US 1839158 A
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Dec. 29, 1931. F. s. MCDONNLL PAPER MACHINE Filed Oct. 2, 1929' 2 Sheets-Sheet Dec. 29, 1931. F s, McDONNELL 4 1,839,158
PAPER MACHINE Filed Oct. 2. 1929 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 i @E A. Y I /1 WZ-' M mfzffw//fm wwwwwwajg Patented Dec. 29, 1931v 'y UNITED STATES PATENT oFFlcE FRANCIS S. MCDON'NELL, OF MILTON, MASSACHUSETTS, ASSIGNOR T0` HERBERT A.
' BAKER, 0F NORWOOD, MASSACHUSETTS, AS TRUSTEE PAPER JYIACHINE Application led October 2, 1929. Serial No. 396,795.
The object of the invention is-to increase the rate and improve the quality of the out- V put of F ourdrimer machines in Which an important or controlling factor is the shake of the Wire. I
In' Fourdrinier machines used for a class of paper better than newspaper, such as book Vpaper and writing paper, 1t has been found essential to shake the Wire-in order properly to interfelt the fibers of the paper stock. This shaking has usually been accomplished byA shaking the breast roll and the frame carrying the table rolls either as a wholeor in sections. But the Weight of the shaken parts is so great that it is impossible to shake them at thehigh frequency and with the amplitude necessary to obtain the bestresults. It has also been proposed to shake the breast roll Without shaking times to shake the guide roll at the same time, but these expedients have not brought about an improvement in the operation of the machine because when the breast roll alone was shaken it was not effective in shaking the Wire a sufiicient distance from it, and, in thecase of shaking both the breast roll and the guide roll, there was the additional difficulty of shaking the wire as it passed over the suction boxes -which would interfere with, if not Wholly prevent, theproposed shaking at that end of the wire. None of these devices have produced thepoptimum shaking effect in the zone of interfelting of the fibers where the shake is most effective.
percentage of the fibers in the stock unless the shake is so violent that it disturbs the,
even distribution of the stock on the Wire.
As the water drains out, the stock becomes of such a consistency that the shake of the Wire can be applied most effectively to interfelt the fibers. This condition ordinarily begins at a. point about one-fourth of the disthe frame, and somewire, due to the previous draining out of the water, and the proximity of the grip of the suction boxes, usual guide roll and couch roll on the wire and the usual presence lof the dandy roll interfere with any substantial shake, and such shake,- as it might be practicable to impart to the wire in this region, y
would not extend a suicient distance in front of the suction boxes to be of material use.
I have discovered that the speed of the machine may be increased and the quality of its output improved if the Wire in its middle zone lof active interfelting of the fibers is shaken with substantially greater violence, either higher frequency or greater amplitude, or both, than has previously been done. By such middle zone I mean that. portion of the wire vthat begins about one-fourth of the distance from the breast roll to the suction boxes and ends a substantial distance, for example, about five feet, in front of the zone Where the fibers lie practically dead on the wire. l v
I accomplish this result by gripping the Wire on the adherent surface, preferably rubber orfelt, of a shakin element or support, specifically a special s ake roll, located in this middle zone of active fiber interfelting preferably near the middle of this zone. The Wire is shaken over the surfaces of table rolls which are rotatably mounted in a non-shaken frame, or frames. By means of this special er frequency or larger amplitude or both. At
'the same time I may or may not shake the breast roll. I may shake it at the same or different rates and amplitudes compared with the shake roll.
The resulting rapid and ample shake applied to the middle portion of the wire produces a better and more ra id interfelting of the fibers. Consequently tlie wire in this improved machine can be run very much faster proved with than in previous machines without sacrifice of quality. Also the quality may be imor without an increase ofspeed.
Increase in speed of the wire may involve an increase in the length of the wire and an increase in the pitch of the wire in order to get the best results. Effective use of a long wire is made entirely practicable by my 1nvention.
In order that the special shakeroll mzy ro er1 i the wire, it is referabl ma ar Iier iii lilialineter than 4tlie Iiisual tab e rolls ang is so mounted that its upper surface, which is in contact with the wire, is so related to the tops of the table rolls that the wire bends as 1t passes'over this roll and a iirm frictional grip of the roll to the wire is obtained.
