary electrodes, the heavier part of said fluid passing from said neutral space through said tertiary electrodes.

13. A treater comprising: a tank; a plurality of means in said tank for providing individual electrical fields; and a plurality of means for separately supplying fluid to said electrical fields, said fluid blending in said tank after passing through said electrical fields.

14. A treater comprising: a tank; a member removably supported by said tank; a pair of electrodes supported by said member and insulated from each other; and means for supplying a fluid to be treated to the space between said electrodes.

15. A treater comprising: a closed shell; a primary pair of electrodes defining a primary treating space communicating with the interior of said shell a secondarypair of electrodes defining a secondary treating space communicating directly with and receiving fluid from the interior of said shell; and means for introducing a fluid to be treated through said primary treating space and into said shell.

16. A treater comprising: a closed shell; a primary pair of electrodes defining a primary treating space communicating with the interior of said shell a secondary pair of electrodes defining a secondary treating space communicating with the upper end of said shell; a tertiary pair of electrodes definin a tertiary treating space communicating with the lower end of sald shell; and means for introducing a fluid to be treated through said trodes; and a plurality of means for separratel supplying fluid to said electric fields, said fluid blending in said tank after passing through said fields.

18. A method of treating fluid to separate it into its constituents, which comprises passing said fluid through an-electric field and into a neutral space; forcing the lighter constituents of said fluid through a second elec tric field; and forcingthe heavier constituents of said fluid through a third electric field. 15). A method as defined in claim 18 in which said constituents passing through said second and third fields are discharged therefrom into a common chamber. 20. A method of dehydrating a petroleum emulsion. which comprises: passing said emulsion through a primary electric field to form a treated emulsion containing a flocculeut emulsion; settling said flocculent emulsion from the treated emulsion; and immediately thereafter subjecting the flocculent emulsion to the action of another electric field.

21. A process of treating a fluid, which ineludes the steps of: passing said fluid through an electric field to form a treated fluid having unseparated constituents; introducing said fluid into a neutral space for a short time to effect a partial separation of a said constituents; and immediately thereat- I ter subjecting one of said separated constituents to the action of a second electric field.

22. In combination in an electric treater: a tank; a first electrode supported in said tank; a second electrode removably extending through a wall of said tank; means in said tank and spaced from said wall for holding said second electrode in correct relation ship with said first electrode when in said tank; and means for establishing a difference in potential between said electrodes.

23. A treater comprising: a tank; a plurality of pairs of electrodes in said tank; means for separately energizing any desired number of said pairs of electrodes to set up electric fields therebetween, whereby any desired pair of electrodesmay be deenergized; and means for removing any desired pair of electrodes from said tank without disturbing the operation of the remainder.

24. In combination in an electric treater: a tank; nozzle means in said tank; a rod forming an electrode and extending through the walls of said tank so as to be removable from the exterior thereof, said rod extending into said nozzle means; means associated with said nozzle means for holding. the inner end of said rod; means for delivering a fluid to be treated to said nozzle means said fluid being discharged in the form of a fluid envelope around said rod; and means for setting up an electric field in said tank around said rod electrode.

25. In an electric treater, the combination of: walls comprising a tank. said walls ineluding a removable section; a pair of electrodes insulated from each other and attached to said removable section in a manner to be removable therewith as a unit; and means for establishing an electric field between said electrodes.

26. A process of separating the phases of an emulsion, which includes the steps of subjecting said emulsion constituents to the action of a primary electric field whereby an electric stress is placed on the emulsion; moving said constituents of said emulsion from said primary electric field before actual separation of said phases takes place and into a neutral settling space; and shortly thereafter subjecting said constituents to an electric stress set up in spacedrelationship with said primary electric field.

In testimony whereof, we have hereunto set our hands at Los Angeles, California, this 26 day of August, 1927.

HARMON F. FISHER. STEPHEN G. GASSAWAY. WILLIAM F. VAN LOENEN.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3528907 *Mar 29, 1968Sep 15, 1970Petrolite CorpElectric treatment of conductive dispersions
US4630169 *Sep 4, 1984Dec 16, 1986Exxon Research And Engineering CompanyCharge injection device
EP0174158A1 *Aug 29, 1985Mar 12, 1986Exxon Research And Engineering CompanyCharge injection device
Classifications
U.S. Classification204/563, 204/567, 204/670
International ClassificationC10G33/02, C10G33/00
Cooperative ClassificationC10G33/02
European ClassificationC10G33/02