Sl In order to prevent an excessive downward o thepvire bends-down over the shake' roll and et permit thisbendv over the shake roll to be -of sucient an' lar extent to insure the necessar frictiona grip of the wire on the roll sur ce to transmit the shaking) motion of the roll to the wire, it will usually e found desirable to cause-the wire to bend in the reverse direction before it reaches the shake roll. `This reverse bend becomes increas ingly necessary as the downward slope of the wire from the slices is increased as is com- 'mon practice wherev the speed of the wire is increased.
The mechanismsvfor shaking the special shaker roll and the breast roll may be so arranged that the frequency and amplitude ofl the shake of each roll can be adjustedindependent] to obtain the best results.
One a vantage ofthe machine is its greater speed in reducing paper of the desired quahty and t erefore more economically than machines with the sort of shakes hitherto used. Another advantage is the quality of the paper'is also improved. An incidental advantage is that the special shaker roll, in intimate frictional contact with the wire, has the eiect of removing the fuzz which sometimes appears onthe bottom of the sheet of paper made in machines without such a sha er roll.
Such a s ial shaker roll with a higherl frequency s ake may be embodied with advantage in the active interfelting zone of a machine of the type, such as that used for making newspa r, in which no shake is usually employe When so equipped, machines of the sort will produce paper of improved quality. In some Acases the speed of the machine `may be increased.
This application-is a continuation in artl of my application -Serial No. 258,844, led March 3, 1928, for paper machines.
For a more'complete-understandin lof this invention,l toget er with further objects and j advantageous constructions, reference of the wire for still fluid stock whereV may be had to the accompanying drawings in which Figure 1 is a. diagrammatic side elevation of a paper machine embodying this invenu tion.
Figure 2 is an end elevation of a shaking 'l .mechanism.
Figure 3 is a fragmentary vertical section am litude adjusting means.
igures 4 and 5 are detail sections on lines 4 4' and 5-5, respectively, of Figure 3.
lthrough 'the same mechamsm showing the Figure 6 is a fragmentary perspective of a i shaking table roll. Fi re 6a is a of a ierent roll construction.
Fi res 7 and 8 are detail side elevations showing modified forms of wire engaging shaking elements.
Figure 8a is a` fragmentary side elevation illustrating aslight modification of the machine at the breast roll.
Figure 9 is a top plan of a shaking mechanism'.
Figure is a diagrammatic plan of thel wire showing one shaking adjustment.
Referring to Figure 1 of the drawings, which shows somewhat diagrammatically a` Fourdrinier paper machine, at 1 is indicated abreast roll over which passes the Fourdrinier wire shown at 2. From the upper face of the breast roll this wire is shown as passing vover a plurality of table rolls 3 mounted on non-shaking rails and side frames after which it passes over suction boxes indicated at 4, then over a guide roll 5 which forms part of a mechanism for maintaining the wire in proper lateral position,
and then abouta couch roll 6. The lower stretch of the wire returns beneath the guide roll, suction boxes, and table rolls, to the breast roll in the usual manner guided byv suction boxes, it has become consolidated and deposited as a layer on the wire which is thereafter further dewatered by theacfragmentary side elevationv tion o f the suction boxes, press rolls, or both,
wire reaches the couch roll 6.
. so that it is in condition to beremoved from the wire as a coherent sheet by the time the' In accordance with the present invention I provide an element spaced forwardly of the breast roll as hereinbefore set forth and overl which the wire passes and which is s o formed as to engage the wire across its width, this element being so mounted that it lcan be subjected to motlon laterally of the length of the wire with the desired amplitude `and' rate. This is preferably done without producing any lateral'motion whatever of the side frames or table rolls or other portions of the machine so as to reduce inertia to a minimum to permit rapid and ample vibration. In most cases it is preferable to vibrate this engaging element and also the breast roll. If desired, this element may comprise one or more of the table rolls shaken independently of the remaining table rolls, one such roll being shown herein, but in order that such a.. table roll may be effective in grasping the wire, it should be specially surfaced for the purpose. Usually it will be found desirable to increase the diameter of this vibrating roll over that usually employed for table rolls, say, to 10 or 12 inches, such a` roll being shown at 15 in Figure 1, and in order that it may have a firm frictional grip on the wire it is so positioned vertically that the wire bends as it passes over the top oil this roll. The downward slope of the wire as it leaves this roll must not be excessive since the stock is usually in fluid condition, and in order that the bend over the roll may be suicient to provide an arc of contact between the wire and the roll sufficient to cause shake imparted to the roll to be transmitted to the wire it will usually be found desirable to so position the table rolls in advance of the shake roll as to produce a bend in the wire reversed in direction to the bend over the shake roll as shown in Figure 1. The desirability of the reversed bend will be more pronounced as the downward slope of the wire from the slices is increased, such increased slope being usual where the wire is caused to move at the higher speeds. This not only increases the area of contact of the wire with the shaking roll, but it also increases the pressure with which the wire engages it over the pressure which the wire exerts on the table rolls on either side, thus further increasing its effectiveness in grasping the wire and preventing slippage of the wire relative thereto. In such case the peripheries of the series of table rolls on either side of the roll 15 are preferably, as shown, respectively tangential to planes which form an obtuse angle and which are tangential to the periphery of the roll 15 located in the angle formed thereby. This roll, for example, may be surfaced with a somewhat yielding covering or blanket of felt or fabric, as shown in Figure 6, at 16, or as shown in Figure 6a, it may be provided with a covering 17 of rubber or other suitable yielding material, preferably formed with peripheral ridges 170 shaped to engage between the longitudinally extending strands of the Fourdrinier wire and'to prevent relative motion between the wire and roll laterally of the wire and longitudinally of the roll.
A frequent characteristic of paper formed on a Fourdrinier machine, is that there is a minute fuzz formed on the wire side or Wire face of the paper,-that is,that face i of the paper web which was in engagement with the wire,-and which is not formed on the opposite upper or outer face of the paper. Just what causes the formation of this fuzz I cannot state,-though it may be due to the entrance of fiber ends into the interstices of the wire.l I have found that when paper is formed on a machine equipped with a relatively larger shaking roll as at 15, provided with a yielding surface, this fuzz practically disappears. I have accounted for this by the fact that some of the water which is deposited on the down-going side of this roll, is carried on its upgoing side to the fiber mat on the Wire and tends to free the fiber. ends and to cause the fibers to lie smoothly on the Wi re. Whether or not my explanation is the correct one, it is the fact that I can use a coarser wire than ordinarily used for a paper of a given grade, and have the wire-face of the aper substantially free from fuzz.
` `T e vibrating element may also be formed with a brush face as indicated at 18 in Figure 7, though this face should be suiliciently clo-se as to avoid projecting points through the Fourdrinier wire and marking or otherwise interfering with the pulp thereon.
Instead ofv using /one or more table rolls, a suction box may be employed, as shown at 20, in Figure 8, but where this is done it is preferable to make this in the form of a roller box, rollers 21 being shown in this figure between which the suction is effective on .the Fourdrinier wire, the rollers facilitatmg the passage of the Wire thereover without interfering with the grasping eHect of the box widthwise of the wire. I have had best results, however, with a vibrating table roll covered with a wool blanket or a rubber covering. As illustrated the breast roll and the shaking element forwardly of the breast roll and adjacent to the forward end of the forming space are valone mounted for lateral Vibration, but as hereinbefore noted, in some cases it may not be desired to vibrate the breast roll and it may be mounted without capability of such lateral motion, if desired, as is commonly done in machines for making newspaper.
In Figures 2 to 5 and 9 are illustrated certain desirable mechanisms by which shakingv motion may be imparted to the wire, though this invention is not limited to any particular shaking mechanism. The shaking element in the forming space, and the breast roll also, if desired, may be mounted at the upper ends of flexible straps or standards 3() so arranged as to maintain the end portions of these shaking elements in a desired plane, it
being understood, of course, that'both ends of the elements may be similarly mounted. Bearings'31 are shown for supporting the 'ends of the shaking rollers, these bearings being fixed to supports 32. Each of these supfports is shown as connected by means of a exible strap 33 to a block 34 which is fixed at the upper ends of flexible spring straps or standards 35. To this block 34 is pivoted one of a suitable drive shaft. As shown in Figure wardly of the other bearing.
Vthe width ofthe;y Fourdrinier wire.
9 there may be two of such drive shafts arranged inaxial alinement as at 41 and 42. By rotation of these shafts it is evident that the corresponding crank arm 41 causes the link 38 to impart rocking motion to the arms 36 about their pivotal connection with the block 34. Means'are provided by which'this rocking motion may be caused to impart a bodily motion of the arms adjustable 1n amplitude so as to produce a corresponding horizontal motion to the shaking elements acplss 1s means comprises'af member 45carried by the arms 36 at some distance from their pivotal connection to the block 34. This member is shown joining the two arms of each pair and in the form of a in which passes through a slot 46 arranged iametrically through a disk member 47. This disk member is mounted for rotation about its axis in a guide frame 48 carried by a fixed pedestal 49. This frame member 48 has upstanding therefrom a pair of spaced bearings 50 through which extends a shaft 51. This shaft is prevented from axial movement in the bearings 50 as by means of a collar 52 fixed to one end thereof outwardly of one of these bearings and the hub 53 of a hand wheel 54 positioned out- Intermediate the bearings 50 the shaft 51 is threaded and supports a nut 55 thereon which has laterally extending pin portions 56 which ride between jaws 57 upstanding in pairs from the disk 47 By rotation of the hand wheel 54 the nut ma turiiing the disk, so that the angular position of the slot 46 may be adjusted as desired. When the slot 46 is arranged vertically, rocking motion of the arms 36 is ineffective to produce any substantial shake, but when the disk 47 is adjusted so as to bring the slot 46 at an anole to the vertical, up and down motion ofa the member 45 in this slot causes a horizontal component of motion to be produced thus to movel the arms 36 bodily and produce a horizontal vibration to the block 34 and thus to the shaking element or to the breast roll.
' In Figure 9 is illustrated a mechanism in which the breast roll and the shaking element forwardly thereof may be shaken together or be caused to travel along the shaft 51,
independently, the amplitude of the shake bemg mdependently adjustable even when both are driven by the same mechanism. Referring to this figure, lit will be -seen that the shafts 41 and 42 may be connected for simultaneous rotation by throwing the clutch elenient 60 splined to the shaft 41 into clutchlng relation to the element 61 fixed to the shaft 42. Simultaneously with the clutching `of these elements 60 and 61 together, clutchlng elements 62 and 63 are disengaged. 'lhe clutching element 63 is also splined to the shaft 41, while the element 62 is loosely journaled on this shaft and is shown as provided with a belt pulley 64 by which it may be driven as by a motor 65. By throwing the clutch elements 60 and 63 in the opposite direction, and as shown in Figure 9, the shafts 41 and 42 are disconnected and the shake applied to the element 15 is produced by rotation of the shaft 41 by its motor independent of the rotation of the shaft 42. This shaft 42 is shown as driven through a belt from a motor 71 and is so connected as to actua-te the shake for the breast roll. When these shafts 41 and 42 are 'connected for simultaneous rotation, the motor 71 imparts shake to both the breast roll and theshaking element forwardly thereof, the amplitude of such shakebeing independently adjustable through the hand wheels 54 of their respective mechanisms. Not only may the amplitude of such motion be adjusted, but also the direction of horizontal motion corresponding to one direction of rocking of the arms 36. By this mechanism it ,is possible to shake both the breast roll and the element forwardly thereof in unison or oppositely and with the same, or dierent amplitudes, and it is also possible to shake either the breast roll or the element 15 without imparting shake to the other, or the shake may be at different rates for the breast roll and shaking element by rotating the shafts 41 and 42 at different rates of speed.
In Figure 10 is illustrated diagrammati- .cally one possible adjustment of this mechanism which may be produced when the clutch elements 60 and 61 are in engagement so that the shake of both is produced by the one driving mechanism. In this figure the shake imparted forwardly of the breast roll as by the vibrating table roll 15, is of greater amplitude than that imparted to the breast roll 1, the amounts of the amplitude being shown by the spacing of the dotted lines representing opposite margins of the Fourdrinier wire. In general, however, it may be stated that while various combinations of shake both as to amplitude and rate may be produced by this mechanism, best results are usually obtained when the shake imparted to the element forwardly of the breast roll is of an amplitude at least as great as that of the breast roll and it is often advantageous to impart a greater amplitude of shake to this element since the greatest amplitude which can safely be given the breast roll to avoid in amplitude to that imparted to the breast ov- UL so both are shaken.
i'ollhas been found very satisfactory and substantially this ratio of amplitudes is 1llus. trated in Figure l0. U
In Figure 8a a modification of the machine at the breast roll is shown having for its ui'- pose to increase the effectiveness with w ich Vibrating motion imparted thereto is transmitted to the wire by reducing the possiblev Aslippage between the wire and roll. As shown the first table roll 80 is mounted on the vibratory support 8l which carries the breast roll preferably covered with a blanket or other suitable wire engaging means, as has been described in connection with the r0l1 15, and is preferably so arranged that the wire bends thereover in gable formation. It thus acts t0 grasp the wire and imparts vibration thereto equal in amplitude and rate to that of the breast roll.
Certain embodiments of this inventionhaving thus been described, it should be evident to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications might be made therein without departing from the spirit or scope of this invention as defined by the appended claims.
1. A Fourdrinier machine having in combination, a wire, a support for said wire located in the middle zone of active interfelting of the fibers and over which said wire bends, and means for imparting a lateral shaking movement to said support.
2;' A Fourdrinier machine having in combination, a wire, non-shaking members for supporting said wire, a wire support positioned between certain of said members and in the middle zone of active interfelting of the fibers, and means'for imparting shake to said support.
3. A Fourdrinier machine having in combination, a wire, non-shaking'members for supporting saidv wire, a wire support having a wire gripping surface positioned between certain of said members and in the middle zone of active interfelting-of the fibers, ando means for imparting shake to said support.
' 4. A F ourdrinier machine having in combination, a Wire, non-shaking members for supporting said wire, a wire support over which said wire bends positioned between certain ofvsaid members and in the middle This table .roll 80 is frames for supporting said wire, and means.
\ for shaking said wire independently of said \breast roll, Vguide roll and side frames.
7. A Fourdrinier machine having in coinbination, a wire, a breast roll, a'guide roll, and table rolls for supporting said wire, a support for lsaid wire located in the middle zone of active interfelting of the fibers-and over which said wire bends, and means to impart alateral shaking movement to said support.
8. In a Fourdrinier machine, a F ourdrinier wire, a breast roll for supporting said Wire, side frames, a series of table rolls carried by said side frames for supporting said wire `beyond said breast r0 ll,and means located intermediate the ends of said series of table rolls, and in the middle zone of active interfelting of the fibers for shaking the wire independently of said side frames and table rolls.
9. A Fourdrinier machine having in combination, a wire, a breast roll, a guide roll, and table rolls for supporting said wire, a
support for said Wire located in the middle zone of active interfelting of the fibers and having -a wire gripping surface overwhich said Wire bends in passing, and means to impart to said support a lateral shaking movement.
10. A Fourdrinier machine having in combination, a wire, a breast roll, a guide roll; suction boxes, andl unshaken table rolls over which said wire passes, a wire support positioned in advance of said breast roll in the middle zone of active nterfelting of the fibers, vand means to shake said vsupport independently of said table rolls and said guide roll.
11. A Fourdrinier machine having in combination, a wire, a breast roll, a guide roll, two sets of unshaken table rolls, a support for the wire having a wire gripping surface and located between the two sets of table rolls in the middle zone of active interfelting of the fibers, and means to shake said support independently of the said set of table rolls and said guide roll.
12. A Fourdrinier machine having in combination, a breast roll, a guide roll, suction boxes, non-shaken table rolls, a wire passing about said breast roll and over said table rolls, guide roll, and suction boxes, a roll supporting said wire in the middle zone of active interfelting of the iibers and having a wire gripping surface, means to shake said supporting roll, and means to shake said breast roll.
13. A Fourdrinier machine havinfr in combination, a wire, two sets of non-sha en table rolls over which said Wire passes, a roll supporting and gripping the wire between the two sets of table rolls and overwhicli the wire bends as it passes from one set of table rolls to the other set, and means to shake said gripping roll independently of said sets of table rolls.
14. In a paper machine, a traveling forming wire, a roll over which said wire bends, means for bending the wire -in the reverse direction and where it supports pulp before reaching said roll, and means for shaking said roll.
15. In a paper machine, a traveling forming wire, a breast roll over which said wire passes, a shake roll forwardly of said breast roll and over which said wire bends, means for bending the wire in the reverse direction between the breast roll and shake roll, and means for shaking said shake roll.
16. In a Fourdrinier paper machine having a wire, a breast roll, a guide roll, vacuum boxes over which the wire passes, side supports for the breast roll, guide roll, table rolls, under Wire rolls, means for vibrating the wire independently of the side supports, table rolls, and under wire rolls by the direct application of shake to the wire in the middle zone of active interfelting of the fibers.
17. The method of making paper on a Four-drinier machine, which comprises feeding the paper stock onto the wire, supporting a portion ofthe wire on unshaken table rolls and gripping and shaking the wire in the middle zone of active interfelting of the bers at a. high frequency permitted by the light weight of the parts shaken.
18. The method of operating a Fourdrinier machine, which comprises feeding the stock onto the wire, supporting the wire on unshaken table rolls, and interfelting the fibers on the upper surface of the wire by gripping and shaking the wire violently in the middle zone ofactive interfelting of the fibers while the wire moves freely laterally as well as forwardly on said table rolls.
19. A Fourdrinier machine having in combination a wire, a breast roll, a guide roll, means to suck water out of the stock, a wire support positioned forwardly of said breast roll and over which said wire bends to have increased frictional engagement therewith, non-shaking means for supporting said wire between Said breast roll and said wire support and between said wire support andthe means for sucking water out of the stock and means to shake said wire support.
20. In a paper machine, a forming wire, a breast roll over which said wire passes, a roll for supporting said wire forwardly of said breast roll and over which said wire bends, means for supporting said wire between said rolls with a bend in the reverse direction, and mzms for imparting shake to said forward ro 21. A Fourdrinier machine having in combination, an endless wire, a breast roll, nonshanken table rolls over which the wire passes, a roll supporting the wire in the middle zone of active interfelting of the fibers and having a wire gripping surface, and means to slhake said supporting roll and said breast rol 22. A 4Fourdrinier machine having in combination, an endless wire, a breast roll, nonshaken table rolls over which the wire passes, a roll supporting the wire in the middle zone of active interfelting of the fibers and having a wire gripping surface, and means to shake said supporting roll and said breast roll selectively at the samejor different amplitudes and rates, of vibration.
23. In a Fourdrinier paper machine, a Fourdrinier wire, means including a breast roll for supporting said wire, means for shaking said breast roll to shake said wire, and means for imparting to the wire forwardly of the breast roll a shake at a higher rate than that of said breast roll.
24. The method of forming paper on a traveling wire, which comprises applying the paper stock suspended in a large volume of water at one transverse zone to the wire, the water passing through the wire as the wire travels so that the stock becomes progressively less dilute, and shaking the wire at a more rapid rate when the stock becomes less dilute than'where it is applied to the wire.
25. The method of forming paper on a' traveling wire, which comprises applying the paper stock suspended in a large volume o water at one transverse zone of the wire, the water passing through said wire as it travels so that the stock becomes progressively less dilute, and shaking the wireat two positions of its travel and at a more rapid rate where the stock is less dilute.
In testimony whereof I have aiiixed my signature.
FRANK S. MCDONNELL.